Ipoh (/ˈp/, Malay pronunciation: [i.poh]) is the capital city of the Malaysian state of Perak. Located by the Kinta River, it is nearly 200 km (120 mi) north of Kuala Lumpur and 150 km (93 mi) southeast of George Town in neighbouring Penang.[2] As of the 2020 census Ipoh had a population of 759,952, making it the eighth-largest city in Malaysia by population.

Ipoh
City of Ipoh
Bandaraya Ipoh
Other transcription(s)
 • Jawiإڤوه
 • Chinese怡保 (Simplified)
怡保 (Traditional)
Yíbǎo (Hanyu Pinyin)
Ji4 Bou2 (Cantonese Jyutping)
 • Tamilஈப்போ
Īppō (Transliteration)
Ipoh city skyline
Old downtown
St. Michael's Institution
Ipoh railway station
Old Town Hall
Kinta Nature Park
Gunung Lang Recreational Park
Tambun limestone
From top, left to right:
Ipoh city skyline, Old downtown, St. Michael's Institution, Ipoh railway station, City Hall, Kinta Nature Park, Gunung Lang Recreational Park, and Tambun limestone
Flag of Ipoh
Official seal of Ipoh
Nickname(s): 
City of Millionaires, Bougainvillea City, Silver Valley
Motto(s): 
Berkhidmat dan Maju
English: Service and Progress
Map
Location of Ipoh in Perak
Ipoh is located in Perak
Ipoh
Ipoh
   Ipoh in    Perak
Ipoh is located in Malaysia
Ipoh
Ipoh
Ipoh (Malaysia)
Ipoh is located in Asia
Ipoh
Ipoh
Ipoh (Asia)
Ipoh is located in Earth
Ipoh
Ipoh
Ipoh (Earth)
Coordinates: 04°35′50″N 101°04′30″E / 4.59722°N 101.07500°E / 4.59722; 101.07500
Country Malaysia
State Perak
DistrictKinta
EstablishmentAround 1880
Establishment of the local government1893
Municipality status31 May 1962
City status27 May 1988; 35 years ago (27 May 1988)
Government
 • TypeCity council
 • BodyIpoh City Council
 • MayorRumaizi Baharin
Area
 • City and state capital643 km2 (248 sq mi)
Elevation
21.95 m (72 ft)
Population
 (2021)
 • City and state capital840,000
 • Density1,023/km2 (2,650/sq mi)
 • Metro
1,022,240 [1]
Time zoneUTC+8 (MST)
 • Summer (DST)Not observed
Postcode
30xxx, 31xxx
Area code05
Websitembi.gov.my

In recent years, Ipoh's popularity as an international tourist destination has been significantly boosted by efforts to conserve its British colonial-era architecture.[3][4] The city is also well known for its cuisine and natural attractions, such as its limestone hills and caves within which Buddhist temples were built.[5] In addition, Ipoh has managed to maintain its reputation as one of the cleanest cities in Malaysia.[6]

Ipoh's location between Kuala Lumpur and George Town has made it a major land transportation hub within West Malaysia, with both the Malayan Railway's West Coast Line and the North-South Expressway cutting through the city. Aside from the land transportation links, Ipoh is also served by the Sultan Azlan Shah Airport.

Etymology edit

The name Ipoh is derived from a local tree, pohon epu, now more commonly known as pokok ipoh. The sap of this plant is poisonous and was used by local indigenous people mixed with Strychnos latex to coat the tips of their blowpipe darts for hunting.[7]

History edit

Originally a village, Ipoh began to grow rapidly in the 1880s after huge deposits of tin were discovered within its vicinity.[8] Its geographic location in the rich tin-bearing valley of the Kinta River made it a natural centre of growth.[citation needed]

The Great Fire of Ipoh in 1892 destroyed over half the town, but also presented an opportunity to rebuild the town in a more orderly grid pattern.[citation needed]

Ipoh was subsequently rebuilt in time for the second tin rush and grew rapidly as a result of the booming tin mining industry, particularly in the 1920s and 1930s.[citation needed] By 1895, it was already the second largest town within the Federated Malay States, which also consisted of Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Pahang.[9] In 1909 the opening of the new 40 room Grand Hotel in Ipoh caused a splash. Pierre Z. Creet was the proprieter, and Armenian born in Persia's Nor Jugha who had worked for the Sarkies Brothers at their famous Raffles Hotel in Singapore.[10]

A local Hakka miner, millionaire Yau Tet Shin, started developing a large tract of the town in the early 1930s, today known as the "New Town", from the eastern bank of the Kinta River to Greentown.[11] In 1937, Ipoh was made the capital of Perak, replacing Taiping.

