Norfolk Island (// ( listen); Norfuk: Norf'k Ailen) is a small island in the Pacific Ocean located between Australia, New Zealand, and New Caledonia, 1,412 kilometres (877 mi) directly east of mainland Australia's Evans Head, and about 900 kilometres (560 mi) from Lord Howe Island. Together with two neighbouring islands, it forms one of the Commonwealth of Australia's external territories. At the 2016 Australian census, it has 1,748 inhabitants living on a total area of about 35 km2 (14 sq mi). Its capital is Kingston.
|Territory of Norfolk Island
|Largest city||Burnt Pine|
|Ethnic groups (2016)||English, Pitcairn, Scottish, Irish|
|Sir Peter Cosgrove|
|1 November 1856|
• Transfer of Territory from UK to Australia
|1 July 1914|
|34.6 km2 (13.4 sq mi)|
• Water (%)
• 2016 census census
|61.9/km2 (160.3/sq mi)|
|Currency||Australian dollar (AUD)|
|Time zone||NFT (Norfolk Island Time) (UTC+11:00)|
|Drives on the||left|
|ISO 3166 code||NF|
Norfolk Island was first settled by East Polynesians but was long unpopulated when it was eventually also settled by Great Britain as part of its settlement of Australia from 1788. The island served as a convict penal settlement from 6 March 1788 until 5 May 1855, except for an 11-year hiatus between 15 February 1814 and 6 June 1825, when it lay abandoned. On 8 June 1856, permanent civilian residence on the island began when it was settled from Pitcairn Island. In 1914 the UK handed Norfolk Island over to Australia to administer as an external territory.
The evergreen Norfolk Island pine is a symbol of the island and thus pictured on its flag. Native to the island, the pine is a key export for Norfolk Island, being a popular ornamental tree on mainland Australia, where two related species grow, and also worldwide.
Norfolk Island was settled by East Polynesian seafarers either from the Kermadec Islands north of New Zealand or from the North Island of New Zealand. They arrived in the thirteenth or fourteenth century, and survived for several generations before disappearing. They must have disappeared at least a few hundred years before Europeans arrived as the island was covered with forest by then.
The first European known to have sighted and landed on the island was Captain James Cook, on 10 October 1774, on his second voyage to the South Pacific on HMS Resolution. He named it after Mary Howard, Duchess of Norfolk (c. 1712–1773).
Sir John Call argued the advantages of Norfolk Island in that it was uninhabited and that New Zealand flax grew there. In 1786 the British government included Norfolk Island as an auxiliary settlement, as proposed by John Call, in its plan for colonisation of New South Wales. The decision to settle Norfolk Island was taken due to Empress Catherine II of Russia's decision to restrict sales of hemp. Practically all the hemp and flax required by the Royal Navy for cordage and sailcloth was imported from Russia.
When the First Fleet arrived at Port Jackson in January 1788, Governor Arthur Phillip ordered Lieutenant Philip Gidley King to lead a party of 15 convicts and seven free men to take control of Norfolk Island and prepare for its commercial development. They arrived on 6 March 1788.
During the first year of the settlement, which was also called "Sydney" like its parent, more convicts and soldiers were sent to the island from New South Wales.
Robert Watson (1756–1819), harbourmaster, arrived with the First Fleet as quartermaster of H.M.S. Sirius, and was still serving in that capacity when the ship was wrecked at Norfolk Island in 1790. Next year he obtained and cultivated a grant of sixty acres (24 ha) on the island.
As early as 1794, Lieutenant-Governor of New South Wales Francis Grose suggested its closure as a penal settlement, as it was too remote and difficult for shipping and too costly to maintain. The first group of people left in February 1805, and by 1808 only about 200 remained, forming a small settlement until the remnants were removed in 1813. A small party remained to slaughter stock and destroy all buildings, so that there would be no inducement for anyone, especially from other European powers, to visit and lay claim to the place. From 15 February 1814 to 6 June 1825 the island was abandoned.
In 1824 the British government instructed the Governor of New South Wales, Thomas Brisbane, to occupy Norfolk Island as a place to send "the worst description of convicts". Its remoteness, previously seen as a disadvantage, was now viewed as an asset for the detention of recalcitrant male prisoners. The convicts detained have long been assumed to be a hardcore of recidivists, or 'doubly-convicted capital respites' – that is, men transported to Australia who committed fresh colonial crimes for which they were sentenced to death, but were spared the gallows on condition of life at Norfolk Island. However, a recent study, using a database of 6,458 Norfolk Island convicts, has demonstrated that the reality was somewhat different: more than half were detained at Norfolk Island without ever receiving a colonial conviction, and only 15% had been reprieved from a death sentence. Furthermore, the overwhelming majority of convicts sent to Norfolk Island had committed non-violent property offences, and the average length of detention there was three years.
The second penal settlement began to be wound down by the British government after 1847, and the last convicts were removed to Tasmania in May 1855. The island was abandoned because transportation from the United Kingdom to Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania) had ceased in 1853, to be replaced by penal servitude in the UK.
The next settlement began on 8 June 1856, as the descendants of Tahitians and the HMS Bounty mutineers, including those of Fletcher Christian were resettled from the Pitcairn Islands, which had become too small for their growing population. On 3 May 1856, 193 people had left Pitcairn Islands aboard the Morayshire. On 8 June 194 people arrived, a baby having been born in transit. The Pitcairners occupied many of the buildings remaining from the penal settlements, and gradually established traditional farming and whaling industries on the island. Although some families decided to return to Pitcairn in 1858 and 1863, the island's population continued to grow. They accepted additional settlers, who often arrived with whaling fleets.
In 1867, the headquarters of the Melanesian Mission of the Church of England was established on the island. In 1920 the Mission was relocated from Norfolk Island to the Solomon Islands to be closer to the population of focus.
Norfolk Island was the subject of several experiments in administration during the century. It began the nineteenth century as part of the Colony of New South Wales. On 29 September 1844, Norfolk Island was transferred from of the Colony of New South Wales to the Colony of Van Diemen's Land. On 1 November 1856 Norfolk Island was separated from the Colony of Tasmania (formerly Van Diemen's Land) and constituted as a "distinct and separate Settlement, the affairs of which should until further Order in that behalf by Her Majesty be administered by a Governor to be for that purpose appointed". The Governor of New South Wales was constituted as the Governor of Norfolk Island. On 19 March 1897 the office of the Governor of Norfolk Island was abolished and responsibility for the administration of Norfolk Island was vested in the Governor of the Colony of New South Wales. Yet, the island was not made a part of New South Wales and remained separate. The Colony of New South Wales ceased to exist upon the establishment of the Commonwealth of Australia on 1 January 1901, and from that date responsibility for the administration of Norfolk Island was vested in the Governor of the State of New South Wales.
