Exclusive economic zone

An exclusive economic zone (EEZ), as prescribed by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, is an area of the sea in which a sovereign state has exclusive rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.[1] EEZ does not define the ownership of any maritime features (islands, rocks and low-tide elevations) within the EEZ.

The world's exclusive economic zones by boundary types and EEZ types

It stretches from the outer limit of the territorial sea (22.224 kilometres or 12 nmi from the baseline) out 370.4 kilometres (or 200 nautical miles) from the coast of the state in question. It is also referred to as a maritime continental margin and, in colloquial usage, may include the continental shelf. The term does not include either the territorial sea or the continental shelf beyond the 200 nautical mile limit. The difference between the territorial sea and the exclusive economic zone is that the first confers full sovereignty over the waters, whereas the second is merely a "sovereign right" which refers to the coastal state's rights below the surface of the sea. The surface waters are international waters.[2]

Definition edit

 
Sea areas in international rights (top down view)

Generally, a state's exclusive economic zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, extending seaward to a distance of no more than 200 nmi (370 km) out from its coastal baseline.[3] The exception to this rule occurs when exclusive economic zones would overlap; that is, state coastal baselines are less than 400 nmi (741 km) apart. When an overlap occurs, it is up to the states to delineate the actual maritime boundary.[4] Generally, any point within an overlapping area defaults to the nearest state.[5]

The exclusive economic zone stretches much further into sea than the territorial waters, which end at 12 nmi (22 km) from the coastal baseline (if following the rules set out in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea).[5] Thus, the exclusive economic zones includes the contiguous zone.

States also have rights to the seabed of what is called the continental shelf up to 350 nmi (648 km) from the coastal baseline, beyond the exclusive economic zones, but such areas are not part of their exclusive economic zones. The legal definition of the continental shelf does not correspond exactly to the geological meaning of the term, as it also includes the continental rise and slope, and the entire seabed within the exclusive economic zone.

Origin and history edit

The idea of allotting nations' EEZs to give them more control of maritime affairs outside territorial limits gained acceptance in the late 20th century.

Initially, a country's sovereign territorial waters extended 3 nmi (6 km) (range of cannon shot) beyond the shore.[citation needed] In modern times, a country's sovereign territorial waters extend to 12 nmi (22 km) beyond the shore.[citation needed] One of the first assertions of exclusive jurisdiction beyond the traditional territorial seas was made by the United States in the Truman Proclamation of 28 September 1945. However, it was Chile and Peru respectively that first claimed maritime zones of 200 nautical miles with the Presidential Declaration Concerning Continental Shelf of 23 June 1947[6] and Presidential Decree No. 781 of 1 August 1947[7][8]

It was not until 1982 with the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea that the 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone was formally adopted.

Disputes edit

 
De facto territories in the Spratly Islands

The exact extent of exclusive economic zones is a common source of conflicts between states over marine waters:

Potential disputes edit

Regions where a permanent ice shelf extends beyond the coastline are also a source of potential dispute.[12]

Resolved disputes edit

  • The Cod Wars between the United Kingdom and Iceland occurred periodically over many decades until they were resolved with a final agreement in 1976.
  • In 1992, the Canada–France Maritime Boundary Case, which centred on the EEZ around the French islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, was decided by an arbitral tribunal that concurred on the whole with the arguments put forth by Canada. France was awarded 18% of the area it had originally claimed.
  • In 1999, following the Hanish Islands conflict, the Permanent Court of Arbitration ruled that the EEZs of Yemen and Eritrea should be demarcated equidistantly between the mainlands of the two nations, without taking account of sovereignty over the islands.[13][14]
  • In 2009, in a dispute between Romania and Ukraine over Snake Island, the UN International Court of Justice decided that Snake Island has no EEZ beyond 12 nautical miles of its own land.[15]
  • In 2010, a dispute between Norway and Russia about both territorial waters and EEZ with regard to the Svalbard archipelago as it affects Russia's EEZ due to its unique treaty status was resolved. A treaty was agreed in principle in April 2010 between the two states and subsequently officially ratified, resolving this demarcation dispute.[16] The agreement was signed in Murmansk on 15 September 2010.[17]
  • In 2014, the Netherlands and Germany resolved an old border dispute regarding the exact location of the border in the Dollart Bay.[18][19]

Transboundary stocks edit

Fisheries management, usually adhering to guidelines set by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), provides significant practical mechanisms for the control of EEZs. Transboundary fish stocks are an important concept in this control.[20] Transboundary stocks are fish stocks that range in the EEZs of at least two countries. Straddling stocks, on the other hand, range both within an EEZ as well as in the high seas, outside any EEZ. A stock can be both transboundary and straddling.[21]

By country edit

Various island countries edit

 
EEZs in the Caribbean Sea
 
EEZs in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans
 
EEZs in the Pacific Ocean

Algeria edit

Algeria on 17 April 2018 established an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off its coasts by Presidential Decree No. 18-96 of 2 Rajab 1439 corresponding to 20 March 2018.[22][23] The permanent mission of Spain to the United Nations on 27 July 2018 declared its disagreement with the EEZ announced by Algeria and that the government of Spain indicated its willingness to enter into negotiations with the government of Algeria with a view to reaching a mutually acceptable agreement on the outer limits of their respective exclusive economic zones,[24] The same was done by the Italian mission on 28 November 2018.[25] The two countries indicated that the Algerian measure had been taken unilaterally and without consulting them.

