Barisan Nasional

The National Front (Malay: Barisan Nasional; abbrev: BN) is a political coalition of Malaysia that was founded in 1973 as a coalition of right-wing and centrist parties. It is also the third largest political coalition with 42 seats in the Dewan Rakyat after opposition coalition Pakatan Harapan with 88 seats and the coalition Perikatan Nasional with 50 seats.

National Front
Barisan Nasional
Malay nameBarisan Nasional
باريسن ناسيونل
Chinese name國民陣線
国民阵线
Guómín zhènxiàn
Tamil nameபாரிசான் நேசனல்
AbbreviationBN
ChairmanAhmad Zahid Hamidi
Secretary-GeneralZambry Abdul Kadir
Deputy ChairmanMohamad Hasan
Vice ChairmenWee Ka Siong
Vigneswaran Sanasee
Joseph Kurup
AdvisorNajib Razak
Treasurer-GeneralHishammuddin Hussein
FounderAbdul Razak Hussein
Founded1 January 1973 (1973-01-01)[1]
Legalised1 June 1974 (as a party)
Preceded byAlliance
Succeeded byGabungan Parti Sarawak
(in Sarawak) (2018)
Gabungan Rakyat Sabah
(in Sabah) (2020)
HeadquartersAras 8, Menara Dato’ Onn, Putra World Trade Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
NewspaperNew Straits Times
The Star
Berita Harian
Nanyang Siang Pau
Harian Metro
China Press
Makkal Osai
Tamil Malar
MIC Times
Malaysia Nanban
Sin Chew Daily
Student wingBarisan Nasional Student Movement
Youth wingBarisan Nasional Youth Movement
IdeologyMajority:
Conservatism
Social conservatism[2]
National conservatism
Economic liberalism
Factions:
Ketuanan Melayu[3][4]
Malaysian Chinese interests
Dravidian movement
Political positionRight-wing
Regional affiliationAllied coalition:
Perikatan Nasional (2020-2021), (since 2021)
Gabungan Rakyat Sabah (since 2020)
Colours  Royal blue and sky white
SloganRakyat Didahulukan
Hidup Rakyat
Bersama Barisan Nasional
Hidup Negaraku
(People's First, Nation First, With the National Front, Long Live the Nation!)
AnthemBarisan Nasional[5]
Dewan Negara
18 / 70
Dewan Rakyat
42 / 222
Dewan Undangan Negeri
155 / 607
Chief minister of states
5 / 13
Election symbol
Barisan Nasional logo.png
Website
www.barisannasional.org.my

The Barisan Nasional coalition employs the same inter-communal governing model of its predecessor the Alliance Party but on a wider scale, with up to 14 communal political parties involved in the coalition at one point.[1] It dominated Malaysian politics for over thirty years after it was founded, but since 2008 has faced stronger challenges from opposition parties, notably the Pakatan Rakyat and later the Pakatan Harapan alliances. Taken together with its predecessor (Alliance), it had a combined period of rule from 1957 to 2018, and was considered the longest ruling coalition party in the democratic world.[6]

In the aftermath of the 2018 general election, the Barisan Nasional coalition lost its hold of the parliament to PH for the first time in Malaysian history. It was also the first time Barisan Nasional became the opposition coalition after almost, taken together with its predecessor (Alliance), 61 years in power, with former prime minister and Barisan Nasional chairman Mahathir Mohamad becoming PH's leader. The coalition returned to power under Perikatan Nasional together with four other parties in the aftermath of the 2020 Malaysian political crisis. On 15 August 2021, Barisan Nasional returned to power together with Perikatan Nasional and four other parties.

HistoryEdit

FormationEdit

Barisan Nasional is the direct successor to the three-party Alliance coalition formed of United Malays National Organisation, Malaysian Chinese Association, and Malaysian Indian Congress. It was founded in the aftermath of the 1969 general election and the 13 May riots. The Alliance Party lost ground in the 1969 election to the opposition parties, in particular the two newly formed parties, Democratic Action Party and Gerakan, as well as Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party. Although the Alliance won a majority of seats, it gained less than half the popular vote, and the resulting tension between different communities led to the May 13 riots and the declaration of a state of emergency.[7] After the Malaysian Parliament reconvened in 1971, negotiations began with parties such as Gerakan and People's Progressive Party, both of which joined the Alliance in 1972, quickly followed by Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party.