The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia accepted the territory by the Norfolk Island Act 1913 (Cth), subject to British agreement; the Act received the assent on 19 December 1913. In preparation for the handover, a proclamation by the Governor of New South Wales on 23 December 1913 (in force when gazetted on 24 December) repealed "all laws heretofore in force in Norfolk Island" and replaced them by re-enacting a list of such laws. Among those laws was the Administration Law 1913 (NSW), which provided for appointment of an Administrator of Norfolk Island and of magistrates, and contained a code of criminal law.
British agreement was expressed on 30 March 1914, in a UK Order in Council made pursuant to the Australian Waste Lands Act 1855 (UK). A proclamation by the Governor-General of Australia on 17 June 1914 gave effect to the Act and the Order as from 1 July 1914.
During World War II, the island became a key airbase and refuelling depot between Australia and New Zealand, and New Zealand and the Solomon Islands. The airstrip was constructed by Australian, New Zealand and United States servicemen during 1942. Since Norfolk Island fell within New Zealand's area of responsibility, it was garrisoned by a New Zealand Army unit known as N Force at a large Army camp which had the capacity to house a 1,500 strong force. N Force relieved a company of the Second Australian Imperial Force. The island proved too remote to come under attack during the war and N Force left the island in February 1944.
In 1979, Norfolk Island was granted limited self-government by Australia, under which the island elected a government that ran most of the island's affairs.
In 2006, a formal review process took place, in which the Australian government considered revising this model of government. The review was completed on 20 December 2006, when it was decided that there would be no changes in the governance of Norfolk Island.
Financial problems and a reduction in tourism led to Norfolk Island's administration appealing to the Australian federal government for assistance in 2010. In return, the islanders were to pay income tax for the first time but would be eligible for greater welfare benefits. However, by May 2013 agreement had not been reached and islanders were having to leave to find work and welfare. An agreement was finally signed in Canberra on 12 March 2015 to replace self-government with a local council but against the wishes of the Norfolk Island government. A majority of Norfolk Islanders objected to the Australian plan to make changes to Norfolk Island without first consulting them and allowing their say, with 68% of voters against forced changes.
Reduced autonomy 2016Edit
In March 2015, the Australian Government announced comprehensive reforms for Norfolk Island. The action was justified on the grounds it was necessary "to address issues of sustainability which have arisen from the model of self-government requiring Norfolk Island to deliver local, state and federal functions since 1979". On 17 June 2015, the Norfolk Island Legislative Assembly was abolished, with the territory becoming run by an Administrator and an advisory council. Elections for a new Regional Council were held on 28 May 2016, with the new council taking office on 1 July 2016.
From that date, most Australian Commonwealth laws extend to Norfolk Island. This means that taxation, social security, immigration, customs and health arrangements apply on the same basis as in mainland Australia. Travel between Norfolk Island and mainland Australia became domestic travel on 1 July 2016. Norfolk Island residents also became eligible to vote in the ACT electorate of Canberra.
Significant opposition to the reforms has arisen in the territory led by Norfolk Island People for Democracy Inc., an association appealing to the United Nations to include the island on its list of "non-self-governing territories". There has also been movement to join New Zealand since the autonomy reforms.
The Territory of Norfolk Island is located in the South Pacific Ocean, east of the Australian mainland. Norfolk Island itself is the main island of the island group that the territory encompasses and is located at. It has an area of 34.6 square kilometres (13.4 sq mi), with no large-scale internal bodies of water and 32 km (20 mi) of coastline.
The island's highest point is Mount Bates (319 metres (1,047 feet) above sea level), located in the northwest quadrant of the island. The majority of the terrain is suitable for farming and other agricultural uses. Phillip Island, the second largest island of the territory, is located at , seven kilometres (4.3 miles) south of the main island.
The coastline of Norfolk Island consists, to varying degrees, of cliff faces. A downward slope exists towards Slaughter Bay and Emily Bay, the site of the original colonial settlement of Kingston. There are no safe harbour facilities on Norfolk Island, with loading jetties existing at Kingston and Cascade Bay. All goods not domestically produced are brought in by ship, usually to Cascade Bay. Emily Bay, protected from the Pacific Ocean by a small coral reef, is the only safe area for recreational swimming, although surfing waves can be found at Anson and Ball Bays.
The climate is subtropical and mild, with little seasonal differentiation. The island is the eroded remnant of a basaltic volcano active around 2.3 to 3 million years ago, with inland areas now consisting mainly of rolling plains. It forms the highest point on the Norfolk Ridge, part of the submerged continent Zealandia.
The area surrounding Mount Bates is preserved as the Norfolk Island National Park. The park, covering around 10% of the land of the island, contains remnants of the forests which originally covered the island, including stands of subtropical rainforest.
The park also includes the two smaller islands to the south of Norfolk Island, Nepean Island and Phillip Island. The vegetation of Phillip Island was devastated due to the introduction during the penal era of pest animals such as pigs and rabbits, giving it a red-brown colour as viewed from Norfolk; however, pest control and remediation work by park staff has recently brought some improvement to the Phillip Island environment.
The major settlement on Norfolk Island is Burnt Pine, located predominantly along Taylors Road, where the shopping centre, post office, bottle shop, telephone exchange and community hall are located. Settlement also exists over much of the island, consisting largely of widely separated homesteads.
Government House, the official residence of the Administrator, is located on Quality Row in what was the penal settlement of Kingston. Other government buildings, including the court, Legislative Assembly and Administration, are also located there. Kingston's role is largely a ceremonial one, however, with most of the economic impetus coming from Burnt Pine.
Norfolk Island has a marine subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfa), which is best characterised as mild. The temperature almost never falls below 10 °C (50 °F) or rises above 26 °C (79 °F). The absolute maximum recorded temperature is 28.4 °C (83.1 °F), while the absolute minimum is 6.2 °C (43.2 °F). Average annual precipitation is 1,328 millimetres (52.3 in), with most rain falling from April to August. Other months receive significant amounts of precipitation as well.
|Climate data for Norfolk Island Airport|
|Record high °C (°F)||28.3
|Average high °C (°F)||24.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||22.0
|Average low °C (°F)||19.3
|Record low °C (°F)||12.1
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||83.3
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm)||12.4||12.5||15.1||17.3||18.7||19.7||20.5||19.0||14.2||13.2||11.2||11.7||185.5|
|Average afternoon relative humidity (%)||71||72||70||69||69||69||68||67||69||67||67||70||69|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||232.5||209.1||207.7||189.0||186.0||162.0||182.9||217.0||219.0||232.5||234.0||238.7||2,510.4|
|Source: Bureau of Meteorology (1981–2010 averages; extremes 1939–present)|
Norfolk Island has 174 native plants; 51 of them are endemic. At least 18 of the endemic species are rare or threatened. The Norfolk Island palm (Rhopalostylis baueri) and the smooth tree-fern (Cyathea brownii), the tallest tree-fern in the world, are common in the Norfolk Island National Park but rare elsewhere on the island. Before European colonisation, most of Norfolk Island was covered with subtropical rain forest, the canopy of which was made of Araucaria heterophylla (Norfolk Island pine) in exposed areas, and the palm Rhopalostylis baueri and tree ferns Cyathea brownii and C. australis in moister protected areas. The understory was thick with lianas and ferns covering the forest floor. Only one small tract (5 km2) of rainforest remains, which was declared as the Norfolk Island National Park in 1986.