On 25 November 2018, the Algerian Ministry of Foreign Affairs sent an oral note in response to the Spanish protest, explaining that the Algerian government does not recognize the largely exorbitant coordinates contained in Royal Decree 236/2013, which overlap with the coordinates of Presidential Decree n° 18–96 establishing an exclusive economic zone off the coast of Algeria. The Algerian government wished to emphasize that the unilateral delimitation carried out by Spain is not in conformity with the letter of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and has not taken into consideration the configuration, the specific characteristics, and the special circumstances of the Mediterranean Sea, in particular for the case of the two countries whose coasts are located face to face, as well as the objective rules and relevant principles of international law to govern the equitable delimitation of the maritime areas between Algeria and Spain, in accordance with article 74 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Algeria expressed its willingness to negotiate for a just solution.[26]

On 20 June 2019, a communication from Algeria was sent. It was addressed to the Italian embassy[27] and the Spanish embassy in Algiers[28] to show their eligibility in Algeria's exclusive economic zone.

Argentina edit

 
Argentina's exclusive economic zones, including its territorial claims (the Falklands and South Georgia, etc. plus its Antarctic claim)

Considering the maritime areas claimed, the total area of Argentina reaches 3,849,756 km2. The recognized Argentine EEZ area is 1,159,063 km2.

Australia edit

 
Australia's exclusive economic zones, including its Antarctic claim

Australia's Exclusive Economic Zone was declared on 1 August 1994, and extends from 12 to 200 nautical miles from the coastline of Australia and its external territories, except where a maritime delimitation agreement exists with another state.[29][30] To the 12 nautical miles boundary is Australia's territorial waters. Australia has the third largest exclusive economic zone, behind France and the United States, but ahead of Russia, with a total area of 8,148,250 square kilometres, which actually exceeds its land territory.

The United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) confirmed, in April 2008, Australia's rights over an additional 2.5 million square kilometres of seabed beyond the limits of Australia's EEZ.[31][32] Australia also claimed, in its submission to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, additional Continental Shelf past its EEZ from the Australian Antarctic Territory,[33] but these claims were deferred on Australia's request. However, Australia's EEZ from its Antarctic Territory is approximately 2 million square kilometres.[32]

Region EEZ Area (km2)[32]
Mainland Australia (5 States and 3 Territories of the Australian Federation), Tasmania, and other minor islands 6,048,681
Macquarie Island 471,837
  Christmas Island 463,371
  Norfolk Island 428,618
Heard Island and McDonald Islands 410,722
  Cocos Islands 325,021
Australian Antarctic Territory 2,000,000[note 1]
Total 8,148,250

Brazil edit

 
Brazil's exclusive economic zones

Brazil's EEZ includes areas around the Fernando de Noronha Islands, Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, and the Trindade and Martim Vaz Islands. It is called the Blue Amazon.

Region EEZ Area (km2)[34]
  Mainland Brazil (9 States of the Brazilian Federation) 2,570,917
  Trindade and Martim Vaz Islands 468,599
  Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago 413,636
  Fernando de Noronha Islands 363,362
Total 3,830,955

In 2004, Brazil submitted its claims to the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) to extend its maritime continental margin.[35]

Canada edit

 
Canada's exclusive economic zone and territorial waters

Canada is unusual in that its exclusive economic zone, covering 5,599,077 km2 (2,161,816 sq mi), is slightly smaller than its territorial waters.[36] The latter generally extend only 12 nautical miles from the shore but also include inland marine waters such as Hudson Bay (about 300 nmi (560 km) across), the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the internal waters of the Arctic Archipelago.

Chile edit

 
Chile's exclusive economic zones, including its Antarctic claim

Chile's EEZ includes areas around the Desventuradas Islands, Easter Island, and the Juan Fernández Islands.

Region EEZ Area (km2)[37] Land Area (km2) Total
Mainland Chile 1,987,371 755,757 2,743,128
Easter Island 720,412 164 720,576
Juan Fernández Islands 502,524 100 502,624
Desventuradas Islands 449,836 5 449,841
Total 3,660,143 756,102.4 4,416,245.4

In 2020 and 2022, Chile submitted its partial claims to the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) to extend its maritime continental margin.