In 1973, the Alliance Party was replaced by Barisan Nasional.[1][8] The Barisan Nasional, which included regional parties from Sabah and Sarawak (Sabah Alliance Party, Sarawak United Peoples' Party, Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu), registered in June 1974 as a coalition of nine parties.[8] It contested the 1974 general election as a grand coalition under the leadership of the prime minister Tun Abdul Razak, which it won with considerable success.[9]

1977–2007Edit

In 1977, PAS was expelled from Barisan Nasional following a revolt within the Kelantan state legislature against a chief minister appointed by the federal government.[1] Barisan Nasional nevertheless won the 1978 general election convincingly, and it continued to dominate Malaysian politics in the 1980s and 1990s despite some losses in state elections, such as the loss of Kelantan to PAS, and Sabah to United Sabah Party which later joined Barisan Nasional.

By 2003, Barisan Nasional had grown to a coalition formed of more than a dozen communal parties. It performed particularly well in the 2004 general election, winning 198 out of 219 seats.

Although Barisan Nasional never achieved more than 67% of the popular vote in elections from 1974 to 2008, it maintained consecutive two-thirds majority of seats in this period in the Dewan Rakyat until the 2008 election, benefitting from Malaysia's first-past-the-post voting system.[10]

2008–2018Edit

In the 2008 general election, Barisan Nasional lost more than one-third of the parliamentary seats to Pakatan Rakyat, a loose alliance of opposition parties. This marked Barisan's first failure to secure a two-thirds supermajority in Parliament since 1969. Five state governments, namely Selangor, Kelantan, Penang, Perak and Kedah fell to Pakatan Rakyat. Perak however was later returned via court ruling following a constitutional crisis. Since 2008, the coalition has seen its non-Malay component parties greatly diminished in the peninsula.[11]

The losses continued in the 2013 general election, and it recorded its worst election result at the time. BN regained Kedah, but lost several more seats in Parliament along with the popular vote to Pakatan. Despite winning only 47% of the popular vote, it managed to gain 60% of the 222 parliamentary seats, thereby retaining control of the parliament.[12]

And finally, during the 2018 general election, Barisan Nasional lost control of the parliament to Pakatan Harapan, winning a total of only 79 parliamentary seats. The crushing defeat ended their 61-year rule of the country, taken together with its predecessor (Alliance), and this paved the way for the first change of government in Malaysian history. The coalition won only 34% of the popular vote amid vote split of Islamic Party. In addition to their failure in regaining the Penang, Selangor and Kelantan state governments, six state governments, namely Johor, Malacca, Negeri Sembilan, Perak, Kedah and Sabah fell to Pakatan Harapan and WARISAN (Sabah). The Terengganu state government also fell but to the Gagasan Sejahtera. Barisan Nasional was only in power in three states; namely Perlis, Pahang and Sarawak.

Many of BN's component parties left the coalition following its humiliating defeat at the 2018 general election, reducing its number to 4 compared to 13 before the election.[13] These parties either aligned themselves with the new Pakatan Harapan federal government, formed a new state-based pact or remained independent. They include three Sabah-based parties (UPKO, PBS and LDP),[14][15] four Sarawak-based parties (PBB, SUPP, PRS and PDP, which formed a new state-based pact GPS),[16][17] myPPP (under Kayveas faction)[18] and Gerakan.[19] MyPPP experienced a leadership dispute, with Maglin announced that the party remained within the coalition and Kayveas announced that the party had left the coalition, resulting in the dissolution of the party on 14 January 2019.

Among the remaining four component parties in Barisan National, UMNO's parliamentary seats have reduced from 54 to 38 since after 16 members of parliament left the party,[20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27] while MCA's parliamentary seat maintains one. MIC's parliamentary seats have reduced from two to one after the Election Court nullified the results of the election for the Cameron Highlands federal constituency due to bribery,[28] but BN regained its seat from a direct member under the 2019 by-election.[29]

As a result of these developments, BN's parliamentary seats have reduced to 41, compared with 79 seats that BN has won in the general election.

MCA and MIC made a statement in March 2019 that they want to "move on" and find a new alliance following disputes with secretary-general, Nazri Abdul Aziz. Mohamad Hasan, the acting BN chairman, chaired a Supreme Council meeting in which all parties showed no consensus on dissolving the coalition.

2019–presentEdit

In 2019, Barisan Nasional recovered some ground and won a number of by-elections, such as the 2019 Cameron Highlands by-election,[30] 2019 Semenyih by-election,[31] 2019 Rantau by-election,[32] and 2019 Tanjung Piai by-election.,[33] defeating Pakatan Harapan

In September 2019, UMNO decided to form a pact with the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) called Muafakat Nasional. Its main purpose is to unite the Malay Muslim communities for electoral purposes.[34] There is however no formal agreement with the other parties of Barisan Nasional, although there are calls for Barisan Nasional to migrate to Muafakat Nasional.[35][36] Barisan Nasional continued to function as a coalition of four parties comprising UMNO, MCA, MIC and PBRS, but aligned themselves with Perikatan Nasional to form a new government in March 2020 after the collapse of the Pakatan Harapan government.[37] Barisan Nasional form a new government on 15 August 2021 with Perikatan Nasional after the collapse of the Perikatan Nasional government.