Ipoh was invaded by the Japanese on 15 December 1941. In March 1942, the Japanese Civil Administration or Perak Shu Seicho was set up at St. Michael's Institution. After the liberation of Malaya by British forces, Ipoh remained the capital of Perak as it does to this day.[12]

Following the depletion of its tin deposits and the collapse of tin prices in the 1970s, the city suffered decades of decline and neglect.[13][14][3][4] With the closure of the tin mines, its urban population was forced to seek employment in other cities within Malaysia. In spite of this, Ipoh remains one of the largest cities in Malaysia in terms of population, with tourism now a main driver of the city's economy.[15]

Ipoh gained Municipal status in 1962, and in 1988 it was declared a city by the then Sultan of Perak, Sultan Azlan Shah.[8]

Geography edit

Locations of Ipoh and its suburbs

Topography edit

Ipoh is in the state of Perak, which is in the central part of Peninsular Malaysia. The city is in the middle of the karstic Kinta Valley region, on the bank of the Kinta River and the confluence of the smaller rivers Sungai Pinji and Sungai Pari. Hills of limestone, called mogotes, surround the city, which can be found around suburban areas to the northeast, east and southeast.[16]

The Keledang mountain range stretches from the north to the west of the city. This range runs parallel to the Bintang mountain range with the Perak River running on its left bank and the Kinta River to its right. This range is interrupted to the north of Ipoh by a tributary of the Perak River called the Pelus River, which is sourced from the Titiwangsa mountain range, which runs to the east of Ipoh.[17]

Climate edit

Ipoh has a tropical rainforest climate. Ipoh is more subject to the Intertropical Convergence Zone than the trade winds and very rarely has cyclones, therefore it can be described as having an equatorial climate. The city's temperature shows little variation throughout the year, the average temperature being 28 °C (82 °F). Ipoh sees high precipitation throughout the year with an average of 200 mm (7.9 in) of rain each month and averaging 2,427.9 mm (95.59 in) of rain per year. The wettest month is October when on average 297.2 mm (11.70 in) of rain falls. Ipoh's driest month is January which has 132.3 mm (5.21 in) of rainfall on average.

Climate data for Ipoh
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 32.9
(91.2)
33.7
(92.7)
33.9
(93.0)
33.7
(92.7)
33.5
(92.3)
33.3
(91.9)
33.0
(91.4)
33.0
(91.4)
32.5
(90.5)
32.4
(90.3)
32.1
(89.8)
32.1
(89.8)
33.0
(91.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 27.8
(82.0)
28.4
(83.1)
28.7
(83.7)
28.8
(83.8)
28.8
(83.8)
28.5
(83.3)
28.1
(82.6)
28.2
(82.8)
27.9
(82.2)
27.8
(82.0)
27.6
(81.7)
27.5
(81.5)
28.2
(82.7)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 22.6
(72.7)
23.0
(73.4)
23.4
(74.1)
23.9
(75.0)
24.0
(75.2)
23.7
(74.7)
23.2
(73.8)
23.3
(73.9)
23.2
(73.8)
23.1
(73.6)
23.1
(73.6)
22.8
(73.0)
23.3
(73.9)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 132.3
(5.21)
149.8
(5.90)
169.9
(6.69)
259.1
(10.20)
210.9
(8.30)
151.8
(5.98)
156.6
(6.17)
157.8
(6.21)
216.0
(8.50)
297.2
(11.70)
275.4
(10.84)
251.1
(9.89)
2,427.9
(95.59)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 9 10 12 14 14 10 10 12 15 18 18 15 157
Source: World Meteorological Organisation[18]

Limestone caves edit

Mogotes are the most prominent natural features of the city. There are many caves in these outcrops, some of which have cave temples built in them.[19] The Sam Poh Tong Temple is a notable example, along with Kek Lok Tong; Cavern of Utmost Happiness), which lies on the other side of the same outcrop. It is accessible through the Gunung Rapat housing area. Other cave temples in Ipoh include Ling Sen Tong, Nan Tian Tong, Kwan Yin Tong and Perak Tong.

Gua Tempurung, near Gopeng, south of Ipoh, is a show cave open to the public and popular among spelunkers. More than 3 km (1.9 mi) long, it is one of the longest caves in Peninsular Malaysia. Part of it has been developed with electric lighting and walkways, and there are tours of varying lengths and difficulty. A river passage runs about 1.6 km (0.99 mi) through the hill. There are five large chambers, filled with spectacular speleothems which include stalactites and stalagmites.

