Barisan Nasional

The National Front (Malay: Barisan Nasional; abbrev: BN) is a political coalition of Malaysia that was founded in 1973 as a coalition of right-wing and centre parties. They are currently the second largest registered coalition in the country's Dewan Rakyat.

National Front
Malay nameBarisan Nasional
باريسن ناسيونل
Chinese name国民阵线
Guómín zhènxiàn
Tamil nameபாரிசான் நேசனல்
AbbreviationBN
ChairmanAhmad Zahid Hamidi
Secretary-GeneralAnnuar Musa
Deputy ChairmanMohamad Hasan
Vice ChairmenWee Ka Siong
Vigneswaran Sanasee
Joseph Kurup
AdvisorNajib Razak
FounderAbdul Razak Hussein
Founded1 January 1973 (1973-01-01)[1]
Legalised1 June 1974 (as a party)
Preceded byAlliance
HeadquartersAras 8, Menara Dato’ Onn, Putra World Trade Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
NewspaperPro-BN newspapers:
New Straits Times
Utusan Malaysia (formerly)
The Star
Nanyang Siang Pau
Tamil Nesan
Student wingBarisan Nasional Student Movement
Youth wingBarisan Nasional Youth Movement
IdeologyKetuanan Melayu[2][3]
National conservatism
Social conservatism[4]
Nationalism[5]
Political positionRight-wing
National affiliationPerikatan Nasional (allied parties) (since 2020)
Colours     Royal blue and sky white
SloganRakyat Didahulukan
Hidup Rakyat
Bersama Barisan Nasional
Hidup Negaraku
AnthemBarisan Nasional
Dewan Negara
20 / 70
Dewan Rakyat
43 / 222
Dewan Undangan Negeri
145 / 600
Website
www.barisannasional.org.my

The Barisan Nasional coalition employs the same inter-communal governing model of its predecessor the Alliance Party but on a wider scale, with up to 14 communal political parties involved in the coalition at one point.[1] It dominated Malaysian politics for over thirty years after it was founded, but since 2008 has faced stronger challenges from opposition parties, notably the Pakatan Rakyat (PR) and later the Pakatan Harapan (PH) alliances. Taken together with its predecessor (Alliance), it had a combined period of rule from 1957 to 2018, and was considered the longest ruling coalition party in the democratic world.[6]

In the aftermath of the 2018 general election, the Barisan Nasional coalition lost its hold of the parliament to PH for the first time in Malaysian history. It was also the first time Barisan Nasional became the opposition coalition after almost, taken together with its predecessor (Alliance), 61 years in power, with former prime minister and Barisan Nasional chairman Mahathir Mohamad becoming PH's leader. The coalition returned to power under Perikatan Nasional together with four other parties in the aftermath of the 2020 Malaysian political crisis.

HistoryEdit

FormationEdit

Barisan Nasional is the direct successor to the three-party Alliance coalition formed of United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA), and Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC). It was founded in the aftermath of the 1969 general election and the 13 May riots. The Alliance Party lost ground in the 1969 election to the opposition parties, in particular the two newly formed parties, Democratic Action Party and Gerakan, as well as Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS). Although the Alliance won a majority of seats, it gained less than half the popular vote, and the resulting tension between different communities led to the May 13 riots and the declaration of a state of emergency.[7] After the Malaysian Parliament reconvened in 1971, negotiations began with parties such as Gerakan and People's Progressive Party (myPPP), both of which joined the Alliance in 1972, quickly followed by Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS).

In 1973, the Alliance Party was replaced by Barisan Nasional.[1][8] The Barisan Nasional, which included regional parties from Sabah and Sarawak (Sabah Alliance Party, Sarawak United Peoples' Party (SUPP), Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu (PBB)), registered in June 1974 as a coalition of nine parties.[8] It contested the 1974 general election as a grand coalition under the leadership of the prime minister Tun Abdul Razak, which it won with considerable success.[9]

1977–2007Edit

In 1977, PAS was expelled from Barisan Nasional following a revolt within the Kelantan state legislature against a chief minister appointed by the federal government.[1] Barisan Nasional nevertheless won the 1978 general election convincingly, and it continued to dominate Malaysian politics in the 1980s and 1990s despite some losses in state elections, such as the loss of Kelantan to PAS, and Sabah to United Sabah Party (PBS) which later joined Barisan Nasional.

By 2003, Barisan Nasional had grown to a coalition formed of more than a dozen communal parties. It performed particularly well in the 2004 general election, winning 198 out of 219 seats.