China edit

 
Exclusive economic zone claimed by the People's Republic of China:
  China's undisputed EEZ –
960,556 km2[38]
  EEZ claimed by China, disputed by Taiwan – 1,148,485 km2[39]
  EEZ claimed by China, disputed by other countries – 210,926 km2
Total: 2,236,430 km2[40]

The first figure excludes all disputed waters, while the last figure indicates China's claimed boundaries, and does not take into account adjacent powers' claims.[clarification needed]

Croatia edit

 
Croatia's exclusive economic zone (dark blue) and Ecological and Fisheries Protection Zone

Croatia proclaimed Ecological and Fisheries Protection Zone in 2003, but it was not enforced toward other European Union states especially Italy and Slovenia. The zone was upgraded to EEZ in 2021 together with Italy and Slovenia.[41][42] Territorial waters has 18,981 km2, while internal waters located within the baseline cover an additional 12,498 km2, and EEZ covers 24,482 km2 for a total of 55,961 km2.

Cyprus edit

Cyprus EEZ covers 98,707 square km (38,100 square miles). Cyprus' EEZ borders those of Greece, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel and Egypt.

Denmark edit

 
The exclusive economic zones and territorial waters of the Kingdom of Denmark

The Kingdom of Denmark includes the constituent country (selvstyre) of Greenland and the constituent country (hjemmestyre) of the Faroe Islands.

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2)[43] Land area Total
  Denmark 105 989 42 506 149 083
  Faroe Islands 260 995 1 399 262 394
  Greenland 2,184,254 2,166,086 4,350,340
Total 2,551,238 2,210,579 4,761,817

Ecuador edit

 
Ecuador's exclusive economic zone

Area: 1,077,231 km2

France edit

 
Exclusive economic zones of France, including its Antarctic territorial claim

Due to its numerous overseas departments and territories scattered on all oceans of the planet, France possesses the largest EEZ in the world, covering 11,691,000 km2 (4,514,000 sq mi).[44] The EEZ of France covers approximately 7% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world, whereas the land area of the French Republic is only 0.45% of the total land area of Earth.

Germany edit

The Federal Republic of Germany declared the entry into force of the convention with effect from 1 January 1995, the establishment of a German Exclusive Economic Zone in the North and Baltic Seas.[45] The relevant German legal provisions that are applicable within the exclusive economic zone include the Maritime Task Act (Seeaufgabengesetz) from 1965, the Maritime Facilities Act (Seeanlagengesetz) from 2017, before that the Sea Facilities Ordinance (Seeanlagenverordnung) since 1997, the Federal Mining Act (Bundesberggesetz) and the Regional Planning Act (Raumordnungsgesetz).

The German EEZ has an area of 32,982 km2. 70% of the EEZ is the entire German North Sea area and about 29% is the entire German Baltic Sea area.[46]

Greece edit

 
Exclusive Economic Zone of Greece

Greece forms the southernmost part of the Balkan peninsula in the Mediterranean Sea. It includes many small islands which vary between 1,200 and 6,000 in the Aegean Sea and the Ionian Sea.[47] The largest islands are Crete, Euboea, Lesbos, Rhodes and Chios.

Greece's EEZ is bordered to the west by Albania and Italy, to the south by Libya and Egypt, and to the east by Cyprus and Turkey.

EEZ Area of Greece[48]
Territory km2 sq mi Notes
Total 505,572 195,202

India edit

 
India's exclusive economic zones
EEZ Area (km2)
Mainland India (9 states and 2 union territories) and Lakshadweep union territory 1,641,514 km2
Andaman and Nicobar Islands union territory 663,629 km2
Total 2,305,143 km2

India is currently seeking to extend its EEZ to 350 miles.[49]

Indonesia edit

 
Indonesia's exclusive economic zone

Indonesia has the 6th largest exclusive economic zone in the world. The total size is 6,159,032 km2 (2,378,016 sq mi). It claims an EEZ of 200 nautical miles from its shores. This is due to the 13,466 islands of the Indonesian Archipelago.[50] It has the 2nd largest coastline of 54,720 km (34,000 mi). The five main islands are: Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Sulawesi, and Western New Guinea. There are two major island groups (Nusa Tenggara and the Maluku Islands) and sixty smaller island groups.

Ireland edit

The Irish Exclusive Economic Zone was announced to be the location of a Russian military exercise in January 2022.[51] The exercise was then moved outside the economic zone.[52]

Israel edit

In 2010, an agreement was signed with Cyprus concerning the limit of territorial waters between Israel and Cyprus at the maritime halfway point, a clarification essential for safeguarding Israel's rights to oil and underwater gas reservoirs. The agreement was signed in Nicosia by Israeli Infrastructure Minister Uzi Landau and the Cypriot Foreign Minister Markos Kyprianou. The two countries agreed to cooperate in the development of any cross-border resources discovered and to negotiate an agreement on dividing joint resources.

Italy edit

 
Italy's EEZ in the Mediterranean Sea

Italy has the world's 48th largest EEZ, with an area of 541,915 km2 (209,235 sq mi).[48] It claims an EEZ of 200 nautical miles from its shores, which has long coastlines with the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west, the Ionian Sea to the south and the Adriatic Sea to the east. Its EEZ is limited by maritime boundaries with neighboring countries to the northwest, east and southeast.