Barisan Nasional also recovered control of the Johor,[38] Malacca[39] and Perak[40] state governments.

On 20 November 2021, Barisan Nasional won a simple majority of 21 seats in the Malacca State Legislative Assembly.[41]

OrganisationEdit

In 2013, the vast majority of Barisan Nasional's seats were held by its two largest Bumiputera-based political parties—the United Malays National Organisation, and Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu. For most of its history, both the Malaysian Chinese Association and Malaysian Indian Congress have played major roles in Barisan Nasional, but their representation in Parliament and state legislatures has become much more diminished. Nevertheless, each component party purports to represent – and limit membership – to a certain race: UMNO for the Malays, MCA for the Chinese and so on. In the view of some scholars:

Since its inception the Alliance remained a coalition of communal parties. Each of the component parties operated to all intents and purposes, save that of elections, as a separate party. Their membership was communal, except perhaps Gerakan, and their success was measured in terms of their ability to achieve the essentially parochial demands of their constituents.[42]

Although both the Alliance and BN registered themselves as political parties, membership is mostly indirect through one of the constituent parties while direct membership is allowed.[43] The BN defines itself as a "confederation of political parties which subscribe to the objects of the Barisan Nasional". Although in elections, all candidates stand under the BN symbol, and there is a BN manifesto, each individual constituent party also issues its own manifesto, and there is intra-coalition competition for seats prior to nomination day.[44]

Member parties and allied partiesEdit

Logo Name Ideology Position Leader(s) Seats
contested
2018 result Current
seats
Votes (%) Seats Composition
Member parties
UMNO United Malays National Organisation
Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu
Ketuanan Melayu Right-wing Ahmad Zahid Hamidi 120 21.10%
54 / 222
38 / 42
MCA Malaysian Chinese Association
Persatuan Cina Malaysia
Chinese interests Center-right Wee Ka Siong 39 5.30%
1 / 222
2 / 42
MIC Malaysian Indian Congress
Kongres India Malaysia
Dravidian movement Center-right Vigneswaran Sanasee 9 1.39%
2 / 222
1 / 42
PBRS United Sabah People's Party
Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah
Sabah nationalism Right-wing Joseph Kurup 1 0.10%
1 / 222
1 / 42
Allied parties
PCM Love Malaysia Party
Parti Cinta Malaysia
National conservatism Right-wing Huan Cheng Guan 1 0.02%
0 / 222
0 / 42
KIMMA Malaysian Indian Muslim Congress
Kongres India Muslim Malaysia
Islamism Right-wing Syed Ibrahim Kader N/A N/A
0 / 222
0 / 42
AMIPF All Malaysian Indian Progressive Front
Barisan Progresif India Se-Malaysia
Dravidian movement Center-right Jayashree Pandithan N/A N/A
0 / 222
0 / 42
MIUP Malaysian Indian United Party
Parti Bersatu India Malaysia
Dravidian movement Right-wing Nallakaruppan Solaimalai N/A N/A
0 / 222
0 / 42
MMSP Malaysia Makkal Sakti Party
Parti Makkal Sakti Malaysia
Dravidian movement Right-wing R.S. Thanenthiran N/A N/A
0 / 222
0 / 42

Former member partiesEdit

*denotes defunct parties

List of party chairmanEdit

No. Name
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Term of office
1 Abdul Razak Hussein
(1922–1976)
  1 January 1973 14 January 1976
2 Hussein Onn
(1922–1990)
  15 January 1976 28 June 1981
3 Mahathir Mohamad
(b. 1925)
  28 June 1981 4 February 1988
Ling Liong Sik Acting
(b. 1943)
4 February 1988 16 February 1988
(3) Mahathir Mohamad
(b. 1925)
  16 February 1988 30 October 2003
4 Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
(b. 1939)
  31 October 2003 26 March 2009
5 Mohd Najib Abdul Razak
(b. 1953)
  26 March 2009 12 May 2018
Ahmad Zahid Hamidi Acting
(b. 1953)
  12 May 2018 30 June 2018
6 Ahmad Zahid Hamidi
(b. 1953)
30 June 2018 18 December 2018
Mohamad Hasan Acting
(b. 1956)
18 December 2018 30 June 2019
(6) Ahmad Zahid Hamidi
(b. 1953)
  30 June 2019 Incumbent

Leadership StructureEdit

Barisan Nasional Supreme Council:[45]

 
Ahmad Zahid Hamidi, the incumbent Chairman of Barisan Nasional.