Although Barisan Nasional never achieved more than 67% of the popular vote in elections from 1974 to 2008, it maintained consecutive two-thirds majority of seats in this period in the Dewan Rakyat until the 2008 election, benefitting from Malaysia's first-past-the-post voting system.[10]

2008–2018Edit

 
High-ranking BN party officials holding copies of the party manifesto at a pre-election rally in 2013. In the front row, from left, are Chua Soi Lek (MCA), Muhyiddin Yassin, Najib Razak and Tengku Adnan Tengku Mansor (UMNO), and Abdul Taib Mahmud (PBB).

In the 2008 general election, Barisan Nasional lost more than one-third of the parliamentary seats to Pakatan Rakyat, a loose alliance of opposition parties. This marked Barisan's first failure to secure a two-thirds supermajority in Parliament since 1969. Five state governments, namely Selangor, Kelantan, Penang, Perak and Kedah fell to Pakatan Rakyat. Perak however was later returned via court ruling following a constitutional crisis. Since 2008, the coalition has seen its non-Malay component parties greatly diminished in the peninsula.[11]

The losses continued in the 2013 general election, and it recorded its worst election result at the time. BN regained Kedah, but lost several more seats in Parliament along with the popular vote to Pakatan. Despite winning only 47% of the popular vote, it managed to gain 60% of the 222 parliamentary seats, thereby retaining control of the parliament.[12]

And finally, during the 2018 general election, Barisan Nasional lost control of the parliament to Pakatan Harapan, winning a total of only 79 parliamentary seats. The crushing defeat ended their 61-year rule of the country, taken together with its predecessor (Alliance), and this paved the way for the first change of government in Malaysian history. The coalition won only 34% of the popular vote, despite redrawing the electoral boundaries in their favour. In addition to their failure in regaining the Penang, Selangor and Kelantan state governments, six state governments, namely Johor, Malacca, Negeri Sembilan, Perak, Kedah and Sabah fell to Pakatan Harapan and WARISAN (Sabah). The Terengganu state government also fell but to the Gagasan Sejahtera (GS). Barisan Nasional was only in power in three states; namely Perlis, Pahang and Sarawak.

Many of BN's component parties left the coalition following its humiliating defeat at the 2018 general election, reducing its number to 4 compared to 13 before the election.[13]. These parties either aligned themselves with the new Pakatan Harapan federal government, formed a new state-based pact or remained independent. They include three Sabah-based parties (UPKO, PBS and LDP),[14][15] four Sarawak-based parties (PBB, SUPP, PRS and PDP, which formed a new state-based pact GPS),[16][17] myPPP (under Kayveas faction)[18] and Gerakan.[19] MyPPP experienced a leadership dispute, with Maglin announced that the party remained within the coalition and Kayveas announced that the party had left the coalition, resulting in the dissolution of the party on 14 January 2019.

Among the remaining four component parties in Barisan National, UMNO's parliamentary seats have reduced from 54 to 38 since after 16 members of parliament left the party,[20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27] while MCA's parliamentary seat maintains one. MIC's parliamentary seats have reduced from two to one after the Election Court nullified the results of the election for the Cameron Highlands federal constituency due to bribery,[28] but BN regained its seat from a direct member under the 2019 by-election.[29]

As a result of these developments, BN's parliamentary seats have reduced to 41, compared with 79 seats that BN has won in the general election.

MCA and MIC made a statement in March 2019 that they want to "move on" and find a new alliance following disputes with secretary-general, Nazri Abdul Aziz. Mohamad Hasan, the acting BN chairman, chaired a Supreme Council meeting in which all parties showed no consensus on dissolving the coalition.

2019–presentEdit

In 2019, Barisan Nasional recovered some ground and won a number of by-elections, such as the 2019 Cameron Highlands by-election,[30] 2019 Semenyih by-election,[31] 2019 Rantau by-election,[32] and 2019 Tanjung Piai by-election.[33], defeating Pakatan.

In September 2019, UMNO decided to form a pact with the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) called Muafakat Nasional. Its main purpose is to unite the Malay Muslim communities for electoral purposes.[34] There is however no formal agreement with the other parties of Barisan Nasional, although there are calls for Barisan Nasional to migrate to Muafakat Nasional.[35][36] Barisan Nasional continued to function as a coalition of four parties comprising UMNO, MCA, MIC and PBRS, but aligned themselves with Perikatan Nasional to form a new government in March 2020 after the collapse of the Pakatan Harapan government.[37]

Barisan Nasional also recovered control Johor[38] and Malacca[39] state government.