This forest has been infested with several introduced plants. The cliffs and steep slopes of Mount Pitt supported a community of shrubs, herbaceous plants, and climbers. A few tracts of cliff top and seashore vegetation have been preserved. The rest of the island has been cleared for pasture and housing. Grazing and introduced weeds currently threaten the native flora, displacing it in some areas. In fact, there are more weed species than native species on Norfolk Island.
As a relatively small and isolated oceanic island, Norfolk has few land birds but a high degree of endemicity among them. Many of the endemic species and subspecies have become extinct as a result of massive clearance of the island's native vegetation of subtropical rainforest for agriculture, hunting and persecution as agricultural pests. The birds have also suffered from the introduction of mammals such as rats, cats, pigs and goats, as well as from introduced competitors such as common blackbirds and crimson rosellas. Although the island is politically part of Australia, many of Norfolk Island's native birds show affinities to those of neighbouring New Zealand, such as the Norfolk kākā, Norfolk pigeon, and Norfolk boobook.
Extinctions include that of the endemic Norfolk kākā and Norfolk ground dove along with endemic subspecies of pigeon, starling, triller, thrush and boobook owl, though the latter's genes persist in a hybrid population descended from the last female. Other endemic birds are the white-chested white-eye, which may be extinct, the Norfolk parakeet, the Norfolk gerygone, the slender-billed white-eye and endemic subspecies of the Pacific robin and golden whistler.
The Norfolk Island Group Nepean Island is also home to breeding seabirds. The providence petrel was hunted to local extinction by the beginning of the 19th century, but has shown signs of returning to breed on Phillip Island. Other seabirds breeding there include the white-necked petrel, Kermadec petrel, wedge-tailed shearwater, Australasian gannet, red-tailed tropicbird and grey ternlet. The sooty tern (known locally as the whale bird) has traditionally been subject to seasonal egg harvesting by Norfolk Islanders.
Norfolk Island, with neighbouring Nepean Island, has been identified by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area because it supports the entire populations of white-chested and slender-billed white-eyes, Norfolk parakeets and Norfolk gerygones, as well as over 1% of the world populations of wedge-tailed shearwaters and red-tailed tropicbirds. Nearby Phillip Island is treated as a separate IBA.
Norfolk Island also has a botanical garden, which is home to a sizeable variety of plant species. However, the island has only one native mammal, Gould's wattled bat (Chalinolobus gouldii). It is very rare, and may already be extinct on the island.
Cetaceans were historically abundant around the island as commercial hunts on the island was operating until 1956. Today, numbers of larger whales have disappeared, but even today many species such humpback whale, minke whale, sei whale, and dolphins can be observed close to shore, and scientific surveys have been conducted regularly. Southern right whales were once regular migrants to Norfolk, but were severely depleted by historical hunts, and further by recent illegal Soviet and Japanese whaling, resulting in none or very few, if remnants still live, right whales in these regions along with Lord Howe Island.
Whale sharks can be encountered off the island, too.
The population of Norfolk Island in the 2016 census was 1,748, which had declined from a high of 2,601 in 2001.
In 2011, residents were 78 percent of the census count, with the remaining 22 percent being visitors. Sixteen percent of the population were 14 years and under, 54 percent were 15 to 64 years and 24 percent were 65 years and over. The figures showed an ageing population, with many people aged 20–34 having moved away from the island.
Most islanders are of either European-only (mostly British) or combined European-Tahitian ancestry, being descendants of the Bounty mutineers as well as more recent arrivals from Australia and New Zealand. About half of the islanders can trace their roots back to Pitcairn Island.
This common heritage has led to a limited number of surnames among the islanders – a limit constraining enough that the island's telephone directory also includes nicknames for many subscribers, such as Cane Toad, Dar Bizziebee, Lettuce Leaf, Goof, Paw Paw, Diddles, Rubber Duck, Carrots and Tarzan.
- 1,748 (as of the 2016 census)
Population growth rate
- Norfolk Islander(s) (noun)
- Norfolk Islander(s) (adjective)
- Australian 79.5%
- New Zealander 13.3%
- Fijian 2.5%
- Filipino 1.1%
- English 1%
- Other 1.8%
- Unspecified 0.8%
Sixty-two percent of the islanders are Christians. After the death of the first chaplain Rev G. H. Nobbs in 1884, a Methodist church was formed and in 1891 a Seventh-day Adventist congregation led by one of Nobbs' sons. Some unhappiness with G. H. Nobbs, the more organised and formal ritual of the Church of England service arising from the influence of the Melanesian Mission, decline in spirituality, the influence of visiting American whalers, literature sent by Christians overseas impressed by the Pitcairn story, and the adoption of Seventh-day Adventism by the descendants of the mutineers still on Pitcairn, all contributed to these developments. The Roman Catholic Church began work in 1957 and in the late 1990s a group left the former Methodist (then Uniting Church) and formed a charismatic fellowship. In 2011, 34 percent of the ordinary residents identified as Anglican, 13 percent as Uniting Church, 12 percent as Roman Catholic and three percent as Seventh-day Adventist. Nine percent were from other religions. Twenty four percent had no religion, and seven percent did not indicate a religion. Typical ordinary congregations in any church do not exceed 30 local residents as of 2010[update]. The three older denominations have good facilities. Ministers are usually short-term visitors.
- Protestant 49.6%
- Roman Catholic 11.7%
- Other 8.6%
- None 23.5%
- Unspecified 6.6%
Islanders speak both English and a creole language known as Norfuk, a blend of 18th-century English and Tahitian. The Norfuk language is decreasing in popularity as more tourists travel to the island and more young people leave for work and study reasons; however, there are efforts to keep it alive via dictionaries and the renaming of some tourist attractions to their Norfuk equivalents. In 2004 an act of the Norfolk Island Assembly made it a co-official language of the island. The act is long-titled: "An Act to recognise the Norfolk Island Language (Norf'k) as an official language of Norfolk Island". The "language known as 'Norf'k'" is described as the language "that is spoken by descendants of the first free settlers of Norfolk Island who were descendants of the settlers of Pitcairn Island". The act recognises and protects use of the language but does not require it; in official use, it must be accompanied by an accurate translation into English. 32% of the total population reported speaking a language other than English in the 2011 census, and just under three-quarters of the ordinarily resident population could speak Norfuk.