Economy edit

In its early history, Ipoh as a settlement was built around its mining industry, although inferior to that of Gopeng, some 19 kilometres (12 mi) to the south. Ipoh was once one of the richest cities in Malaysia and South East Asia in the days when tin was its major product. During the 1980s, when tin prices collapsed, the economy of Ipoh was affected significantly. However, recently the city has experienced economic growth. The city of Ipoh also hosts some large multinational corporations. Kuala Lumpur Kepong Berhad, a palm oil company among the top 15 biggest companies in Malaysia by revenue, has its headquarters in Ipoh. Batu Kawan Berhad, an investment company which is the biggest shareholder in Kuala Lumpur Kepong Berhad, also has its headquarters in Malaysia. Ipoh houses the headquarters of Hovid Berhad, a pharmaceutical company which claims to be the first Malaysian company to introduce Malaysian generic drugs overseas. Old Town Berhad, which is a food and beverage public listed company specializing in white coffee, has its headquarters in Ipoh. There are other public listed companies in Ipoh such as Perak Transit Berhad, Tasek Cement Berhad, DKLS Industries Berhad, Wellcall Holding Berhad, Rubberex Berhad, and Perak Corp. Ipoh also hosts the Malaysian headquarters for some foreign multinational companies, including Finisar, Voith, ITL Asia Pacific and Sagami Manufacturers.

Governance edit

 
Ipoh City Council

The Ipoh City Council governs the city. Datuk Rumaizi Baharin, appointed in April 2020, is the current mayor of Ipoh.[20]

Ipoh is divided into two parliamentary constituencies: Ipoh Barat (Ipoh West) and Ipoh Timor (Ipoh East). The parliamentary seat for Ipoh Barat is held by Democratic Action Party (DAP) Representative M. Kulasegaran.[21] The seat for Ipoh Timor is held by fellow DAP leader Howard Lee Chuan How. As of 2022, there were 233,000 voters in Ipoh. Most of the voters in Ipoh are Chinese, followed by Malays, Indians and others.

Ethnic breakdown of Ipoh's electorate as of 2022[22]

  Chinese (63.55%)
  Malay (18.49%)
  Indian (17.04%)
  Other ethnicities (0.92%)

Demographics edit

Ipoh remains one of Malaysia's largest cities. As of 2010, the municipal area of Ipoh has a population of 657,892.[23] It ranks as the seventh most populous urban centre in Malaysia (2010).[23]

The following is based on Department of Statistics Malaysia 2010 census.[23]

Ethnic groups in Ipoh, 2010
Ethnicity Population Percentage
Chinese 270,165 44.11%
Bumiputera 253,592 38.55%
Indian 110,024 14.07%
Others 1,559 0.2%
Non-Malaysian 19,989 3.04%

Town Layout / Cityscape edit

Aspects of Ipoh's Old Town, clockwise from top right: Birch Memorial Clock Tower, wall mural by Ernest Zacharevic, Concubine Lane, skyline of the administrative centre

See List of Ipoh areas

Culture edit

 
Concubine Lane, one of the cultural and culinary hub in the city

Cuisine edit

Ipoh has a significant food scene with many hawker centres and restaurants. It has dishes derived from Malay, Chinese and Indian cuisine. See

Film and television edit

Movies filmed in Ipoh include:

Greenery & Public Parks edit

  • D. R. Seenivasagam Park (Coronation Park)
  • Sultan Abdul Aziz Recreational Park (Polo Ground)
  • Kledang Saiong Forest Eco Park
  • Botani Eco Park

Theme parks edit

There are several theme parks in Ipoh, including the Sunway Lost World of Tambun[24] and the now defunct Movies Animated Park Studios (MAPS).[25]

Transport edit

 
Sultan Azlan Shah Airport

Roads edit

The old interstate Federal Route 1 connects Ipoh with other major towns and cities in peninsular Malaysia, for example to Alor Setar, Taiping and Penang to the north and Tapah, Kuala Lumpur, Seremban and even Johor Bahru in the south. Motorists from the east coast can use Federal Route 4 (from Gerik) in northern Perak or Federal Route 185 (from Cameron Highlands).

The new North–South Expressway is a faster and more efficient alternative to Route 1. However, some towns such as Kampar can only be accessible via Route 1.