OrganisationEdit

In 2013, the vast majority of Barisan Nasional's seats were held by its two largest Bumiputera-based political parties—the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), and Parti Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu (PBB). For most of its history, both the Malaysian Chinese Association and Malaysian Indian Congress have played major roles in Barisan Nasional, but their representation in Parliament and state legislatures has become much more diminished. Nevertheless, each component party purports to represent – and limit membership – to a certain race: UMNO for the Malays, MCA for the Chinese and so on. In the view of some scholars:

Since its inception the Alliance remained a coalition of communal parties. Each of the component parties operated to all intents and purposes, save that of elections, as a separate party. Their membership was communal, except perhaps Gerakan, and their success was measured in terms of their ability to achieve the essentially parochial demands of their constituents.[40]

Although both the Alliance and BN registered themselves as political parties, membership is mostly indirect through one of the constituent parties while direct membership is allowed.[41] The BN defines itself as a "confederation of political parties which subscribe to the objects of the Barisan Nasional". Although in elections, all candidates stand under the BN symbol, and there is a BN manifesto, each individual constituent party also issues its own manifesto, and there is intra-coalition competition for seats prior to nomination day.[42]

Member partiesEdit

Logo Name Ideology Leader(s) Seats
contested
2018 result Current
seats
Votes (%) Seats Composition
  UMNO United Malays National Organisation
Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu
Ketuanan Melayu Ahmad Zahid Hamidi 120 21.10%
54 / 222
39 / 43
  MCA Malaysian Chinese Association
Persatuan Cina Malaysia
Conservatism Wee Ka Siong 39 5.30%
1 / 222
2 / 43
  MIC Malaysian Indian Congress
Kongres India Malaysia
Social conservatism Vigneswaran Sanasee 9 1.39%
2 / 222
1 / 43
PBRS United Sabah People's Party
Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah
Nationalism Joseph Kurup 1 0.10%
1 / 222
1 / 43

Barisan Nasional Allied PartiesEdit

Former Member PartiesEdit

Leadership StructureEdit

Barisan Nasional Supreme Council:[43]

 
Ahmad Zahid Hamidi, the incumbent Chairman of Barisan Nasional.

Elected representativesEdit

Dewan Negara (Senate)Edit

SenatorsEdit

  • His Majesty's appointee:
    • Abdul Halim Abdul Samad (UMNO)
    • Bashir Alias (UMNO)
    • Chai Kim Sen (MCA)
    • Fahariyah Md. Nordin (UMNO)
    • Hanafi Mamat (UMNO)
    • Ibrahim Shah Abu Shah (UMNO)
    • Ismail Ibrahim (UMNO)
    • Khairul Azwan Harun (UMNO)
    • Mohan Thanarasu (MIC)
    • Mustapa Kamal Mohd. Yusoff (UMNO)
    • Rabiyah Ali (UMNO)
    • Rahemah Idris (UMNO)
    • Rahimah Mahamad (UMNO)
    • Sopiah Sharif (UMNO)
    • S Vell Peeri (MIC)

Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives)Edit

Members of Parliament of the 14th Malaysian ParliamentEdit

Barisan Nasional has 43 MPs in the House of Representatives, with 39 MPs (or 92.5%) of them from UMNO.

State No. Parliament Constituency Member Party
  Perlis P001 Padang Besar Zahidi Zainul Abidin UMNO
P003 Arau Dr. Shahidan Kassim UMNO
  Kedah P007 Padang Terap Mahdzir Khalid UMNO
P016 Baling Abdul Azeez Abdul Rahim UMNO
  Kelantan P026 Ketereh Annuar Musa UMNO
P029 Machang Ahmad Jazlan Yaakub UMNO
P032 Gua Musang Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah UMNO
  Terengganu P033 Besut Idris Jusoh UMNO
  Penang P041 Kepala Batas Reezal Merican Naina Merican UMNO
  Perak P054 Gerik Hasbullah Osman UMNO
P055 Lenggong Shamsul Anuar Nasarah UMNO
P061 Padang Rengas Mohamed Nazri Abdul Aziz UMNO
P067 Kuala Kangsar Mastura Mohd. Yazid UMNO
P069 Parit Mohd. Nizar Zakaria UMNO
P072 Tapah Saravanan Murugan MIC
P073 Pasir Salak Tajuddin Abdul Rahman UMNO
P075 Bagan Datuk Dr. Ahmad Zahid Hamidi UMNO
  Pahang P078 Cameron Highlands Ramli Mohd Nor UMNO
P079 Lipis Abdul Rahman Mohamad UMNO
P081 Jerantut Ahmad Nazlan Idris UMNO
P084 Paya Besar Mohd. Shahar Abdullah UMNO
P085 Pekan Mohd. Najib Abdul Razak UMNO
P086 Maran Ismail Abdul Muttalib UMNO
P087 Kuala Krau Ismail Mohamed Said UMNO
P090 Bera Ismail Sabri Yaakob UMNO
P091 Rompin Hasan Arifin UMNO
  Selangor P095 Tanjong Karang Noh Omar UMNO
  Putrajaya P125 Putrajaya Tengku Adnan Tengku Mansor UMNO
  Negeri Sembilan P126 Jelebu Jalaluddin Alias UMNO
P127 Jempol Mohd. Salim Shariff UMNO
P131 Rembau Khairy Jamaluddin Abu Bakar UMNO
  Malacca P139 Jasin Ahmad Hamzah UMNO
  Johor P147 Parit Sulong Noraini Ahmad UMNO
P148 Ayer Hitam Wee Ka Siong MCA
P153 Sembrong Hishammuddin Hussein UMNO
P155 Tenggara Adham Baba UMNO
P156 Kota Tinggi Halimah Mohd. Sadique UMNO
P157 Pengerang Azalina Othman Said UMNO
P164 Pontian Ahmad Maslan UMNO
P165 Tanjung Piai Wee Jeck Seng MCA
  Sabah P176 Kimanis Mohamad Alamin UMNO
P182 Pensiangan Arthur Joseph Kurup PBRS
P187 Kinabatangan Bung Moktar Radin UMNO
Total Perlis (2), Kedah (2), Kelantan (3), Terengganu (1), Penang (1), Perak (8), Pahang (9), Selangor (1), F.T. Putrajaya (1), Negeri Sembilan (3), Malacca (1), Johor (8), Sabah (3)