Elected representativesEdit

Dewan Negara (Senate)Edit

SenatorsEdit

Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives)Edit

Members of Parliament of the 14th Malaysian ParliamentEdit

Barisan Nasional has 42 MPs in the House of Representatives, with 38 MPs (or 92.5%) of them from UMNO.

State No. Parliament Constituency Member Party
  Perlis P001 Padang Besar Zahidi Zainul Abidin UMNO
P003 Arau Dr. Shahidan Kassim UMNO
  Kedah P007 Padang Terap Mahdzir Khalid UMNO
P016 Baling Abdul Azeez Abdul Rahim UMNO
  Kelantan P026 Ketereh Annuar Musa UMNO
P029 Machang Ahmad Jazlan Yaakub UMNO
P032 Gua Musang Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah UMNO
  Terengganu P033 Besut Idris Jusoh UMNO
  Penang P041 Kepala Batas Reezal Merican Naina Merican UMNO
  Perak P055 Lenggong Shamsul Anuar Nasarah UMNO
P061 Padang Rengas Mohamed Nazri Abdul Aziz UMNO
P067 Kuala Kangsar Mastura Mohd. Yazid UMNO
P069 Parit Mohd. Nizar Zakaria UMNO
P072 Tapah Saravanan Murugan MIC
P073 Pasir Salak Tajuddin Abdul Rahman UMNO
P075 Bagan Datuk Dr. Ahmad Zahid Hamidi UMNO
  Pahang P078 Cameron Highlands Ramli Mohd Nor UMNO
P079 Lipis Abdul Rahman Mohamad UMNO
P081 Jerantut Ahmad Nazlan Idris UMNO
P084 Paya Besar Mohd. Shahar Abdullah UMNO
P085 Pekan Mohd. Najib Abdul Razak UMNO
P086 Maran Ismail Abdul Muttalib UMNO
P087 Kuala Krau Ismail Mohamed Said UMNO
P090 Bera Ismail Sabri Yaakob UMNO
P091 Rompin Hasan Arifin UMNO
  Selangor P095 Tanjong Karang Noh Omar UMNO
  Putrajaya P125 Putrajaya Tengku Adnan Tengku Mansor UMNO
  Negeri Sembilan P126 Jelebu Jalaluddin Alias UMNO
P127 Jempol Mohd. Salim Shariff UMNO
P131 Rembau Khairy Jamaluddin Abu Bakar UMNO
  Malacca P139 Jasin Ahmad Hamzah UMNO
  Johor P147 Parit Sulong Noraini Ahmad UMNO
P148 Ayer Hitam Wee Ka Siong MCA
P153 Sembrong Hishammuddin Hussein UMNO
P155 Tenggara Adham Baba UMNO
P156 Kota Tinggi Halimah Mohd. Sadique UMNO
P157 Pengerang Azalina Othman Said UMNO
P164 Pontian Ahmad Maslan UMNO
P165 Tanjung Piai Wee Jeck Seng MCA
  Sabah P176 Kimanis Mohamad Alamin UMNO
P182 Pensiangan Arthur Joseph Kurup PBRS
P187 Kinabatangan Bung Moktar Radin UMNO
Total Perlis (2), Kedah (2), Kelantan (3), Terengganu (1), Penang (1), Perak (7), Pahang (9), Selangor (1), F.T. Putrajaya (1), Negeri Sembilan (3), Malacca (1), Johor (8), Sabah (3)