Italy's western sea territory stretches from the west coast of Italy in the Tyrrhenian Sea including the island Sardinia. The island Sicily is in the southernmost area. Lampedusa is Italy's southernmost point. It shares treaty-defined maritime boundaries with France, Spain, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Malta, Greece, Albania, Montenegro, Croatia and Slovenia.

Japan edit

 
Japan's exclusive economic zones:
  Japan's EEZ
  Joint regime with the Republic of Korea
  EEZ claimed by Japan, disputed by others

Japan has the 8th largest exclusive economic zone of 4,479,674 km2 (1,729,612 sq mi).[53] It claims an EEZ of 200 nautical miles from its shores.

EEZ Areas of Japan
Region EEZ Area (km2) EEZ Area (sq mi)
Ryukyu Islands 1,394,676 538,487
Pacific Ocean (Japan) 1,162,334 448,780
Nanpō Islands 862,782 333,122
Sea of Japan 630,721 243,523
Minami-Tori-shima 428,875 165,590
Sea of Okhotsk 235 91
Daitō Islands 44 17
Senkaku Islands 7 2.7
Total[note 2] 4,479,674 1,729,612

Japan has disputes over its EEZ boundaries with all its Asian neighbors (China, Russia, South Korea, and Taiwan). The above, and relevant maps at the Sea Around Us Project[54][55][56] both indicate Japan's claimed boundaries, and do not take into account the claims of adjacent jurisdictions.

Japan also refers to various categories of "shipping area" – Smooth Water Area, Coasting Area, Major or Greater Coasting Area, Ocean Going Area – but it is unclear whether these are intended to have any territorial or economic implications.

Malaysia edit

Mexico edit

 
Exclusive economic zone of Mexico

Mexico's exclusive economic zones cover a total surface area of 3,269,386 km2,[48] and places Mexico among the countries with the largest areas in the world.

New Zealand edit

 
Exclusive economic zones of the Realm of New Zealand, including the Ross Dependency (shaded)

New Zealand's EEZ covers 4,083,744 km2 (1,576,742 sq mi),[57][58] which is approximately fifteen times the land area of the country. Sources vary significantly on the size of New Zealand's EEZ; for example, a recent government publication gave the area as roughly 4,300,000 km2.[59] These figures are for the EEZ of New Zealand proper, and do not include the EEZs of other territories in the Realm of New Zealand (the Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau, and the Ross Dependency).

North Korea edit

 
The exclusive economic zone of North Korea

The exclusive economic zone of North Korea stretches 200 nautical miles from its basepoints in both the West Sea (Yellow Sea) and the Sea of Japan.[60] The EEZ was declared in 1977 after North Korea had contested the validity of the Northern Limit Lines (NLL) set up after the Korean War as maritime borders.[61] The EEZ has not been codified in law and North Korea has never specified its coordinates, making it difficult to determine its specific scope.[62]

In the West Sea, the EEZ remains unspecified in the Korea Bay because China has not determined its own EEZ in the area.[63] The border between the North Korean and South Korean EEZs in the West Sea cannot be determined because of potential overlap and disputes over certain islands.[64]

In the Sea of Japan, the North Korean EEZ can be approximated to be trapezoidal-shaped.[65] The border between North Korea and Russia's respective EEZs is the only such border that has been determined in East Asia.[66] Here, the EEZ does not cause many problems, even with regards to South Korea, because the sea is not thought to be rich in resources.[65]

Norway edit

 
Norway's exclusive economic zones, including the dependency of Bouvet Island

Norway has a large exclusive economic zone of 819,620 km2 around its coast. The country has a fishing zone of 1,878,953 km2, including fishing zones around Svalbard and Jan Mayen.[67]

In April 2009, the United Nations Commission for the Limits of the Continental Shelf approved Norway's claim to an additional 235,000 square kilometres of continental shelf. The commission found that Norway and Russia both had valid claims over a portion of the shelf in the Barents Sea.[68]

Region EEZ and Territorial
Waters Area (km2)
Land Area (km2) Total (km2)
Mainland Norway 1,273,482 323,802 1,597,284
Svalbard 402,574 61,002 463,576
Jan Mayen 273,118 373 273,491
Bouvet Island 436,004 49 436,053
Total 2,385,178 385,226 2,770,404

Pakistan edit

Area: 290,000 km2

Pakistan coast is a 1046 km long coast, extending from Sir Creek in the east to Gwadar Bay in the west and the EEZ extends up to 290,000sqkm which is more than 30% of its land area and ranks sixty-sixth in the world by area.

Pakistan had an EEZ of 240,000sq km before their case was accepted by UNCLCS. Pakistan Navy with the help of the National Oceanographic Organization (NIO) initiated the continental shelf case at ministerial level in 1995.

On 26 Aug 2013, a seven-member sub-commission with members from Japan, China, Mozambique, Kenya, Denmark, Georgia and Argentina was formulated at UNCLCS to evaluate the technical details of Pakistan's case and after a year accepted Pakistan's claim.

On 13 March 2015, UN Commission on the Limits of Continental Shelf (UNCLCS) accepted recommendations for extension of the outer limits of the continental shelf on Pakistan's case so far 80 countries had submitted claims to UNCLCS out of which recommendations of 22 countries including Pakistan had been finalised.