- English (official) 67.6%
- Other 32.4% (includes Norfuk 23.7%, which is a mixture of 18th century English and ancient Tahitian)
The sole school on the island, Norfolk Island Central School, provides education from kindergarten through to Year 12. The school has a contractual arrangement referred to as a Memorandum of Understanding with the New South Wales Department of Education and Communities regarding the teaching staff of the school, the latest of which took effect in January 2015. In 2015 enrolment at the Norfolk Island Central School was 282 students.
No public tertiary education infrastructure exist on the Island. The Norfolk Island Central School works in partnership with Registered Training Organisations (RTOs) and local employers to support students accessing Vocational Education and Training (VET) courses.
Literacy is not recorded officially, but can be assumed to be roughly at a par with Australia's literacy rate, as islanders attend a school which uses a New South Wales curriculum, before traditionally moving to the mainland for further study.
While there was no "indigenous" culture on the island at the time of settlement, the Tahitian influence of the Pitcairn settlers has resulted in some aspects of Polynesian culture being adapted to that of Norfolk, including the hula dance. Local cuisine also shows influences from the same region.
Islanders traditionally spend a lot of time outdoors, with fishing and other aquatic pursuits being common pastimes, an aspect which has become more noticeable as the island becomes more accessible to tourism. Most island families have at least one member involved in primary production in some form.
Drivers on the island sometimes give the "Norfolk Wave", a wave to each other as they pass as a form of greeting.
Religious observance remains an important part of life for some islanders, particularly the older generations, but actual attendance is about 8% of the resident population plus some tourists. In the 2006 census 19.9% had no religion compared with 13.2% in 1996. Businesses are closed on Wednesday and Saturday afternoons and Sundays.
Government and politicsEdit
Norfolk Island is the only non-mainland Australian territory to have had self-governance. The Norfolk Island Act 1979, passed by the Parliament of Australia in 1979, is the Act under which the island was governed until the passing of the Norfolk Island Legislation Amendment Act 2015. The Australian government maintains authority on the island through an Administrator, currently Eric Hutchinson. From 1979 to 2015, a Legislative Assembly was elected by popular vote for terms of not more than three years, although legislation passed by the Australian Parliament could extend its laws to the territory at will, including the power to override any laws made by the assembly.
The Assembly consisted of nine seats, with electors casting nine equal votes, of which no more than two could be given to any individual candidate. It is a method of voting called a "weighted first past the post system". Four of the members of the Assembly formed the Executive Council, which devised policy and acted as an advisory body to the Administrator. The last Chief Minister of Norfolk Island was Lisle Snell. Other ministers included: Minister for Tourism, Industry and Development; Minister for Finance; Minister for Cultural Heritage and Community Services; and Minister for Environment.
All seats were held by independent candidates. Norfolk Island did not embrace party politics. In 2007 a branch of the Australian Labor Party was formed on Norfolk Island, with the aim of reforming the system of government.
Since July 2016 after the loss of self-government, residents of Norfolk Island have been required to enrol in the Division of Canberra. As is the case for all Australian citizens, enrolment and voting for Norfolk Islanders is compulsory.
Disagreements over the island's relationship with Australia were put in sharper relief by a 2006 review undertaken by the Australian government. Under the more radical of two models proposed in the review, the island's legislative assembly would have been reduced to the status of a local council. However, in December 2006, citing the "significant disruption" that changes to the governance would impose on the island's economy, the Australian government ended the review leaving the existing governance arrangements unaltered.
In a move that apparently surprised many islanders, the Chief Minister of Norfolk Island, David Buffett, announced on 6 November 2010 that the island would voluntarily surrender its self-government status in return for a financial bailout from the federal government to cover significant debts.
It was announced on 19 March 2015 that self-governance for the island would be revoked by the Commonwealth and replaced by a local council with the state of New South Wales providing services to the island. A reason given was that the island had never gained self-sufficiency and was being heavily subsidised by the Commonwealth, by $12.5 million in 2015 alone. It meant that residents would have to start paying Australian income tax, but they would also be covered by Australian welfare schemes such as Centrelink and Medicare.
The Norfolk Island Legislative Assembly decided to hold a referendum on the proposal. On 8 May 2015, voters were asked if Norfolk Islanders should freely determine their political status and their economic, social and cultural development, and to "be consulted at referendum or plebiscite on the future model of governance for Norfolk Island before such changes are acted upon by the Australian parliament". 68% out of 912 voters voted in favour. The Norfolk Island Chief Minister, Lisle Snell, said that "the referendum results blow a hole in Canberra's assertion that the reforms introduced before the Australian Parliament that propose abolishing the Legislative Assembly and Norfolk Island Parliament were overwhelmingly supported by the people of Norfolk Island".
The Norfolk Island Legislation Amendment Bill 2015 passed the Australian Parliament on 14 May 2015 (assented on 26 May 2015), abolishing self-government on Norfolk Island and transferring Norfolk Island into a council as part of New South Wales law. From 1 July 2016 Norfolk Island legislation will be transferred to New South Wales and subject to NSW legislation.
The most important local holiday is Bounty Day, celebrated on 8 June, in memory of the arrival of the Pitcairn Islanders in 1856.
Local ordinances and acts apply on the island, where most laws are based on the Australian legal system. Australian common law applies when not covered by either Australian or Norfolk Island law. Suffrage is universal at age eighteen.
As a territory of Australia, Norfolk Island does not have diplomatic representation abroad, or within the territory, and is also not a participant in any international organisations, other than sporting organisations.
The flag is three vertical bands of green, white, and green with a large green Norfolk Island pine tree centred in the slightly wider white band.
Norfolk Island was originally a colony acquired by settlement but was never within the British Settlements Act. It was accepted as a territory of Australia, separate from any state, by the Norfolk Island Act 1913 (Cth), passed under the territories power (Constitution section 122) and made effective in 1914. In 1976 the High Court of Australia held unanimously that Norfolk Island is a part of the Commonwealth. Again, in 2007 the High Court of Australia affirmed the validity of legislation that made Australian citizenship a necessary qualification for voting for, and standing for election to, the Legislative Assembly of Norfolk Island.
The Government of Australia thus holds that:
- Norfolk Island has been an integral part of the Commonwealth of Australia since 1914, when it was accepted as an Australian territory under section 122 of the Constitution. The Island has no international status independent of Australia.
Norfolk Island has had a limited form of self-government, established by the Norfolk Island Act 1979 (Cth). This limited form of self-government has since been replaced by the Norfolk Island Advisory Council.
Much of the self-government under the 1979 legislation was repealed with effect from 2016. The reforms included, to the chagrin of some of the locals of Norfolk Island, a repeal of the preambular sections of the Act which originally were 3–4 pages recognising the particular circumstances in the history of Norfolk Island.
This legal position is disputed by some residents on the island. Some islanders claim that Norfolk Island was actually granted independence at the time Queen Victoria granted permission to Pitcairn Islanders to re-settle on the island.