Dewan Undangan Negeri (State Legislative Assembly)Edit

Malaysian State Assembly RepresentativesEdit

State No. Parliamentary

Constituency

No. State Assembly

Constituency

Member Party
  Perlis P01 Padang Besar N1 Titi Tinggi Teh Chai Ann MCA
N2 Beseri Ruzaini Rais UMNO
N3 Chuping Asmaiza Ahmad UMNO
N4 Mata Ayer Siti Berenee Yahaya UMNO
N5 Santan Azizan Sulaiman UMNO
P02 Kangar N6 Bintong Azlan Man UMNO
N10 Kayang Hamizan Hassan UMNO
P03 Arau N11 Pauh Rozieana Ahmad UMNO
N12 Tambun Tulang Ismail Kassim UMNO
N14 Simpang Empat Nurulhisham Yaakob UMNO
  Kedah P11 Pendang N19 Sungai Tiang Suraya Yaacob UMNO
P18 Kulim Bandar Baharu N36 Bandar Baharu Norsabrina Mohd. Noor UMNO
  Kelantan P26 Ketereh N25 Kok Lanas Md. Alwi Che Ahmad UMNO
P27 Tanah Merah N27 Gual Ipoh Bakri Mustapha UMNO
P30 Jeli N36 Bukit Bunga Mohd. Adhan Kechik UMNO
N38 Kuala Balah Abd Aziz Derashid UMNO
P32 Gua Musang N43 Nenggiri Ab. Aziz Yusoff UMNO
N44 Paloh Amran Ariffin UMNO
N45 Galas Mohd. Syahbuddin Hashim UMNO
  Terengganu P33 Besut N1 Kuala Besut Tengku Zaihan Che Ku Abd. Raham UMNO
N3 Jertih Muhammad Pehimi Yusof UMNO
N4 Hulu Besut Nawi Mohamad UMNO
P34 Setiu N6 Permaisuri Abd. Halim Jusoh UMNO
N7 Langkap Sabri Mohd. Noor UMNO
N8 Batu Rakit Bazlan Abd Rahman UMNO
P35 Kuala Nerus N11 Seberang Takir Ahmad Razif Abdul Rahman UMNO
N12 Telemung Rozi Mamat UMNO
P38 Dungun N25 Bukit Besi Roslee Daud UMNO
P40 Kemaman N30 Kijal Ahmad Said UMNO
  Penang P42 Tasek Gelugor N4 Permatang Berangan Nor Hafizah Othman UMNO
N5 Sungai Dua Muhamad Yusoff Mohd Noor UMNO
  Perak P54 Gerik N1 Pengkalan Hulu Aznel Ibrahim UMNO
N2 Telemung Salbiah Mohamed UMNO
P55 Lenggong N3 Kenering Mohd Tarmizi Idris UMNO
N4 Kota Tampan Saarani Mohammad UMNO
P56 Larut N7 Batu Kurau Muhammad Ami Zakria UMNO
P58 Bagan Serai N10 Alor Pangsu Sham Mat Sahat UMNO
N12 Selinsing Mohamad Noor Dawoo UMNO
P59 Bukit Gantang N13 Kuala Sepetang Mohd. Kamaruddin Abu Bakar UMNO
N14 Changkat Jering Ahmad Saidi Mohamad Daud UMNO
N15 Trong Jamilah Zakaria UMNO
P61 Padang Rengas N19 Chenderoh Zainun Mat Nor UMNO
N20 Lubok Merbau Jurij Jalaluddin UMNO
P62 Sungai Siput N21 Lintang Mohd Zolkafly Harun UMNO
P67 Kuala Kangsar N34 Bukit Chandan Maslin Sham Razman UMNO
N35 Manong Mohamed Zuraimi Razali UMNO
P68 Bruas N36 Pengkalan Baharu Abd. Manap Hashim UMNO
P69 Parit N39 Belanja Khairudin Abu Hanipah UMNO
N40 Bota Khairul Shahril Mohamed UMNO
P72 Tapah N48 Ayer Kuning Samsudin Abu Hassan UMNO
P73 Pasir Salak N50 Kampong Gajah Wan Norashikin Wan Noordin UMNO
P74 Lumut N52 Pangkor Zambry Abdul Kadir UMNO
P75 Bagan Datuk N53 Rungkup Shahrul Zaman Yahya UMNO
N54 Hutan Melintang Khairuddin Tarmizi UMNO
P76 Telok Intan N56 Changkat Jong Mohd. Azhar Jamaluddin UMNO
P77 Tanjong Malim N58 Slim Mohd Zaidi Aziz UMNO
  Pahang P78 Cameron Highlands N2 Jelai Wan Rosdy Wan Ismail UMNO
P79 Lipis N3 Padang Tengku Mustapa Long UMNO
N4 Cheka Lee Ah Wong MCA
N5 Benta Mohd. Soffi Abd. Razak UMNO
P80 Raub N6 Batu Talam Abd Aziz Mat Kiram UMNO
N8 Dong Shahruddin Ab. Moin UMNO
P81 Jerantut N11 Pulau Tawar Nazri Ngah UMNO
P83 Kuantan N16 Inderapura Shafik Fauzan Sharif UMNO
P84 Paya Besar N17 Sungai Lembing Md. Sohaimi Mohamed Shah UMNO
N18 Lepar Abd. Rahim Muda UMNO
P85 Pekan N20 Pulau Manis Khairuddin Mahmud UMNO
N21 Peramu Jaya Sh. Mohamed Puzi Sh. Ali UMNO
N22 Bebar Mohd. Fakhruddin Mohd. Ariff UMNO
N23 Chini Mohd Sharim Md Zain UMNO
P86 Maran N25 Kuala Sentul Shahaniza Shamsuddin UMNO
P87 Kuala Krau N27 Jenderak Mohamed Jaafar UMNO
N28 Kerdau Syed Ibrahim Syed Ahmad UMNO
P88 Temerloh N31 Lanchang Mohd Sharkar Shamsudin UMNO
N32 Kuala Semantan Nor Azmi Mat Ludin UMNO
P89 Bentong N36 Pelangai Adnan Yaakob UMNO
P90 Bera N37 Guai Norol Azali Sulaiman UMNO