It was a historic event in the country's history when Pakistan became the first country in the region to have its continental shelf extended to 350 nm.

Some of the claimed territories overlapped the Omani claim. It is believed that the verdict in favour of Pakistan was announced after successful negotiation with Oman.

Peru edit

 
Peru's exclusive economic zone

Area: 857,000 km2[69]

Philippines edit

 
The exclusive economic zone of the Philippines shown in the lighter blue shade, with Archepelagic Waters in the darkest blue

The Philippines' EEZ covers 2,263,816 km2 (874,064 sq mi).[70]

Poland edit

The Polish EEZ covers the area of 30,533 km2 (11,789 sq mi) within the Baltic Sea.[71]

Portugal edit

 
Portugal's Exclusive Economic Zones plus submitted Extended Continental Shelf to the UN[72]

Portugal has the 20th largest EEZ in the world. Presently, it is divided in three non-contiguous sub-zones:

Portugal submitted a claim to extend its jurisdiction over an additional 2.15 million square kilometres of the adjacent continental shelf in May 2009,[73] resulting in an area with a total of more than 3,877,408 km2. The submission, as well as a detailed map, can be found in the Task Group for the extension of the Continental Shelf website.

Spain previously objected to the EEZ's southern border, maintaining that it should be drawn halfway between Madeira and the Canary Islands. But Portugal exercises sovereignty over the Savage Islands, a small archipelago north of the Canaries, claiming an EEZ border further south. Spain has no longer disputed the Portuguese claim since 2015.[74][75]

Romania edit

Area: 23,627 km2

Russia edit

 
Russia's exclusive economic zone

4th largest

  • Kaliningrad (Baltic Sea) – 11,634 km2
  • Saint Petersburg (Baltic Sea) – 12,759 km2
  • Barents Sea – 1,308,140 km2
  • Black Sea (without the Crimean EEZ) – 66,854 km2
  • Pacific – 3,419,202 km2
  • Siberia – 3,277,292 km2
  • Total – 8,095,881 km2[76]

Senegal edit

 
Senegal's exclusive economic zone

Area: 158,861 km2

Somalia edit

 
Somalia's exclusive economic zone

Area: 825,052 km2

South Africa edit

 
South Africa's exclusive economic zone

South Africa's EEZ includes both that next to the African mainland and that around the Prince Edward Islands, totalling 1,535,538 km2.[48]

  • Mainland – 1,068,659 km2
  • Prince Edward islands – 466,879 km2

South Korea edit

 
South Korean exclusive economic zone:
  Korean EEZ
  EEZ claimed by Republic of Korea and Japan
  Joint regime with Japan

Area: 300,851 (225,214) km2

Spain edit

 
Spain's exclusive economic zone. (Labels in Spanish)

Area: 1,039,233 km2

Thailand edit

 
Thailand's exclusive economic zone

Area: 299,397 km2

Turkey edit

Turkey's EEZ is bordered by Georgia, Russia, Ukraine, Romania and Bulgaria in the Black Sea to the north, Greece in the Aegean Sea to the west, and Cyprus and Syria in the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Turkey is one of the few countries to not have signed UNCLOS and disputes Greece's and Cyprus' EEZ.

United Kingdom edit

 
The exclusive economic zones of the United Kingdom in blue, including the British Overseas Territories and the Crown Dependencies. The British claim in Antarctica is shown in shaded blue.[77]
 
UK, Ireland, Iceland & Faroes exclusive economic zones

The United Kingdom has the fifth largest exclusive economic zone of 6,805,586 km2 (2,627,651 sq mi) square km. It comprises the EEZs surrounding the United Kingdom,[78] the Crown Dependencies, and the British Overseas Territories. The figure does not include the EEZ of the British Antarctic Territory.

The EEZ associated with the Falkland Islands and South Georgia are disputed by Argentina. The EEZ of the Chagos Archipelago, also known as the British Indian Ocean Territory, is also disputed with Mauritius which considers the archipelago as a part of its territory.

The EEZ areas of the United Kingdom, Crown Dependencies and British Overseas Territories (in decreasing size)[48]
Territory EEZ Area (km2) EEZ Area (sq mi) Notes
  South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 1,449,532 559,667 Disputed with   Argentina.
  Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie and Oeno Islands 836,108 322,823
  United Kingdom 773,676 298,718 Including the   Isle of Man.
  Tristan da Cunha 754,720 291,400 Including   Gough Island.
  British Indian Ocean Territory 638,568 246,552 Disputed with   Mauritius.
  Falkland Islands 550,872 212,693 Disputed with   Argentina.
  Bermuda 450,370 173,890
  Saint Helena 444,916 171,783
  Ascension Island 441,658 170,525
  Turks and Caicos Islands 154,068 59,486
  Cayman Islands 119,137 45,999
  Anguilla 92,178 35,590
  British Virgin Islands 80,117 30,933
  Channel Islands 11,658 4,501 Including   Guernsey and   Jersey.
  Montserrat 7,582 2,927
  Gibraltar 426 164 Disputed with   Spain.
  Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia 0 0 No EEZ area. The relevant EEZ areas around Cyprus Island are claimed by the   Republic of Cyprus[79] and   Northern Cyprus.[80]
Total 6,805,586 2,627,651

A part of the overseas territory of   Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, which together has an EEZ of 1,641,294 square km.

