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An independent power producer (IPP) or non-utility generator (NUG) is an entity,[1] which is not a public utility, but which owns facilities to generate electric power for sale to utilities and end users.[2] NUGs may be privately held facilities, corporations, cooperatives such as rural solar or wind energy producers, and non-energy industrial concerns capable of feeding excess energy into the system.[3] An independent water and power producer (IWPP) is similar to an IPP, but with a unified process to also output usable treated water.[4]

Economic situationEdit

For the majority of IPPs, particularly in the renewable energy industry, a feed-in Tariff or Power Purchase Agreement provides a long term price guarantee.


Has been uncommon in Germany for decades but since the EEG (for renewable energy) the business model gets more common. It depends on finding a partner for distributing the produced energy to the customer.


In 2002, the BC government stipulated that new clean renewable energy generation in the province[5] would be developed by "independent power producers" (IPPs) not BC Hydro, save for large hydro-electric facilities. The role of the private sector in developing BC’s "public" resources is one of the more controversial issues that British Columbians are currently grappling with.


The liberalization of Taiwan electricity market was done in January 1995. Currently there are nine IPP companies operating in Taiwan.[6]

United StatesEdit

Prior to the US Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1978, NUGs were rare, and the few that existed were seldom able to distribute power, as the cost of building the conveyance infrastructure was prohibitive. Public utilities generated power and owned the generating facilities, the transmission lines, and the local delivery systems. Congress Passed the PURPA in 1978, establishing a class of non‐utility generators, called Qualifying Facilities (QF), which were permitted to produce power for resale.

PURPA was intended to reduce domestic dependence on foreign energy, to encourage energy conservation, and to reduce the ability of electric utilities to abuse the purchase of power from QFs. A QF is defined as a generating facility that produces electricity and another form of useful thermal energy through the sequential use of energy, and meets certain ownership, operating, and efficiency criteria established by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC).

Section 210 of PURPA now requires utilities to purchase energy from NUGs which qualify (qualifying facilities) at the utility's avoided cost. This allows NUGs to receive a reasonable to excellent price for the energy they produce and ensures that energy generated by small producers won't be wasted.[3]


In 1994, Government of Pakistan announced an investor friendly policy to develop IPPs based on oil, coal and gas, which helped in establishment of 16 IPPS. Later in 1995, a hydro power policy was announced which resulted in development of country's first Hydro IPP.

In 2002, new government adopted new policy, by which another 12 IPPs started operations.

In 2015, Pakistan adopted a new power policy by which another 13 IPPs were established, mostly by Chinese companies. A transmission policy for development of transmission line in private sector was also announced.

As of 2018, currently more than 40 IPPs are operating in Pakistan.


India also has many IPP's like ReNew Power, Adani, Hero, Mytrah, Ostro, Greenko, Alfanar Etc.


  1. ^ Gas engines for IPPs,, accessed 11 November 2013
  2. ^ "Independent Power Producer (IPP) - Americas Generators". Retrieved 8 February 2012.
  3. ^ a b "independent power producer (IPP), non-utility generator (NUG)". Retrieved 8 February 2012.
  4. ^ "Water and Power: Will Your Next Power Plant Make Both?". 9 January 2012. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
  5. ^ [1][dead link]
  6. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 11 November 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)