Dewan Undangan Negeri (State Legislative Assembly)Edit

Malaysian State Assembly RepresentativesEdit

State No. Parliament Constituency Member Party
  Perlis N1 Titi Tinggi Teh Chai Ann MCA
N2 Beseri Ruzaini Rais UMNO
N3 Chuping Asmaiza Ahmad UMNO
N4 Chuping Siti Berenee Yahaya UMNO
N5 Santan Azizan Sulaiman UMNO
N6 Bintong Azlan Man UMNO
N10 Kayang Hamizan Hassan UMNO
N11 Pauh Rozieana Ahmad UMNO
N12 Tambun Tulang Ismail Kassim UMNO
N14 Simpang Empat Nurulhisham Yaakob UMNO
  Kedah N19 Sungai Tiang Suraya Yaacob UMNO
N36 Bandar Baharu Norsabrina Mohd. Noor UMNO
  Kelantan N25 Kok Lanas Md. Alwi Che Ahmad UMNO
N27 Gual Ipoh Bakri Mustapha UMNO
N36 Bukit Bunga Mohd. Adhan Kechik UMNO
N38 Kuala Balah Abd Aziz Derashid UMNO
N43 Nenggiri Ab. Aziz Yusoff UMNO
N44 Paloh Amran Ariffin UMNO
N45 Galas Mohd. Syahbuddin Hashim UMNO
  Terengganu N1 Kuala Besut Tengku Zaihan Che Ku Abd. Raham UMNO
N3 Jertih Muhammad Pehimi Yusof UMNO
N4 Hulu Besut Nawi Mohamad UMNO
N6 Permaisuri Abd. Halim Jusoh UMNO
N7 Langkap Sabri Mohd. Noor UMNO
N8 Batu Rakit Bazlan Abd Rahman UMNO
N11 Seberang Takir Ahmad Razif Abdul Rahman UMNO
N12 Telemung Rozi Mamat UMNO
N25 Bukit Besi Roslee Daud UMNO
N30 Kijal Ahmad Said UMNO
  Penang N4 Permatang Berangan Nor Hafizah Othman UMNO
N5 Sungai Dua Muhamad Yusoff Mohd. Noor UMNO
  Perak N1 Pengkalan Hulu Aznel Ibrahim UMNO
N2 Telemung Salbiah Mohamed UMNO
N3 Kenering Mohd Tarmizi Idris UMNO
N4 Kota Tampan Saarani Mohammad UMNO
N7 Batu Kurau Muhammad Ami Zakria UMNO
N10 Alor Pangsu Sham Mat Sahat UMNO
N12 Selinsing Mohamad Noor Dawoo UMNO
N13 Kuala Sepetang Mohd. Kamaruddin Abu Bakar UMNO
N14 Changkat Jering Ahmad Saidi Mohamad Daud UMNO
N15 Trong Jamilah Zakaria UMNO
N19 Chenderoh Zainun Mat Nor UMNO
N20 Lubok Merbau Jurij Jalaluddin UMNO
N21 Lintang Mohd Zolkafly Harun UMNO
N34 Bukit Chandan Maslin Sham Razman UMNO
N35 Manong Mohamed Zuraimi Razali UMNO
N36 Pengkalan Baharu Abd. Manap Hashim UMNO
N39 Belanja Khairudin Abu Hanipah UMNO
N40 Bota Khairul Shahril Mohamed UMNO
N48 Ayer Kuning Samsudin Abu Hassan UMNO
N50 Kampong Gajah Wan Norashikin Wan Noordin UMNO
N52 Pangkor Zambry Abdul Kadir UMNO
N53 Rungkup Shahrul Zaman Yahya UMNO
N54 Hutan Melintang Khairuddin Tarmizi UMNO
N56 Changkat Jong Mohd. Azhar Jamaluddin UMNO
N58 Slim Mohd Zaidi Aziz UMNO
  Pahang N2 Jelai Wan Rosdy Wan Ismail UMNO
N3 Padang Tengku Mustapa Long UMNO
N4 Cheka Lee Ah Wong MCA
N5 Benta Mohd. Soffi Abd. Razak UMNO
N6 Batu Talam Abd Aziz Mat Kiram UMNO
N8 Dong Shahruddin Ab. Moin UMNO
N11 Pulau Tawar Nazri Ngah UMNO
N16 Inderapura Shafik Fauzan Sharif UMNO
N17 Sungai Lembing Md. Sohaimi Mohamed Shah UMNO
N18 Lepar Abd. Rahim Muda UMNO
N20 Pulau Manis Khairuddin Mahmud UMNO
N21 Peramu Jaya Sh. Mohamed Puzi Sh. Ali UMNO
N22 Bebar Mohd. Fakhruddin Mohd. Ariff UMNO
N23 Chini Mohd Sharim Md Zain UMNO
N25 Kuala Sentul Shahaniza Shamsuddin UMNO