Following reforms to the status of Norfolk Island there were mass protests by the local population. In 2015 it was reported that Norfolk Island was taking its argument for self-governance to the United Nations. A campaign to preserve the island's autonomy was formed, named Norfolk's Choice. A formal petition was lodged with the United Nations by Geoffrey Robertson on behalf of the local population on 25 April 2016.
Various suggestions for retaining the island's self-government have been proposed. In 2006 a UK MP, Andrew Rosindell, raised the possibility of the island becoming a self-governing British Overseas Territory. In 2013 the island's last chief minister, Lisle Snell, suggested independence, to be supported by income from fishing, offshore banking and foreign aid.
The laws of Norfolk Island are in a transitional state, under the Norfolk Island Applied Laws Ordinance 2016 (Cth). Laws of New South Wales as applying in Norfolk Island are suspended (with five major exceptions, which the 2016 Ordinance itself amends) until the end of June 2018. From 1 July 2018, all laws of New South Wales will apply in Norfolk Island and, as "applied laws", will be subject to amendment, repeal or suspension by federal ordinance.
Immigration and citizenshipEdit
The island is subject to separate immigration controls from the remainder of Australia. Until recently immigration to Norfolk Island even by other Australian citizens was heavily restricted. In 2012, immigration controls were relaxed with the introduction of an Unrestricted Entry Permit for all Australian and New Zealand citizens upon arrival and the option to apply for residency; the only criteria are to pass a police check and be able to pay into the local health scheme. From 1 July 2016, the Australian migration system replaced the immigration arrangements previously maintained by the Norfolk Island Government.
Australian citizens and residents from other parts of the nation now have automatic right of residence on the island after meeting these criteria (Immigration (Amendment No. 2) Act 2012). Australian citizens can carry either a passport or a form of photo identification to travel to Norfolk Island. The Document of Identity, which is no longer issued, is also acceptable within its validity period. Citizens of all other nations must carry a passport to travel to Norfolk Island even if arriving from other parts of Australia. Holders of Australian visas who travel to Norfolk Island have departed the Australian Migration Zone. Unless they hold a multiple-entry visa, the visa will have ceased; in which case they will require another visa to re-enter mainland Australia.
Non-Australian citizens who are permanent residents of Norfolk Island may apply for Australian citizenship after meeting normal residence requirements and are eligible to take up residence in mainland Australia at any time through the use of a Confirmatory (Residence) visa (subclass 808). Children born on Norfolk Island are Australian citizens as specified by Australian nationality law.
Non-Australian citizens who are Australian permanent residents should be aware that during their stay on Norfolk Island they are "outside of Australia" for the purposes of the Migration Act. This means that not only will they need a still-valid migrant visa or Resident return visa to return from Norfolk Island to the mainland, but also the time spent in Norfolk Island will not be counted for satisfying the residence requirement for obtaining a Resident return visa in the future. On the other hand, as far as Australian nationality law is concerned, Norfolk Island is a part of Australia, and any time spent by an Australian permanent resident on Norfolk Island will count as time spent in Australia for the purpose of applying for Australian citizenship.
Norfolk Island Hospital is the only medical centre on the island. From 1 July 2016, medical treatment on Norfolk Island is covered by Medicare and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme as it is on mainland Australia. Emergency medical treatment is covered by Medicare or a private health insurer. Although the hospital can perform minor surgery, serious medical conditions are not permitted to be treated on the island and patients are flown back to mainland Australia. Air charter transport can cost in the order of A$30,000, which is covered by the Australian Government. For serious emergencies, medical evacuations are provided by the Royal Australian Air Force. The island has one ambulance, staffed by St John Ambulance Australia volunteers.
The lack of medical facilities available in most remote communities has a major impact on the health care of Norfolk Islanders. As is consistent with other extremely remote regions many older residents find it impossible to remain on the island when their health falters, many have to leave their homes and live in New Zealand or Australia to get medical care.
Defence and law enforcementEdit
Defence is the responsibility of the Australian Defence Force. There are no active military installations or defence personnel on Norfolk Island. The Administrator may request the assistance of the Australian Defence Force if required.
Civilian law enforcement and community policing is provided by the Australian Federal Police. The normal deployment to the island is one sergeant and two constables. These are augmented by five local Special Members who have police powers but are not AFP employees.
The Norfolk Island Court of Petty Sessions is the equivalent of a Magistrates Court and deals with minor criminal, civil or regulatory matters. The Chief Magistrate of Norfolk Island is usually the current Chief Magistrate of the Australian Capital Territory. Three local Justices of the Peace have the powers of a Magistrate to deal with minor matters.
The Supreme Court of Norfolk Island deals with more serious criminal offences, more complex civil matters, administration of deceased estates and federal laws as they apply to the Territory. The Judges of the Supreme Court of Norfolk Island are generally appointed from among Justices of the Federal Court of Australia and may sit on the Australian mainland or convene a circuit court. Appeals are to the Federal Court of Australia.
As stated by the Legal Profession Act 1993, "a resident practitioner must hold a Norfolk Island practising certificate." As of 2014, only one lawyer maintained a full-time legal practice on Norfolk Island.
Australia Post sends and receives mail from Norfolk Island with the postcode 2899. With the merger of Norfolk Island as a regional council, the Norfolk Island Postal Service has ceased to exist and all postage is now handled by Australia Post.
Economy and infrastructureEdit
Tourism, the primary economic activity, has steadily increased over the years. As Norfolk Island prohibits the importation of fresh fruit and vegetables, most produce is grown locally. Beef is both produced locally and imported. The island has one winery, Two Chimneys Wines.
The Australian government controls the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) and revenue from it extending 200 nautical miles (370 km) around Norfolk Island (roughly 428,000km2) and territorial sea claims to three nautical miles (6 km) from the island. There is a strong belief on the island that some of the revenue generated from Norfolk's EEZ should be available to providing services such as health and infrastructure on the island, which the island has been responsible for, similar to how the Northern Territory is able to access revenue from their mineral resources. The exclusive economic zone provides the islanders with fish, its only major natural resource. Norfolk Island has no direct control over any marine areas but has an agreement with the Commonwealth through the Australian Fisheries Management Authority (AFMA) to fish "recreationally" in a small section of the EEZ known locally as "the Box". While there is speculation that the zone may include oil and gas deposits, this is not proven. There are no major arable lands or permanent farmlands, though about 25 per cent of the island is a permanent pasture. There is no irrigated land. The island uses the Australian dollar as its currency.
In 2015 a company in Norfolk Island was granted a licence to export medicinal cannabis. The medicinal cannabis industry has been viewed by some as a means of reinvigorating the economy of Norfolk Island. The Commonwealth stepped in to overturn the decision, with the island's administrator, former Liberal MP Gary Hardgrave revoking the local licence to grow the crop. Legislation to allow the cultivation of cannabis in Australia for medical or scientific purposes passed Federal Parliament in February. The Victorian Government will be undertaking a small-scale, strictly controlled cannabis cultivation trial at a Victorian research facility.