United States edit

 
The USA's Exclusive Economic Zones

The United States' exclusive economic zone is the second largest in the world, covering 11,351,000 km2. Areas of its EEZ are located in three oceans, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea.

The EEZ (including territorial sea) areas of the territories of the U.S. (in decreasing size)[81]
Territory EEZ Area (km2) EEZ Area (sq mi) Notes
  Alaska 3,770,021 1,455,613 A non-contiguous state in the northwest extremity of the North American continent.
  HawaiiNorthwestern Islands 1,579,538 609,863 Including Midway Atoll, these islands form the Leeward Islands of the Hawaiian island chain.
  U.S. East Coast 915,763 353,578 The mainland coastal states of the Eastern United States. As a region, this term most often refers to the coastal states of Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and the Atlantic Coast of Florida.
  HawaiiSoutheastern Islands 895,346 345,695 These islands form the Windward Islands of the Hawaiian island chain.
  U.S. West Coast 825,549 318,746 The mainland coastal states of the Western United States. As a region, this term most often refers to the coastal states of California, Oregon, Washington.
  Northern Mariana Islands 749,268 289,294 An organized, unincorporated, Commonwealth of the United States.
  U.S. Gulf Coast 707,832 273,295 The mainland coastal states of the Southern United States. As a region, this term most often refers to the coastal states of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and the Gulf Coast of Florida
Johnston Atoll 442,635 170,902 A National Wildlife Refuge in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands.
  Howland and Baker Islands 434,921 167,924 Both territories are National Wildlife Refuges in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands.
  Wake Island 407,241 157,237 A National Wildlife Refuge in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands.
  American Samoa 404,391 156,136 The only inhabited, unorganized, unincorporated, territory of the United States.
Palmyra Atoll and Kingman Reef 352,300 136,000 Both territories are National Wildlife Refuges in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands.
Jarvis Island 316,665 122,265 A National Wildlife Refuge in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands.
  Guam 221,504 85,523 An organized, unincorporated, territory of the United States.
  Puerto Rico 177,685 68,605 An organized, unincorporated, Commonwealth of the United States.
  U.S. Virgin Islands 33,744 13,029 An organized, unincorporated, territory of the United States.
Navassa Island N/A[note 3] N/A[note 3] A National Wildlife Refuge in the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands.[note 4]
Total 11,351,000 4,383,000

Note, the totals in the table actually add up to 12,234,403 square km and 4,723,705 square miles.

Vietnam edit

 
Territorial claims in the South China Sea. Vietnam's EEZ has a blue line.

Vietnam claims an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of 1,395,096 km2 (538,650 sq mi) with 200 nautical miles from its shores.[85][86] These figures do not include the claimed EEZ areas of the Paracel Islands and the Spratly Islands. Vietnam has disputes mainly with the People's Republic of China due to the nine-dash line.

Countries with the most distant EEZs edit

 
Countries with the most distant EEZs

Rankings by area edit

This list includes dependent territories (including uninhabited territories) within their sovereign states, but does not include various claims on Antarctica. EEZ+TIA is exclusive economic zone (EEZ) plus total internal area (TIA) which includes territorial land and internal waters.