N27 Jenderak Mohamed Jaafar UMNO
N28 Kerdau Syed Ibrahim Syed Ahmad UMNO
N31 Lanchang Mohd Sharkar Shamsudin UMNO
N32 Kuala Semantan Nor Azmi Mat Ludin UMNO
N36 Pelangai Adnan Yaakob UMNO
N37 Guai Norol Azali Sulaiman UMNO
N39 Kemayan Mohd. Fadil Osman UMNO
N40 Bukit Ibam Samsiah Arshad UMNO
N41 Muadzam Shah Razali Kassim UMNO
N42 Tioman Mohd. Johari Hussain UMNO
  Selangor N1 Sungai Air Tawar Rizam Ismail UMNO
N3 Sungai Panjang Mohd. Imran Tamrin UMNO
N5 Hulu Bernam Rosni Sohar UMNO
N8 Sungai Burong Mohd.Shamsudin Lias UMNO
N24 Semenyih Zakaria Hanafi UMNO
  Negeri Sembilan N2 Pertang Noor Azmi Yusuf UMNO
N3 Sungai Lui Mohd Razi Mohd Ali UMNO
N5 Serting Shamsulkahar Mod. Deli UMNO
N6 Palong Mustafa Nagoor UMNO
N7 Jeram Padang Manickam Letchuman MIC
N15 Juasseh Ismail Lasim UMNO
N16 Seri Menanti Abdul Samad Ibrahim UMNO
N17 Senaling Adnan Abu Hasan UMNO
N19 Johol Saiful Yazan Sulaiman UMNO
N26 Chembong Zaifulbahri Idris UMNO
N27 Rantau Mohamad Hasan UMNO
N28 Kota Awaludin Said UMNO
N31 Bagan Pinang Tun Hairuddin Abu Bakar UMNO
N32 Linggi Abdul Rahman Mohd. Redza UMNO
N34 Gemas Abdul Razak Said UMNO
N35 Gemencheh Mohd. Isam Mohd. Isa UMNO
  Melaka N1 Kuala Linggi Ismail Othman UMNO
N2 Tanjung Bidara Md. Rawi Mahmud UMNO
N3 Ayer Limau Amiruddin Yusop UMNO
N4 Lendu Sulaiman Md Ali UMNO
N5 Taboh Naning Latipah Omar UMNO
N10 Asahan Abdul Ghafar Atan UMNO
N11 Sungai Udang Idris Haron UMNO
N12 Pantai Kundor Nor Azman Hassan UMNO
N18 Ayer Molek Rahmad Mariman UMNO
N25 Rim Ghazale Muhamad UMNO
N26 Serkam Zaidi Attan UMNO
N27 Merlimau Roslan Ahmad UMNO
N28 Sungai Rambai Hasan Abd. Rahman UMNO
  Johor N1 Buloh Kasap Zahari Sarip UMNO
N16 Sungai Balang Zaiton Ismail UMNO
N18 Sri Medan Zulkarnain Kamisan UMNO
N20 Semarang Samsol Bari Jamali UMNO
N22 Pasir Raja Nor Rashidah Ramli UMNO
N25 Rengit Ayub Jamil UMNO
N26 Machap Abd. Taib Abu Bakar UMNO
N27 Layang-Layang Onn Hafiz Ghazi UMNO
N31 Kahang Vidyananthan Ramanadhan MIC
N33 Tenggaroh Raven Kumar Krishnasamy MIC
N34 Panti Hahasrin Hashim UMNO
N35 Pasir Raja Rashidah Ismail UMNO
N38 Penawar Sharifah Azizah Syed Zain UMNO
N39 Tanjung Suarat Syed Sis Syed A. Rahman UMNO
N53 Benut Hasni Mohammad UMNO
N56 Kukup Md. Othman Yusof UMNO
  Sabah N2 Bengkoka Harun Durabi UMNO
N9 Tempasuk Mohd Arsad Bistari UMNO
N10 Usukan Salleh Said Keruak UMNO
N13 Pantai Dalit Jasnih Daya UMNO
N16 Karambunai Yakubah Khan UMNO
N24 Tanjung Keramat Shahelmey Yahya UMNO
N29 Pantai Manis Mohd Tamin @ Tamin Zainal UMNO
N48 Sugut James Ratib UMNO
N51 Sungai Manila Mokran Ingkat UMNO
N52 Sungai Sibuga Mohamad Hamsan Awang Supain UMNO
N58 Lamag Bung Mokhtar Radin UMNO
N59 Sukau Jafry Ariffin UMNO
N67 Balung Hamild @ Hamid Awang UMNO
N71 Tanjong Batu Andi Muhammad Surady Bandy UMNO
Total Perlis (10), Kedah (2), Kelantan (7), Terengganu (10), Penang (2), Perak (25), Pahang (25), Selangor (5), Negeri Sembilan (16), Malacca (13), Johor (16), Sabah (14)