Formerly, residents of Norfolk Island did not pay Australian federal taxes, which created a tax haven for locals and visitors alike. There was no income tax so the island's legislative assembly raised money through an import duty, fuel levy, medicare levy, goods and services tax of 12%, and local/international phone calls. The Chief Minister of Norfolk Island, David Buffett, announced on 6 November 2010 that the island would voluntarily surrender its tax free status in return for a financial bailout from the federal government to cover significant debts. The introduction of income taxation came into effect on 1 July 2016. There is a variation of opinion on the island about these changes but with many understanding that for the island's governance to continue there is a need to pay into the commonwealth revenue pool in order for the island to have assistance in supporting its delivery of State government responsibilities such as health, education, medicare, and infrastructure. Prior to these reforms residents of Norfolk Island were not entitled to social services. It appears that the reforms do extend to companies and trustees and not only individuals.
As of 2004[update], 2532 telephone main lines are in use, a mix of analogue (2500) and digital (32) circuits. Satellite communications services are planned. There is one locally based radio station (Radio Norfolk 89.9FM), broadcasting on both AM and FM frequencies. There is also one TV station, Norfolk TV, featuring local programming, plus transmitters for Australian channels ABC, SBS, Imparja Television and Southern Cross Television. The Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is .nf.
There are no railways, waterways, ports or harbours on the island. Loading jetties are located at Kingston and Cascade, but ships cannot get close to either of them. When a supply ship arrives, it is emptied by whaleboats towed by launches, five tonnes at a time. Which jetty is used depends on the prevailing weather of the day; the jetty on the leeward side of the island is often used. If the wind changes significantly during unloading/loading, the ship will move around to the other side. Visitors often gather to watch the activity when a supply ship arrives.
There is one airport, Norfolk Island Airport. There are 80 kilometres (50 mi) of roads on the island (53 km (33 mi) paved, 27 km (17 mi) unpaved); however, local law gives cows the right of way. Speed limits are low: 50 km/h (31 mph) maximum in the territory, 40 km/h (25 mph) in town and 30 km/h (19 mph) near schools. There was formerly an airline, Norfolk Island Airlines, which connected Norfolk Island with Brisbane.
See main articles
- Buffett, Alice, An Encyclopædia of the Norfolk Island Language, 1999
- "The Legislative Assembly of Norfolk Island". Archived from the original on 18 December 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
- "Wayback Machine". 25 July 2008. Archived from the original on 25 July 2008. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
- 2016 Census QuickStats Archived 2 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine. – Norfolk Island – Ancestry, top responses
- "Norfolk Island". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 16 October 2012. Archived from the original on 3 July 2015. Retrieved 27 October 2012.
- Australian Waste Lands Act, 1855 18 & 19 V. c 56, s.5; Order in Council of 24 October 1856, S.R.O. 1st Rev. Ed. V, p. 129 (proclaimed 1 November 1856)
- Australian Bureau of Statistics (27 June 2017). "Norfolk Island (State Suburb)". 2016 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 22 October 2017.
- NI Arrival Card
- "History and Culture on Norfolk Island". Archived from the original on 12 July 2012.
- "Norfolk Island: A Short History". Archived from the original on 7 March 2016.
- Commonwealth and Colonial Law by Kenneth Roberts-Wray, London, Stevens, 1966. P. 133
- Anderson, Atholl; White, Peter (2001). "Prehistoric Settlement on Norfolk Island and its Oceanic Context" (PDF). Records of the Australian Museum (Supplement 27): 135–141. doi:10.3853/j.0812-7387.27.2001.1348. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016.
- Channers On Norfolk Island Info Archived 22 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. Channersonnorfolk.com (15 March 2013). Retrieved 16 July 2013.
- Lea-Scarlett, E. J. Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. Archived from the original on 4 April 2016.
- Grose to Hunter, 8 December 1794, Historical Records of New South Wales, Sydney, 1893, Vol.2, p.275.
- Causer, T. '"The Worst Types of Sub-Human Beings": the Myth and Reality of the Convicts of the Norfolk Island Penal Settlement Archived 20 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine., 1825–1855', Islands of History, Sydney, 2011, pp.8–31.
- "Fateful Voyage". Archived from the original on 17 October 2016.
- "Discover Norfolk Island". Archived from the original on 14 May 2016.
- Norfolk Island Act, 1913 (Recital 2)
- Australian Waste Lands Act, 1855 18 & 19 V. c 56, s.5; Order in Council of 24 October 1856, S.R.O. 1st Rev. Ed. V, p. 129
- Norfolk Island Act, 1913 (Recitals 3 and 4) confirming that the Order in Council was proclaimed in the Colony of New South Wales on 1 November 1856
- Norfolk Island Act, 1913 (Recital 3)
- Norfolk Island Act, 1913 (Recitals 7 and 8)
- Norfolk Island Act 1913 (Cth) Archived 25 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Preamble recites earlier legislative history
- Roberts-Wray, Kenneth (1966). Commonwealth and Colonial Law. London: Stevens. p. 886.
- Proclamation; New South Wales Gazette, No. 205, 24 December 1913. Territory of Norfolk Island. Consolidated Laws ... and Ordinances ... as in Force on 31st December, 1934. Canberra: Prime Minister's Department. pp. 5–7.
- Territory of Norfolk Island. Consolidated Laws ... and Ordinances ... as in Force on 31st December, 1934. Canberra: Prime Minister's Department. pp. 8–17.
- Transfer from UK to Australia effected under an Order in Council, S.R.O. 1914 No. 528; S.R.O. and S.I. Rev. II, 1032
- 18 & 19 V. c 56.
- Norfolk Island Act 1913, Proclamation; Commonwealth of Australia Gazette, No. 35, 17 June 1914, p 1043.
- Territory of Norfolk Island. Consolidated Laws ... and Ordinances ... as in Force on 31st December, 1934. Canberra: Prime Minister's Department. p. 351.
- "There's More to Norfolk Island". Archived from the original on 22 April 2016.
- Norfolk Island Act 1979 (Cth), later substantially amended Archived 25 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Governance & Administration". Attorney-General's Department. 28 February 2008. Archived from the original on 20 September 2010.
- "Norfolk Island is about to undergo a dramatic change in order to secure a financial lifeline". ABC News 7.30 Report. 26 January 2011. Archived from the original on 21 February 2011.
- "Welfare fight forces families from island". The Sydney Morning Herald. 5 May 2013. Archived from the original on 7 May 2013.
- "Norfolk Island self-government to be revoked and replaced by local council". The Guardian. 19 March 2015. Archived from the original on 11 February 2017.
- "'We're not Australian': Norfolk Islanders adjust to shock of takeover by mainland". The Guardian. 21 May 2015. Archived from the original on 7 August 2017.
- "Solid 'Yes' vote in referendum on Norfolk Island governance". Radio New Zealand. 8 May 2015. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015.