Train edit

Ipoh's railway station is operated by Keretapi Tanah Melayu (KTM) and is in the Old Town. However, it does not have intra-city travel like there is in Kuala Lumpur; the railway only connects Ipoh with neighbouring towns and cities. The station is a stately building, referred to by locals as the "Taj Mahal of Ipoh". KTM Intercity began the Shuttle Train Service between Kuala Lumpur and Ipoh from 1 December 2008 while the modern Electric Train System (ETS) shuttle began from 12 August 2010, with an average speed of 145 km/h (90 mph), plying the Ipoh-Seremban route, which cut the travelling distance between Ipoh and Kuala Lumpur to 120 minutes. There are 10 dedicated shuttle train services between these two cities daily, beginning at 5 am from both of the stations. Travel time between the cities was expected to be reduced from three hours to two hours and fifteen minutes when the new set of EMU trains arrived in mid-2009.[26]

Bus edit

 
A bus in Ipoh operated by PerakTransit

The inter-city bus terminal is located at Amanjaya Integrated Bus Terminal in Bandar Meru Raya, just north of the city. Medan Kitt is the public transport intracity terminal that is very near to Ipoh Railway Station. Currently, the main piblic transport operator in the city is PerakTransit under the branding of myBAS Ipoh.

Air edit

The Sultan Azlan Shah Airport is the only airport in Ipoh, located near Gunung Rapat. Domestic and international flights are available. Scoot and AirAsia provide daily flights from Ipoh to Singapore Changi Airport while Batik Air Malaysia used to provide daily flights to Senai International Airport, serving as a link to the city of Johor Bahru. There are also planned flights to Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand and China, with talks of a new airport soon.[citation needed]

Education edit

This is a list of schools in Ipoh, Perak.

  • Sekolah Izzuddin Shah
  • Sekolah Tuanku Abdul Rahman
  • Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Tanjung Rambutan
  • Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Seri Puteri
  • Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan (T) St. Philomena Convent, Ipoh
  • Sekolah Kebangsaan Dato Panglima'Kinta, Ipoh
  • Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan (C) Yuk Choy, Ipoh
  • SMJK Yuk Choy, Ipoh
  • Tarcisian Convent School, Ipoh (TCS)
  • Anderson School, Ipoh
  • Anglo-Chinese School, Ipoh
  • St. Michael's Institution, Ipoh
  • SMK Jalan Tasek, Ipoh
  • Methodist Girls Secondary School (MGS), Ipoh
  • Perak Girls Secondary School (PGS), Ipoh
  • SMK Main Convent, Ipoh
  • Wesley Methodist School, Ipoh
  • Ipoh International School (Private)
  • Fairview International School, Ipoh
  • Perak Yuk Choy High School (Private), Ipoh
  • Poi Lam High School (Private), Ipoh
  • Shen Jai High School (Private), Ipoh
  • Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan (T) Kerajaan, Sungai Pari, Ipoh
  • Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan (T) Gunung Rapat, Ipoh
  • Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan (T) Perak Sangeetha Sabha, Ipoh
  • SMK Rapat Setia, Ipoh
  • SMK Jalan Pasir Puteh, Ipoh
  • Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan (C) Poi Lam, Ipoh
  • SMK Seri Keledang, Ipoh
  • SMK Menglembu, Ipoh
  • SMJK Poi Lam, Ipoh
  • Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan (C) Sam Tet, Ipoh
  • SMJK Sam Tet, Ipoh
  • SMK Dato Ahmad Said
  • Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan Ave Maria Convent, Ipoh
  • SMJK Ave Maria Convent, Ipoh
  • Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan (C) Gunung Rapat, Ipoh
  • Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan (C) Wan Hwa (1)
  • Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan (C) Wan Hwa (2)
  • Sekolah Kebangsaan (ACS), Ipoh
  • Sekolah Kebangsaan (P) Methodist, Ipoh
  • Sekolah Kebangsaan Haji Mahmud Chemor, Ipoh
  • Sekolah Kebangsaan Kuala Pari, Ipoh
  • Sekolah Kebangsaan Jalan Pegoh
  • Sekolah Kebangsaan Jelapang
  • Sekolah Kebangsaan Marian Convent, Ipoh
  • Sekolah Kebangsaan Raja Ekram, Ipoh
  • SMK Raja Perempuan, Ipoh (RPS) Royal Princess School "Cluster School"
  • SRK Raja Perempuan, Ipoh (RPS)
  • Sekolah Kebangsaan Seri Ampang, Ipoh
  • Sekolah Kebangsaan St. Michael's Institution (1), Ipoh
  • Sekolah Kebangsaan St. Michael's Institution (2), Ipoh
  • Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan (C) Chung Shan

Sports edit

 
Perak Stadium

Ipoh has a sports complex known as Kompleks Sukan MBI or MBI Sports Complex.[citation needed] Among the facilities located within the complex is the Perak Stadium (Malay: Stadium Perak), the home of Perak Football Association who play in the Malaysia Super League.[citation needed]

Golf courses in Ipoh include the Royal Perak Golf Club off Jalan Sultan Azlan Shah (Tiger Lane), the Meru Golf Club in Jelapang, and Clearwater Sanctuary Golf Club en route to Batu Gajah.