Barisan Nasional state governmentsEdit

State Leader type Member Party State Constituency
  Johor Menteri Besar Hasni Mohammad UMNO Benut
  Malacca Ketua Menteri Sulaiman Md Ali UMNO Lendu
  Perlis Menteri Besar Azlan Man UMNO Bintong
  Pahang Menteri Besar Wan Rosdy Wan Ismail UMNO Jelai

General election resultsEdit

Election Total seats won Share of seats Total votes Share of votes Outcome of election Election leader
1974
135 / 154
87.7% 1,287,400 60.8%  135 seats; Governing coalition Abdul Razak Hussein
1978
131 / 154
85.1% 1,987,907 57.2%  4 seats; Governing coalition Hussein Onn
1982
132 / 154
85.7% 2,522,079 60.5%  1 seats; Governing coalition Mahathir Mohamad
1986
148 / 177
83.6% 2,649,263 57.3%  16 seats; Governing coalition Mahathir Mohamad
1990
127 / 180
70.6% 2,985,392 53.4%  21 seats; Governing coalition Mahathir Mohamad
1995
162 / 192
84.4% 3,881,214 65.2%  35 seats; Governing coalition Mahathir Mohamad
1999
148 / 193
76.2% 3,748,511 56.53%  15 seats; Governing coalition Mahathir Mohamad
2004
198 / 219
90.4% 4,420,452 63.9%  51 seats; Governing coalition Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
2008
140 / 222
63.1% 4,082,411 50.27%  58 seats; Governing coalition Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
2013
133 / 222
59.9% 5,237,555 47.38%  7 seats;[44] Governing coalition Najib Razak
2018
79 / 222
35.59% 3,794,827 33.96%  54 seats; Opposition Najib Razak