- Hardgrave, Gary (3 September 2015). "Norfolk Island standard time changes 4 October 2015" (Press release). Administrator of Norfolk Island. Archived from the original on 3 October 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
- Website of Australian Government – Department of Infrastructure and Regional Government "Norfolk Island reform" accessed on 12 November 2016
- "Norfolk Island elects its inaugural council". Minister.infrastructure.gov.au. 3 June 2016. Archived from the original on 15 July 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- "Norfolk Island reform". Regional.gov.au. Archived from the original on 29 August 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development – Factsheet: Domestic travel between Norfolk Island and mainland Australia, website. Retrieved 12 November 2016
- "Norfolk pleads for Canberra to delay NSW absorption". Radionz.co.nz. Archived from the original on 23 July 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- "Norfolk Islanders seeking UN oversight". Radionz.co.nz. 28 April 2016. Archived from the original on 23 July 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- Roy, Eleanor Ainge (23 August 2017). "Norfolk Island should become part of New Zealand, says former chief minister". Guardian Australia. Archived from the original on 24 September 2017. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
- Geological origins, Norfolk Island Tourism. Retrieved 13 April 2007. Archived 7 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Climate statistics for Australian locations: Norfolk Island". Bureau of Meteorology. 31 March 2010. Archived from the original on 9 July 2014. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
- "Climate Statistics: Norfolk Island Aero (1981–2010 normals)". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
- World Wildlife Fund. "Norfolk Island subtropical forests". eoearth.org. Archived from the original on 17 January 2008.
- Birdlife Data Zone: Norfolk Island Archived 18 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine., BirdLife International. (2015). Retrieved 17 February 2015.
- Norfolk Island Archived 24 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. at Australian National Botanic Gardens. Environment Australia: Canberra, 2000.
- Braby, Michael F. (2008). The Complete Field Guide to Butterflies of Australia. CSIRO Publishing. ISBN 0 643 09027 4.
- Nichols, Daphne (2006). Lord Howe Island Rising. Frenchs Forest, NSW: Tower Books. ISBN 0-646-45419-6. Retrieved 20 November 2015
- Berzin A.; Ivashchenko V.Y.; Clapham J.P.; Brownell L.R. Jr. (2008). "The Truth About Soviet Whaling: A Memoir" (PDF). DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska – Lincoln. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
- "Norfolk Island Census of Population and Housing: Census Description, Analysis and Basic Tables" (PDF). 9 August 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 March 2012. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
- "Battle for Norfolk Island". BBC. 18 May 2007. Archived from the original on 24 November 2006.
- "Norfolk Island Phone Book". Archived from the original on 24 January 2010. Retrieved 4 July 2010.
- "Australia-Oceania :: NORFOLK ISLAND". CIA The World Factbook. Archived from the original on 3 July 2015.
- The Dominion Post, 21 April 2005 (page B3)
- Squires, Nick (19 April 2005). "Save our dialect, say Bounty islanders". The Telegraph UK. London. Archived from the original on 16 March 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2007.
- "About Norfolk – Language". Norfolkisland.com.au. Archived from the original on 2 May 2012. Retrieved 13 April 2012.
- "Norfuk declared official language in Norfolk Island – report". Radio New Zealand International. 20 April 2005. Archived from the original on 17 July 2012. Retrieved 13 April 2012.
- Norfolk Island Central School Archived 18 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine. (accessed 13 May 2015)
- "Norfolk Island Central School". Archived from the original on 3 June 2016.
- Page 4, Education Review, Norfolk Island, Stage One, Stage Two and Stage Three, The Report, 14 September 2014 Archived 20 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine. (accessed 13 May 2015)
- Expert Report on the Distinctiveness of Norfolk Islander Ethnicity, Culture and the Nor'k Language (Norfolk Island – South Pacific) Archived 6 February 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Mühlhäusler, Peter, 2016, p. 69
- "Norfolk Island Census, 2006" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- "Norfolk Island Census, 1996" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- "Helen Reddy: My island home". Probus South Pacific. 12 April 2013. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- "Norfolk Island Public Holidays 2011 (Oceania)". qppstudio.net. Archived from the original on 27 November 2011.
- "Former Tasmanian MP appointed Norfolk Island administrator". ABC News. 3 March 2017. Archived from the original on 10 April 2017. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
- "Australian Electoral Commission: Norfolk Island electors". Medicare. Archived from the original on 6 February 2018.
- "Norfolk Island Governance Arrangements" (Press release). Department of Transport and Regional Services. 20 December 2006. Archived from the original on 31 October 2007.
- Higgins, Ean. "Mutineer descendants opt for bounty". The Australian. Archived from the original on 5 November 2010.
- Shalailah Medhora. "Norfolk Island self-government to be replaced by local council". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 11 February 2017.
- "Norfolk Island to go ahead with governance referendum". Radio New Zealand. 27 March 2015. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015.
- "Norfolk Island Legislation Amendment Bill 2015". aph.gov.au. Archived from the original on 19 June 2016.
- "Norfolk Island reforms". regional.gov.au. Archived from the original on 29 August 2016.
- Sir Kenneth Roberts-Wray, Commonwealth & Colonial Law (London, Stevens, 1966)
- "British Settlements Act 1887". Government of the United Kingdom. Archived from the original on 12 September 2015.
- Norfolk Island Act 1913 (Cth) Archived 26 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine. in ComLaw.
- The history was examined in detail by the Supreme Court of Norfolk Island in Newbery v The Queen (1965) 7 FLR 34.
- Berwick Ltd v Gray  HCA 12, (1976) 133 CLR 603 (30 March 1976), High Court (Australia).
- "Bennett v Commonwealth  HCA 18; (2007) 234 ALR 204". in AustLII.
- Australian Government, Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development website Archived 1 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
- Norfolk Island Act 1979 (Cth) Archived 4 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine. in ComLaw.
- Norfolk Island Legislation Amendment Act 2015 (Cth)
- Schedule 1, Div. 1 s 1, Norfolk Island Legislation Amendment Act 2015 (Cth).
- United Nations Special Committee on the Situation with regard to the Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence of Colonial Countries and Peoples.
- "History". Norfolk Island's relationship with Australia. Norfolk Island. Archived from the original on 4 February 2012.
- "Mass protest on Norfolk Island". Radio New Zealand. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "norfolk-island-this-isnt-australia". Retrieved 28 December 2015.[permanent dead link]
- "Could Australia let Christmas Island go?". SBS News. Archived from the original on 27 December 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Norfolk's Choice". Norfolkschoice.com. 20 June 2014. Archived from the original on 16 July 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- "Norfolk Island residents petition UN over Australian 're-colonisation'". The Age. 27 April 2016. Archived from the original on 17 October 2016. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- Table Office, House of Commons. "UK Parliament, written questions 21 June 2006". Parliament of the United Kingdom. Archived from the original on 22 April 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- Marks, Kathy (28 October 2013). "Norfolk Islanders face dire straits". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
- "Norfolk Island Applied Laws Ordinance 2016". Federal Legislative Register. Archived from the original on 8 December 2017. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
- "Norfolk Island Legislation". Norfolk Island Regional Council. Archived from the original on 28 December 2017. Retrieved 28 December 2017.