Other sports venues include the Kilat Club in Pasir Pinji, Ipoh Field (Padang Ipoh) in the Old Town, the Polo Grounds, and the Iskandar Polo Club in Ampang Baru.[citation needed]

The Sultan Azlan Shah Cup is an annual international men's field hockey tournament held in Ipoh.[citation needed]

Notable people edit

Film and television

Music

Sports (badminton)

Sports (football)

Sports (others)

Business

Politics

Other

Sister cities edit

Ipoh currently has two sister cities:

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Menyingkap perkembangan perbandaran Ipoh menjadi sebuah bandaraya - UKM Journal Article Repository". Archived from the original on 16 December 2015. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
  2. ^ "Ipoh, city in Malaysia | Wonderful Malaysia". www.wonderfulmalaysia.com. Retrieved 23 March 2023.
  3. ^ a b hermes (22 March 2016). "Sleepy Ipoh awakens". The Straits Times. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
  4. ^ a b "Old Town restored to rightful place in history of Ipoh". theedgeproperty.com.my. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
  5. ^ net, powered by iosc dot (16 May 2015). "Ipoh Echo | Caves of the Kinta Valley". IpohEcho.com.my. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
  6. ^ "Ipoh is Malaysia's cleanest city - Nation | The Star Online". thestar.com.my. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
  7. ^ Ng, Francis. "Ipoh's terrible tree". The Star. Retrieved 29 January 2022.
  8. ^ a b "The History of Ipoh" (PDF).
  9. ^ "Info Ipoh: Halaman 2 dari 2 | Portal Rasmi Majlis Bandaraya Ipoh (MBI)". mbi.gov.my. Archived from the original on 21 September 2020. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
  10. ^ "Grand Hotel, Ipoh".
  11. ^ Ipohworld’s World » Yau Tet Shin’s New Town Under Construction 1908. Ipohworld.org. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
  12. ^ Khoo Salma Nasution & Abdur-Razzaq Lubis, Kinta Valley: Pioneering Malaysia's Modern Development, Ipoh: Perak Academy, 2005. pp. 273–292
  13. ^ Tam, Susan. "Ipoh - Malaysia | The Star Online". Retrieved 21 August 2017.
  14. ^ Tan, Peter (21 February 2015). "The city that tin built". BorneoPost Online | Borneo, Malaysia, Sarawak Daily News. Retrieved 21 August 2017.
  15. ^ "Ipoh History Facts and Timeline: Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia". world-guides.com. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
  16. ^ "Limestone Hills (Bukit Batu Kapur), Ipoh, PERAK – Malaysia Travel Review". Malaysiahotelreview.com. Archived from the original on 20 February 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
  17. ^ Jacq-Hergoualc'h, Michel; Victoria Hobson (September 2002). The Malay Peninsula: Crossroads of the Maritime Silk Road (100 BC – 1300 AD). BRILL. ISBN 90-04-11973-6.
  18. ^ "World Weather Information Service – Ipoh". World Meteorological Organisation. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
  19. ^ "Home". Cavesofmalaysia.com. Archived from the original on 6 July 2006. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
  20. ^ "Rumaizi Baharin appointed new Ipoh mayor | The Star Online". The Star. Malaysia. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  21. ^ "M. Kulasegaran | Malaysia Parliament Portal". The Official Portal, Parliament of Malaysia Website. Malaysia. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  22. ^ "14th General Election Malaysia (GE14 / PRU14) - Results Overview". election.thestar.com.my. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  23. ^ a b c "Population Distribution by Local Authority Areas and Mukims, 2010" (PDF). Department of Statistics Malaysia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2012.
  24. ^ "Lost World of Tambun Ipoh".
  25. ^ "Movies Animation Park, Ipoh Official Website". Archived from the original on 7 February 2018.
  26. ^ "Malaysia / Perak / The Ipoh Railway Station". Cockatoo.com. 14 November 2011. Archived from the original on 19 January 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
  27. ^ "Guangxi signed cooperation project of US$400 million with Malaysia". Ministry of Commerce, People's Republic of China. 6 April 2005. Archived from the original on 20 December 2015. Retrieved 20 December 2015.
  28. ^ "Exchange with sister cities". Fukuoka City. 23 April 2009. Archived from the original on 20 December 2015. Retrieved 20 December 2015.

External links edit