State election resultsEdit

State election State Legislative Assembly
Perlis State Legislative Assembly Kedah State Legislative Assembly Kelantan State Legislative Assembly Terengganu State Legislative Assembly Penang State Legislative Assembly Perak State Legislative Assembly Pahang State Legislative Assembly Selangor State Legislative Assembly Negeri Sembilan State Legislative Assembly Malacca State Legislative Assembly Johor State Legislative Assembly Sabah State Legislative Assembly Sarawak State Legislative Assembly Total won / Total contested
2/3 majority
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
2 / 3
1974
12 / 12
24 / 26
36 / 36
27 / 28
23 / 27
31 / 42
32 / 32
30 / 33
21 / 24
16 / 20
31 / 32
30 / 48
1976
1978
12 / 12
19 / 26
23 / 36
28 / 28
20 / 27
32 / 42
32 / 32
29 / 33
21 / 24
16 / 20
31 / 32
239 / 257
1979
1981
1982
11 / 12
24 / 26
26 / 36
23 / 28
25 / 27
38 / 42
31 / 32
31 / 33
22 / 24
18 / 20
32 / 32
1983
30 / 48
30 / 32
1985
6 / 48
6 / 48
1986
14 / 14
25 / 28
29 / 39
30 / 32
23 / 33
33 / 46
32 / 33
37 / 42
24 / 28
17 / 20
35 / 36
1 / 48
300 / 351
1987
28 / 48
28 / 48
1990
14 / 14
26 / 28
0 / 39
22 / 32
19 / 33
33 / 46
31 / 33
35 / 42
24 / 28
17 / 20
32 / 36
0 / 48
253 / 351
1991
49 / 56
49 / 56
1994
23 / 48
23 / 48
1995
15 / 15
34 / 36
7 / 43
25 / 32
32 / 33
51 / 52
37 / 38
45 / 48
30 / 32
22 / 25
40 / 40
338 / 394
1996
57 / 62
57 / 64
1999
12 / 15
24 / 36
2 / 43
4 / 32
30 / 33
44 / 52
30 / 38
42 / 48
32 / 32
21 / 25
40 / 40
31 / 48
312 / 329
2001
60 / 62
60 / 62
2004
14 / 15
31 / 36
21 / 45
28 / 32
38 / 40
52 / 59
41 / 42
54 / 56
34 / 36
26 / 28
55 / 56
59 / 60
452 / 504
2006
62 / 71
62 / 71
2008
14 / 15
14 / 36
6 / 45
24 / 32
11 / 40
28 / 59
37 / 42
20 / 56
21 / 36
23 / 28
50 / 56
59 / 60
307 / 504
2011
55 / 71
55 / 71
2013
13 / 15
21 / 36
12 / 45
17 / 32
10 / 40
31 / 59
30 / 42
12 / 56
22 / 36
21 / 28
38 / 56
48 / 60
275 / 505
2016
77 / 82
77 / 82
2018
10 / 15
3 / 36
8 / 45
10 / 32
2 / 40
24 / 59
25 / 42
4 / 56
16 / 36
13 / 28
16 / 56
12 / 60
143 / 505

NotesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Joseph Liow; Michael Leifer (20 November 2014). Dictionary of the Modern Politics of Southeast Asia. Routledge. pp. 102–. ISBN 978-1-317-62233-8.
  2. ^ Helen Ting. "The Politics of National Identity in West Malaysia: Continued Mutation or Critical Transition? [The Politics of Ambiguity]" (PDF). Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University. J-Stage. p. 3/21 [33] and 5/21 [35]. UMNO came into being in 1946 under the impetus of the Anti-Malayan Union Movement based on this ideological understanding of ketuanan Melayu. Its founding president, Dato’ Onn Jaafar, once said that the UMNO movement did not adhere to any ideology other than Melayuisme, defined by scholar Ariffin Omar as “the belief that the interests of the bangsa Melayu must be upheld over all else”. Malay political dominance is a fundamental reality of Malaysian politics, notwithstanding the fact that the governing coalition since independence, the Alliance [subsequently expanded to form the Barisan Nasional or literally, the “National Front”], is multiethnic in its composition.
  3. ^ Jinna Tay; Graeme Turner (24 July 2015). Television Histories in Asia: Issues and Contexts. Routledge. pp. 127–. ISBN 978-1-135-00807-9.
  4. ^ Timothy J. Lomperis, September 1996, 'From People's War to People's Rule: Insurgency, Intervention, and the Lessons of Vietnam', page 212, ISBN 0807822736
  5. ^ Jan Senkyr (2013). "Political Awakening in Malaysia". KAS International Reports (7): 73–74.
  6. ^ Anuradha Raghu; Niluksi Koswanage (5 May 2013). "Malaysians vote to decide fate of world's longest-ruling coalition". Toronto Sun. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
  7. ^ Keat Gin Ooi (2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor. ABC-CLIO. pp. 139–. ISBN 978-1-57607-770-2.
  8. ^ a b Cheah Boon Kheng (2002). Malaysia: The Making of a Nation. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 147–. ISBN 978-981-230-175-8.
  9. ^ Dr Nam-Kook Kim (28 February 2014). Multicultural Challenges and Redefining Identity in East Asia. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 219–. ISBN 978-1-4724-0233-2.
  10. ^ John R. Malott (8 July 2011). "Running Scared in Malaysia". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 8 July 2011. (subscription required)
  11. ^ Stuart Grudgings; Al-Zaquan Amer Hamzah; Niluksi Koswanage; Raju Gopalakrishnan (5 May 2013). "Malaysia coalition extends rule despite worst electoral showing". Reuters. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
  12. ^ "A dangerous result". The Economist. 11 May 2013. Retrieved 11 May 2013.
  13. ^ "PBRS will remain with BN for now, says Kurup". Free Malaysia Today. 30 September 2018.
  14. ^ Avila Geraldine; Norasikin Daineh (11 May 2018). "Warisan now has 35 seats, enough to form state government: Shafie [NSTTV]". New Straits Times. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
  15. ^ "PBS keluar BN, bentuk Gabungan Bersatu" (in Malay). Berita Harian. 12 May 2018. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
  16. ^ Sharon Ling; Geryl Ogilvy (12 June 2018). "Sarawak BN parties pull out of coalition to form independent state-based pact". The Star. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
  17. ^ Lee Poh Onn (15 June 2018). "Commentary: Free from the shackles of a fallen coalition, does Sarawak parties leaving spell the end of the Barisan Nasional?". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
  18. ^ "MyPPP leaves BN with immediate effect". New Straits Times. 19 May 2018. Retrieved 19 May 2018.
  19. ^ "Gerakan leaves Barisan Nasional". New Straits Times. 23 June 2018. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  20. ^ Ivan Loh (24 June 2018). "Bagan Serai MP quits Umno, pledges support for Pakatan Harapan". The Star. Retrieved 24 June 2018.
  21. ^ "Bukit Gantang MP quits Umno". Free Malaysia Today. 27 June 2018. Retrieved 27 June 2018.
  22. ^ "Former Puteri Umno chief quits party, upset with results of polls". The Star. 1 July 2018. Retrieved 2 July 2018.
  23. ^ "Mustapa quits Umno after 40 years - Nation | The Star Online". www.thestar.com.my. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  24. ^ "Anifah: I quit Umno in the interest of Sabah rights - Nation | The Star Online". www.thestar.com.my. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  25. ^ "Labuan MP quits Umno to join Warisan - Nation | The Star Online". www.thestar.com.my. Retrieved 11 October 2018.
  26. ^ Vanar, Muguntan; Lee, Stephanie; Joibi, Natasha. "Sabah Umno exodus sees nine of 10 Aduns, five of six MPs leave - Nation | The Star Online". www.thestar.com.my. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
  27. ^ "Six Umno MPs leave the party - Nation | The Star Online". www.thestar.com.my. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
  28. ^ Hamdan, Nurbaiti. "Court nullifies BN's GE14 victory for Cameron Highlands seat (Updated) - Nation | The Star Online". www.thestar.com.my. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
  29. ^ "BN retains Cameron Highlands parliamentary seat". www.thesundaily.my. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  30. ^ https://www.bharian.com.my/berita/politik/2019/01/524419/prk-cameron-highlands-ramli-cipta-sejarah
  31. ^ https://www.bharian.com.my/berita/politik/2019/03/536745/bn-tawan-semula-dun-semenyih
  32. ^ https://www.bharian.com.my/berita/politik/2019/04/552669/bn-kekal-kuasai-dun-rantau
  33. ^ https://www.bharian.com.my/berita/nasional/2019/11/629147/bn-tawan-semula-tanjung-piai
  34. ^ "What's next for Piagam Muafakat Nasional?". The Malaysian Reserve. 18 September 2019.
  35. ^ "MCA's future in Muafakat Nasional remains unclear". New Straits Times. 30 November 2019.
  36. ^ Reme Ahmad (5 December 2019). "Calls in Umno for Barisan Nasional to 'migrate' to Muafakat Nasional". The Straits Times.
  37. ^ Adib Povera (4 March 202). "Perikatan Nasional coalition to set up joint secretariat". New Strait Times.
  38. ^ "Hasni Mohammad angkat sumpah MB Johor" [Hasni Mohammad take the oath as Johor's MB]. Astro Awani (in Malay). 28 February 2020. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
  39. ^ "Sulaiman Md Ali angkat sumpah Ketua Menteri Melaka ke-12" [Sulaiman Md Ali take the oath as the 12th Chief Minister of Malacca]. Astro Awani (in Malay). 9 March 2020. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  40. ^ Rachagan, S. Sothi (1993). Law and the Electoral Process in Malaysia, p. 12. Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press. ISBN 967-9940-45-4.
  41. ^ Ahmad, Zuhrin Azam. "Barisan amends constitution to allow direct membership - Nation | The Star Online". www.thestar.com.my. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
  42. ^ Rachagan, p. 21.
  43. ^ "Organisational Chart of Barisan Nasional". Archived from the original on 26 July 2016. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  44. ^ Arno Maierbrugger (16 August 2013). "Malaysia gov't bashed for $155m election ad spending". Investvine. Retrieved 16 August 2013.

LiteratureEdit

External linksEdit