Rank Country EEZ km2[48] Shelf km2 EEZ+TIA km2
1   United States[note 5] 11,351,000 2,193,526 21,814,306
2   France[note 6] 10,186,624 725,297 12,416,921
3   Australia[note 7] 9,025,053 2,194,008 16,197,464
4   Russia 7,566,673 3,817,843 24,664,915
5   United Kingdom[note 8] 6,805,586 872,891 7,048,486
6   Indonesia 6,159,032 2,039,381 8,063,601
7   Canada 5,599,077 2,644,795 15,607,077
8   Japan 4,479,388 214,976 4,857,318
9   New Zealand[note 9] 4,420,565[57][58][87] 272,898[57][58][87] 4,688,285[88][89]
10   Brazil 3,830,955 774,563 12,345,832
11   Chile 3,681,989 252,947 4,431,381
12   Kiribati 3,441,810 7,523 3,442,536
13   Mexico 3,269,386 419,102 5,141,968
14   Federated States of Micronesia 2,996,419 19,403 2,997,121
15   Denmark[note 10] 2,551,238 495,657 4,761,811
16   Papua New Guinea 2,402,288 191,256 2,865,128
17   Norway[note 11] 2,385,178 434,020 2,770,404
18   India 2,305,143 402,996 5,592,406
19   Marshall Islands 1,990,530 18,411 1,990,711
  Cook Islands[note 12] 1,960,027 1,213 1,960,267
20   Portugal[note 13] 1,727,408 28,000 1,819,498
21   Philippines 1,590,780 272,921 1,890,780
22   Solomon Islands 1,589,477 36,282 1,618,373
23   South Africa 1,535,538 156,337 2,756,575
24   Seychelles 1,336,559 39,063 1,337,014
25   Mauritius 1,284,997 29,061 1,287,037
26   Fiji 1,282,978 47,705 1,301,250
27   Madagascar 1,225,259 101,505 1,812,300
28   Argentina 1,159,063 856,346 3,939,463[note 14]
29   Ecuador 1,077,231 41,034 1,333,600
30   Spain 1,039,233 77,920 1,545,225
31   Maldives 923,322 34,538 923,622
32   Peru 906,454 82,000 2,191,670
33   China 877,019 231,340 10,473,980
34   Somalia 825,052 55,895 1,462,709
35   Colombia 808,158 53,691 1,949,906
36   Cape Verde 800,561 5,591 804,594
37   Iceland 751,345 108,015 854,345
38   Tuvalu 749,790 3,575 749,816
39   Vanuatu 663,251 11,483 675,440
40   Tonga 659,558 8,517 660,305
41   Bahamas 654,715 106,323 668,658
42   Palau 603,978 2,837 604,437
43   Mozambique 578,986 94,212 1,380,576
44   Morocco 575,230 115,157 1,287,780
45   Costa Rica 574,725 19,585 625,825
46   Namibia 564,748 86,698 1,388,864
47   Yemen 552,669 59,229 1,080,637
48   Italy 541,915 116,834 843,251
49   Oman 533,180 59,071 842,680
50   Myanmar 532,775 220,332 1,209,353
51   Sri Lanka 532,619 32,453 598,229
52   Angola 518,433 48,092 1,765,133
53   Greece 505,572 81,451 637,529
54   South Korea 475,469 342,522 575,469
55   Venezuela 471,507 98,500 1,387,950
56   Vietnam 417,663 365,198 748,875
57   Ireland 410,310 139,935 480,583
58   Libya 351,589 64,763 2,111,129
59   Cuba 350,751 61,525 460,637
60   Panama 335,646 53,404 411,163
61   Malaysia 334,671 323,412 665,474
  Niue[note 12] 316,584 284 316,844
62   Nauru 308,480 41 308,501
63   Equatorial Guinea 303,509 7,820 331,560
64   Thailand 299,397 230,063 812,517
65   Pakistan 290,000 51,383 1,117,911
66   Egypt 263,451 61,591 1,265,451
67   Turkey 261,654 56,093 1,045,216
68   Jamaica 258,137 9,802 269,128
69   Dominican Republic 255,898 10,738 304,569
70   Liberia 249,734 17,715 361,103
71   Honduras 249,542 68,718 362,034
72   Tanzania 241,888 25,611 1,186,975
73   Ghana 235,349 22,502 473,888
74   Saudi Arabia 228,633 107,249 2,378,323
75   Nigeria 217,313 42,285 1,141,081
76   Sierra Leone 215,611 28,625 287,351
77   Gabon 202,790 35,020 470,458
78   Barbados 186,898 426 187,328
79   Côte d'Ivoire 176,254 10,175 498,717
80   Iran 168,718 118,693 1,797,468
81   Mauritania 165,338 31,662 1,190,858
82   Comoros 163,752 1,526 165,987
83   Sweden 160,885 154,604 602,255
84   Senegal 158,861 23,092 355,583
85   Netherlands[note 15] 154,011 77,246 192,345
86   Ukraine 147,318 79,142 750,818
87   Uruguay 142,166 75,327 318,381
88   Guyana 137,765 50,578 352,734
89   São Tomé and Príncipe 131,397 1,902 132,361
90   Samoa 127,950 2,087 130,781
91   Suriname 127,772 53,631 291,592
92   Haiti 126,760 6,683 154,510
93   Algeria 126,353 9,985 2,508,094
94   Nicaragua 123,881 70,874 254,254
95   Guinea-Bissau 123,725 39,339 159,850
96   Bangladesh 118,813 66,438 230,390
97   Kenya 116,942 11,073 697,309
98   Guatemala 114,170 14,422 223,059
99   North Korea 113,888[90][91] 50,337[90][91] 234,428[92]
100   Antigua and Barbuda 110,089 4,128 110,531
101   Tunisia 101,857 67,126 265,467
102   Cyprus 98,707 4,042 107,958
103   El Salvador 90,962 16,852 112,003
104   Finland[note 16] 87,171 85,109 425,590
105   Republic of China (Taiwan) 83,231 43,016 119,419
106   Eritrea 77,728 61,817 195,328
107   Trinidad and Tobago 74,199 25,284 79,329
108   East Timor 70,326 25,648 85,200
109   Sudan 68,148 19,827 1,954,216
110   Cambodia 62,515 62,515 243,550
111   Guinea 59,426 44,755 305,283
112   Croatia 59,032 50,277 115,626
113   United Arab Emirates 58,218 57,474 141,818
114   Germany 57,485 57,485 414,599
115   Malta 54,823 5,301 55,139
116   Estonia 36,992 36,992 82,219
117   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 36,302 1,561 36,691
118   Belize 35,351 13,178 58,317
119   Bulgaria 34,307 10,426 145,186
120   Benin 33,221 2,721 145,843
121   Qatar 31,590 31,590 43,176
122   Republic of the Congo 31,017 7,982 373,017
123   Poland 29,797 29,797 342,482
124   Dominica 28,985 659 29,736
125   Latvia 28,452 27,772 93,011
126   Grenada 27,426 2,237 27,770
127   Israel 26,352 3,745 48,424
128   Romania 23,627 19,303 262,018
129   Gambia 23,112 5,581 34,407
130   Georgia 21,946 3,243 91,646
131   Lebanon 19,516 1,067 29,968
132   Cameroon 16,547 11,420 491,989
133   Saint Lucia 15,617 544 16,156
134   Albania 13,691 6,979 42,439
135   Togo 12,045 1,265 68,830
136   Kuwait 11,026 11,026 28,844
137   Syria 10,503 1,085 195,683
138   Bahrain 10,225 10,225 10,975
139   Brunei 10,090 8,509 15,855
140   Saint Kitts and Nevis 9,974 653 10,235
141   Montenegro 7,745 3,896 21,557
142   Djibouti 7,459 3,187 30,659
143   Lithuania 7,031 7,031 72,331
144   Belgium 3,447 3,447 33,975
145   Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,606 1,593 2,346,464
146   Singapore 1,067 1,067 1,772
147   Iraq 771 771 439,088
148   Monaco 288 2 290
149   Palestine 256 256 6,276
150   Slovenia 220 220 20,493
151   Jordan 166 59 89,508
152   Bosnia and Herzegovina 50 50 51,259
  Kazakhstan 2,724,900
  Mongolia 1,564,100
  Chad 1,284,000
  Niger 1,267,000
  Mali 1,240,192
  Ethiopia 1,104,300
  Bolivia 1,098,581
  Zambia 752,612
  Afghanistan 652,090
  Central African Republic 622,984
  South Sudan 619,745
  Botswana 582,000
  Turkmenistan 488,100
  Uzbekistan 447,400
  Paraguay 406,752
  Zimbabwe 390,757
  Burkina Faso 274,222
  Uganda 241,038
  Laos 236,800
  Belarus 207,600
  Kyrgyzstan 199,951
    Nepal 147,181
  Tajikistan 143,100
  Malawi 118,484
  Hungary 93,028
  Azerbaijan 86,600
  Austria 83,871
  Czech Republic 78,867
  Serbia 77,474
  Slovakia 49,035
   Switzerland 41,284
  Bhutan 38,394
  Moldova 33,846
  Lesotho 30,355
  Armenia 29,743
  Burundi 27,834
  Rwanda 26,338
  North Macedonia 25,713
  Eswatini 17,364
  Luxembourg 2,586
  Andorra 468
  Liechtenstein 160
  San Marino 61
  Vatican City 0.44
Total   United Nations 137,926,515 25,149,113 274,891,722