N39 Kemayan Mohd. Fadil Osman UMNO
P91 Rompin N40 Bukit Ibam Samsiah Arshad UMNO
N41 Muadzam Shah Razali Kassim UMNO
N42 Tioman Mohd. Johari Hussain UMNO
  Selangor P92 Sabak Bernam N1 Sungai Air Tawar Rizam Ismail UMNO
P93 Sungai Besar N3 Sungai Panjang Mohd Imran Tamrin UMNO
P94 Ulu Selangor N5 Hulu Bernam Rosni Sohar UMNO
P95 Tanjong Karang N8 Sungai Burong Mohd Shamsudin Lias UMNO
P101 Ulu Langat N24 Semenyih Zakaria Hanafi UMNO
  Negeri Sembilan P126 Jelebu N2 Pertang Noor Azmi Yusuf UMNO
N3 Sungai Lui Mohd Razi Mohd Ali UMNO
P127 Jempol N5 Serting Shamsulkahar Mod. Deli UMNO
N6 Palong Mustafa Nagoor UMNO
N7 Jeram Padang Manickam Letchuman MIC
P129 Kuala Pilah N15 Juasseh Ismail Lasim UMNO
N16 Seri Menanti Abdul Samad Ibrahim UMNO
N17 Senaling Adnan Abu Hasan UMNO
N19 Johol Saiful Yazan Sulaiman UMNO
P131 Rembau N26 Chembong Zaifulbahri Idris UMNO
N27 Rantau Mohamad Hasan UMNO
N28 Kota Awaludin Said UMNO
P132 Port Dickson N31 Bagan Pinang Tun Hairuddin Abu Bakar UMNO
N32 Linggi Abdul Rahman Mohd. Redza UMNO
P133 Tampin N34 Gemas Abdul Razak Said UMNO
N35 Gemencheh Mohd. Isam Mohd. Isa UMNO
  Melaka P134 Masjid Tanah N1 Kuala Linggi Rosli Abdullah UMNO
N2 Tanjung Bidara Ab Rauf Yusoh UMNO
N3 Ayer Limau Hameed Mytheen Kunju Bahseer UMNO
N4 Lendu Sulaiman Md Ali UMNO
N5 Taboh Naning Zulkiflee Mohd Zin UMNO
P135 Alor Gajah N6 Rembia Muhammad Jailani Khamis UMNO
N7 Gadek Shanmugam Ptcyhay MIC
N8 Machap Jaya Ngwe Hee Sem MCA
N9 Durian Tunggal Zahari Kalil UMNO
N10 Asahan Abdul Ghafar Atan UMNO
P136 Tangga Batu N12 Pantai Kundor Tuminah Kadi @ Mohd Hashim UMNO
N13 Paya Rumput Rais Yasin UMNO
N14 Kelebang Lim Ban Hong MCA
P137 Hang Tuah Jaya N15 Pengkalan Batu Kalsom Nordin UMNO
N18 Ayer Molek Rahmad Mariman UMNO
P138 Kota Melaka N21 Duyong Mohd Noor Helmy Abu Halen UMNO
N23 Telok Mas Abdul Rahman Abdul Razak UMNO
P139 Jasin N25 Rim Khaidirah Abu Zahar UMNO
N26 Serkam Zaidi Attan UMNO
N27 Merlimau Muhammad Akmal Saleh UMNO
N28 Sungai Rambai Siti Faizah Abdul Azis UMNO
  Johor P140 Segamat N1 Buloh Kasap Zahari Sarip UMNO
P146 Muar N16 Sungai Balang Zaiton Ismail UMNO
P147 Parit Sulong N18 Sri Medan Zulkarnain Kamisan UMNO
P148 Ayer Hitam N20 Semarang Samsol Bari Jamali UMNO
P149 Sri Gading N22 Pasir Raja Nor Rashidah Ramli UMNO
P150 Batu Pahat N25 Rengit Ayub Jamil UMNO
P151 Simpang Renggam N26 Machap Abd. Taib Abu Bakar UMNO
N27 Layang-Layang Onn Hafiz Ghazi UMNO
P153 Sembrong N31 Kahang Vidyananthan Ramanadhan MIC
P154 Mersing N33 Tenggaroh Raven Kumar Krishnasamy MIC
P155 Tenggara N34 Panti Hahasrin Hashim UMNO
N35 Pasir Raja Rashidah Ismail UMNO
P157 Pengerang N38 Penawar Sharifah Azizah Syed Zain UMNO
N39 Tanjung Surat Syed Sis Syed A. Rahman UMNO
P164 Pontian N53 Benut Hasni Mohammad UMNO
P165 Tanjong Piai N56 Kukup Md. Othman Yusof UMNO
  Sabah P167 Kudat N2 Bengkoka Harun Durabi UMNO
P169 Kota Belud N9 Tempasuk Mohd Arsad Bistari UMNO
N10 Usukan Salleh Said Keruak UMNO
P170 Tuaran N13 Pantai Dalit Jasnih Daya UMNO
P171 Sepanggar N16 Karambunai Yakubah Khan UMNO
P174 Putatan N24 Tanjung Keramat Shahelmey Yahya UMNO
P175 Papar N29 Pantai Manis Mohd Tamin @ Tamin Zainal UMNO
P183 Beluran N48 Sugut James Ratib UMNO
P184 Libaran N51 Sungai Manila Mokran Ingkat UMNO
N52 Sungai Sibuga Mohamad Hamsan Awang Supain UMNO
P187 Kinabatangan N58 Lamag Bung Mokhtar Radin UMNO
N59 Sukau Jafry Ariffin UMNO
P190 Tawau N67 Balung Hamild @ Hamid Awang UMNO
P191 Kalabakan N71 Tanjong Batu Andi Muhammad Suryady Bandy UMNO
Nominated member Suhaimi Nasir UMNO
Nominated member Raime Unggi UMNO
Total Perlis (10), Kedah (2), Kelantan (7), Terengganu (10), Penang (2), Perak (25), Pahang (25), Selangor (5), Negeri Sembilan (16), Malacca (21), Johor (16), Sabah (16)