- "Fact Sheet 59 – Immigration Arrangements for Norfolk Island". Department of Immigration and Border Protection, Australia. January 2014. Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
- "Thinking of Moving to Norfolk Island?". channersonnorfolk.com. Archived from the original on 17 March 2014.
- "Speech – Second Reading, Norfolk Island Reform – Thursday, 26 March 2015 > Jamie Briggs MP > Media". jamiebriggs.com.au. Archived from the original on 19 January 2016. Retrieved 28 December 2015.
- Cities, Department of Infrastructure, Regional Development and. "Factsheet: Domestic travel between Norfolk Island and mainland Australia". Infrastructure and Regional Development. Archived from the original on 20 July 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
- Confirmatory (Residence) visa (subclass 808) Archived 2 July 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
- Australian Citizenship Act 2007 (Cth) Archived 6 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine. sections 5(2(c), 21 and 22; Australian Citizenship Act 2007 – Determination under subsection 5(2) – Australian Citizenship (Permanent Resident Status) – June 2007 Archived 6 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine. in ComLaw.
- "Factsheet: Domestic travel between Norfolk Island and mainland Australia". Dept of Infrastructure and Regional Development. Archived from the original on 20 July 2017.
- Infrastructure. "Legal Profession Act 1993 (NI)". legislation.gov.au. Archived from the original on 9 December 2017. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
- Snell, Lisle (May 2014). "SUBMISSION TO PRODUCTIVITY COMMISSION INQUIRY ACCESS TO JUSTICE ARRANGEMENTS By the Chief Minister of Norfolk Island as Minister for Justice and Minister responsible for the Legal Aid Act 1995 (Norfolk Island) and the Legal Profession Act 1993" (PDF). The Government of Norfolk Island. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 September 2017.
- "2901.0 – Census Dictionary, 2016 – Norfolk Island". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 23 August 2016. Archived from the original on 31 January 2017.
- "END OF AN ERA: NORFOLK ISLAND HAS ISSUED ITS FINAL POSTAGE STAMP ... by Linn's stamp News". norfolkonlinenews.com. Archived from the original on 6 February 2018. Retrieved 26 October 2017.
- "Norfolk Island Wine". Wine-Searcher.com website. Wine-Searcher.com. Archived from the original on 1 March 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
- "Norfolk Island dies while Australian Government thieves and thrives". Tasmanian Times. Archived from the original on 26 September 2015.
- "Norfolk Island decision sparks calls to legalise medical cannabis". ABC News. Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Campaign to legalise medicinal marijuana gains momentum". The Age – Victoria. Archived from the original on 3 May 2016.
- "Medicinal cannabis legalised in Victoria, child epilepsy patients to be given access from 2017". News ABC. Archived from the original on 12 April 2016.
- "Charting the Pacific". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 3 October 2007.
- Goldsmith and Secretary, Department of Social Services (Social services second review)  AATA 613 (19 August 2015).
- Tax and Superannuation Laws Amendment (Norfolk Island Reforms) Act 2015 (Cth)
- Office, Australian Taxation. "Norfolk Island reforms". ato.gov.au. Archived from the original on 13 January 2016. Retrieved 28 December 2015.
- "Norfolk Island information". Asia Rooms. Archived from the original on 9 January 2008. Retrieved 4 October 2007.
- "Norfolk Is speed limits". NorfolkIslands.com. Archived from the original on 13 February 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
- Anderson, Athol; White, Peter (2001). "The Prehistoric Archaeology of Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific" (PDF). Records of the Australian Museum. Australian Museum (Supplement 27): iv+141. doi:10.3853/j.0812-7387.27.2001.1334.
- Andrew Kippis, The Life and Voyages of Captain James Cook, Westminster 1788, Reprint London and New York 1904, pp. 246 ff
- Nobbs, Raymond, Norfolk Island and its Third Settlement: The First Hundred Years 1856–1956 Sydney, Library of Australian History, 2006.
- History of penal settlements
- Causer, Tim '"The Worst Types of Sub-Human Beings": the Myth and Reality of the Convicts of the Norfolk Island Penal Settlement, 1825–1855', Islands of History, Sydney, 2011, pp. 8–31. (ISBN 978-0-9803354-5-3).
- Causer, Tim 'Norfolk Island's "Suicide Lotteries": Myth and Reality', Islands of History, Sydney, 2011, pp. 61–68. (ISBN 978-0-9803354-5-3).
- Clark, Manning, A History of Australia, Vols. I–III, Melbourne, Melbourne University Press, 1962, 1968, 1973.
- Clarke, Marcus, For the Term of his Natural Life (novel).
- Hazzard, Margaret, Punishment Short of Death: a history of the penal settlement at Norfolk Island, Melbourne, Hyland, 1984. (ISBN 0-908090-64-1).
- Murray-Brown, David, Norfolk Island Cancellations and Postal Markings. London: Pacific Islands Study Circle, 3rd edition, 2012, 978-1-899833-20-7, 130pp; http://www.pisc.org.uk
- Hughes, Robert, The Fatal Shore, London, Pan, 1988. (ISBN 0-330-29892-5).
- Wright, R., The Forgotten Generation of Norfolk Island and Van Diemen's Land, Sydney, Library of Australian History, 1986.
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Norfolk Island.|
- "Norfolk Island". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
- Norfolk Island at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
- Wikimedia Atlas of Norfolk Island
Archaeology and Polynesian settlement in prehistory
- Anderson, Athol; White, Peter (2001). "The Prehistoric Archaeology of Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific" (PDF). Records of the Australian Museum. Australian Museum (Supplement 27): iv+141. doi:10.3853/j.0812-7387.27.2001.1334.
- Anderson, Athol; White, Peter (2001). "Approaching the Prehistory of Norfolk Island" (PDF). Records of the Australian Museum. Australian Museum (Supplement 27): 1–9. doi:10.3853/j.0812-7387.27.2001.1335.
- Anderson, Athol; Smith, Ian; White, Peter (2001). "Archaeological Fieldwork on Norfolk Island" (PDF). Records of the Australian Museum. Australian Museum (Supplement 27): 11–32. doi:10.3853/j.0812-7387.27.2001.1336.
- Quis custodiet ipsos custodes? Inquiry into Governance on Norfolk Island Commonwealth Parliament, Joint Standing Committee on the National Capital and External Territories, 2003
- Norfolk Island and Its Inhabitants 1879 account by Joseph Campbell
- "Norfolk Island subtropical forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund.
- Anglican history on Norfolk Island Primary texts and photographs