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ The reference gives an approximate figure of 2 million square kilometres for the EEZ claimed by Australia as part of its Antarctic Territory. This is in addition to the 8 million square kilometres total given in the reference. This EEZ is also distinct from the 2.56 million square kilometres of additional continental shelf mentioned in the reference.
  2. ^ Including areas recommended by the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf.
  3. ^ a b The source does not provide any data for Navassa Island[82][83] even though the U.S. federal government did claim an EEZ area for this disputed territory.[84]
  4. ^ A joint Cuba–Haiti Maritime Boundary Agreement signed at Havana in 1977 bilaterally divides the waters between both local nations and Cuba's maritime boundary places the island within Haitian waters and doesn't recognize any local U.S. claim in the area.
  5. ^ Including Palmyra Atoll and 12 unincorporated territories of the United States. The source does not provide any data for Navassa Island.
  6. ^ Comprising Metropolitan France and Overseas France.
  7. ^ Including 6 Australian external territories.
  8. ^ Comprising the United Kingdom, 3 Crown dependencies and 12 British Overseas Territories. The source does not provide any data for the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia.
  9. ^ Comprising New Zealand proper and Tokelau. The Cook Islands and Niue are listed separately due to their full treaty-making capacities within the United Nations System.
  10. ^ Comprising Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands, and Greenland.
  11. ^ Including Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, and Svalbard.
  12. ^ a b A part of the Realm of New Zealand, listed separately due to its full treaty-making capacity within the United Nations System.
  13. ^ Comprising Continental Portugal, the Azores, and Madeira.
  14. ^ If the claimed Argentine Antarctica and its associated EEZ area are included, the total internal area of Argentina plus its EEZ area reaches 6,581,500 km2.
  15. ^ Comprising the European Netherlands and the Dutch Caribbean.
  16. ^ Including Åland.

References edit

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Works cited:

External links edit