Barisan Nasional state governmentsEdit

State Leader type Member Party State Constituency
  Johor Menteri Besar Hasni Mohammad UMNO Benut
  Malacca Chief Minister Sulaiman Md Ali UMNO Lendu
  Perlis Menteri Besar Azlan Man UMNO Bintong
  Pahang Menteri Besar Wan Rosdy Wan Ismail UMNO Jelai
  Perak Menteri Besar Saarani Mohammad UMNO Kota Tampan
State Leader type Member Party State Constituency
  Sabah Deputy Chief Minister I Bung Moktar Radin UMNO Lamag
State Leader type Member Party State Constituency
  Malacca Speaker Abd Rauf Yusoh UMNO Non-MLA
  Malacca Deputy Speaker Ghazale Muhamad UMNO Rim
  Perlis Speaker Hamdan Bahari UMNO Non-MLA
  Pahang Speaker Ishak Muhamad UMNO Non-MLA
  Pahang Deputy Speaker Mohamed Jaafar UMNO Jenderak
  Perak Speaker Mohamad Zahir Abdul Kahlid UMNO Non-MLA
  Sabah Speaker Kadzim M Yahya UMNO Non-MLA

General election resultsEdit

Election Total seats won Share of seats Total votes Share of votes Outcome of election Election leader
1974
135 / 154
87.7% 1,287,400 60.8%  135 seats; Governing coalition Abdul Razak Hussein
1978
131 / 154
85.1% 1,987,907 57.2%  4 seats; Governing coalition Hussein Onn
1982
132 / 154
85.7% 2,522,079 60.5%  1 seats; Governing coalition Mahathir Mohamad
1986
148 / 177
83.6% 2,649,263 57.3%  16 seats; Governing coalition Mahathir Mohamad
1990
127 / 180
70.6% 2,985,392 53.4%  21 seats; Governing coalition Mahathir Mohamad
1995
162 / 192
84.4% 3,881,214 65.2%  35 seats; Governing coalition Mahathir Mohamad
1999
148 / 193
76.2% 3,748,511 56.53%  15 seats; Governing coalition Mahathir Mohamad
2004
198 / 219
90.4% 4,420,452 63.9%  51 seats; Governing coalition Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
2008
140 / 222
63.1% 4,082,411 50.27%  58 seats; Governing coalition Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
2013
133 / 222
59.9% 5,237,555 47.38%  7 seats;[46] Governing coalition Najib Razak
2018
79 / 222
35.59% 3,794,827 33.96%  54 seats; Opposition coalition (2018-2020)
Governing coalition with Perikatan Nasional (2020-)
Najib Razak

State election resultsEdit

State election State Legislative Assembly
Perlis State Legislative Assembly Kedah State Legislative Assembly Kelantan State Legislative Assembly Terengganu State Legislative Assembly Penang State Legislative Assembly Perak State Legislative Assembly Pahang State Legislative Assembly Selangor State Legislative Assembly Negeri Sembilan State Legislative Assembly Malacca State Legislative Assembly Johor State Legislative Assembly Sabah State Legislative Assembly Sarawak State Legislative Assembly Total won / Total contested
2/3 majority
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
1974
12 / 12
24 / 26
36 / 36
27 / 28
23 / 27
31 / 42
32 / 32
30 / 33
21 / 24
16 / 20
31 / 32
30 / 48
1976
1978
12 / 12
19 / 26
23 / 36
28 / 28
20 / 27
32 / 42
32 / 32
29 / 33
21 / 24
16 / 20
31 / 32
239 / 257
1979
1981
1982
11 / 12
24 / 26
26 / 36
23 / 28
25 / 27
38 / 42
31 / 32
31 / 33
22 / 24
18 / 20
32 / 32
1983
30 / 48
30 / 32
1985
6 / 48
6 / 48
1986
14 / 14
25 / 28
29 / 39
30 / 32
23 / 33
33 / 46
32 / 33
37 / 42
24 / 28
17 / 20
35 / 36
1 / 48
300 / 351
1987
28 / 48
28 / 48
1990
14 / 14
26 / 28
0 / 39
22 / 32
19 / 33
33 / 46
31 / 33
35 / 42
24 / 28
17 / 20
32 / 36
0 / 48
253 / 351
1991
49 / 56
49 / 56
1994
23 / 48
23 / 48
1995
15 / 15
34 / 36
7 / 43
25 / 32
32 / 33
51 / 52
37 / 38
45 / 48
30 / 32
22 / 25
40 / 40
338 / 394
1996
57 / 62
57 / 64
1999
12 / 15
24 / 36
2 / 43
4 / 32
30 / 33
44 / 52
30 / 38
42 / 48
32 / 32
21 / 25
40 / 40
31 / 48
312 / 329
2001
60 / 62
60 / 62
2004
14 / 15
31 / 36
21 / 45
28 / 32
38 / 40
52 / 59
41 / 42
54 / 56
34 / 36
26 / 28
55 / 56
59 / 60
452 / 504
2006
62 / 71
62 / 71
2008
14 / 15
14 / 36
6 / 45
24 / 32
11 / 40
28 / 59
37 / 42
20 / 56
21 / 36
23 / 28
50 / 56
59 / 60
307 / 504
2011
55 / 71
55 / 71
2013
13 / 15
21 / 36
12 / 45
17 / 32
10 / 40
31 / 59
30 / 42
12 / 56
22 / 36
21 / 28
38 / 56
48 / 60
275 / 505
2016
77 / 82
77 / 82
2018
10 / 15
3 / 36
8 / 45
10 / 32
2 / 40
24 / 59
25 / 42
4 / 56
16 / 36
13 / 28
16 / 56
29 / 60
160 / 505
2020
14 / 73
14 / 41
2021
21 / 28
21 / 28

NotesEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  3. ^ Helen Ting. "The Politics of National Identity in West Malaysia: Continued Mutation or Critical Transition? [The Politics of Ambiguity]" (PDF). Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University. J-Stage. p. 3/21 [33] and 5/21 [35]. UMNO came into being in 1946 under the impetus of the Anti-Malayan Union Movement based on this ideological understanding of ketuanan Melayu. Its founding president, Dato’ Onn Jaafar, once said that the UMNO movement did not adhere to any ideology other than Melayuisme, defined by scholar Ariffin Omar as “the belief that the interests of the bangsa Melayu must be upheld over all else”. Malay political dominance is a fundamental reality of Malaysian politics, notwithstanding the fact that the governing coalition since independence, the Alliance [subsequently expanded to form the Barisan Nasional or literally, the “National Front”], is multiethnic in its composition.
  4. ^ Jinna Tay; Graeme Turner (24 July 2015). Television Histories in Asia: Issues and Contexts. Routledge. pp. 127–. ISBN 978-1-135-00807-9.
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LiteratureEdit

External linksEdit