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Sea areas in international rights

An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.[1] It stretches from the baseline out to 200 nautical miles (nmi) from its coast. In colloquial usage, the term may include the continental shelf. The term does not include either the territorial sea or the continental shelf beyond the 200 nmi limit. The difference between the territorial sea and the exclusive economic zone is that the first confers full sovereignty over the waters, whereas the second is merely a "sovereign right" which refers to the coastal state's rights below the surface of the sea. The surface waters, as can be seen in the map, are international waters.[2]

The World's exclusive economic zones, shown in dark blue

DefinitionEdit

 
EEZs in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean
 
EEZs in the Pacific Ocean

Generally, a state's exclusive economic zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, extending seaward to a distance of no more than 200 nmi (370 km) out from its coastal baseline. The exception to this rule occurs when exclusive economic zones would overlap; that is, state coastal baselines are less than 400 nmi (740 km) apart. When an overlap occurs, it is up to the states to delineate the actual maritime boundary.[3] Generally, any point within an overlapping area defaults to the nearest state.[4]

A state's exclusive economic zone starts at the seaward edge of its territorial sea and extends outward to a distance of 200 nmi (370 km) from the baseline. The exclusive economic zone stretches much further into sea than the territorial waters, which end at 12 nmi (22 km) from the coastal baseline (if following the rules set out in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea).[5] Thus, the exclusive economic zones includes the contiguous zone. States also have rights to the seabed of what is called the continental shelf up to 350 nmi (650 km) from the coastal baseline, beyond the exclusive economic zones, but such areas are not part of their exclusive economic zones. The legal definition of the continental shelf does not directly correspond to the geological meaning of the term, as it also includes the continental rise and slope, and the entire seabed within the exclusive economic zone.

OriginEdit

The idea of allotting nations EEZs to give them more control of maritime affairs outside territorial limits gained acceptance in the late 20th century.

Initially, a country's sovereign territorial waters extended 3 nmi or 5.6 km (range of cannon shot) beyond the shore. In modern times, a country's sovereign territorial waters extend to 12 nmi (22 km) beyond the shore. One of the first assertions of exclusive jurisdiction beyond the traditional territorial seas was made by the United States in the Truman Proclamation of September 28, 1945. However, it was Chile and Peru respectively that first claimed maritime zones of 200 nautical miles with the Presidential Declaration Concerning Continental Shelf of 23 June 1947 (El Mercurio, Santiago de Chile, 29 June 1947) and Presidential Decree No. 781 of 1 August 1947 (El Peruano: Diario Oficial. Vol. 107, No. 1983, 11 August 1947).[6]

It was not until 1982 with the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea that the 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone was formally adopted.

DisputesEdit

The exact extent of exclusive economic zones is a common source of conflicts between states over marine waters.

Potential disputesEdit

Regions where a permanent ice shelf extends beyond the coastline are also a source of potential dispute.[36]

Resolved disputesEdit

Transboundary stocksEdit

Fisheries management, usually adhering to guidelines set by the FAO, provides significant practical mechanisms for the control of EEZs. Transboundary fish stocks are an important concept in this control.[40] Transboundary stocks are fish stocks that range in the EEZs of at least two countries. Straddling stocks, on the other hand, range both within an EEZ as well as in the high seas, outside any EEZ. A stock can be both transboundary and straddling.[41]

By countryEdit

ArgentinaEdit

 
Argentina's exclusive economic zone including territorial claims. Considering the maritime areas claimed, the total area of the Argentine reaches 3,849,756 km²

AustraliaEdit

 
Australia's exclusive economic zones including Antarctic claim

Australia's Exclusive Economic Zone was declared on 1 August 1994, and extends from 12 nautical miles to 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the coastline of Australia and its external territories, except where a maritime delimitation agreement exists with another state.[42][43] To the 12 nautical miles boundary is Australia's territorial waters. Australia has the third largest exclusive economic zone, behind France and the United States, but ahead of Russia, with the total area of 8,148,250 square kilometres, which actually exceeds its land territory.

The United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf confirmed, in April 2008, Australia's rights over an additional 2.5 million square kilometres of seabed beyond the limits of Australia's EEZ.[44][45] Australia also claimed, in its submission to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, additional Continental Shelf past its EEZ from the Australian Antarctic Territory,[46] but these claims were deferred on Australia's request. However, Australia's EEZ from its Antarctic Territory is approximately 2 million square kilometres.[45]

EEZ Area (km2)[45]
Heard and McDonald Islands 410,722
  Christmas Island 463,371
  Cocos Islands 325,021
  Norfolk Island 428,618
Macquarie Island 471,837
Mainland Australia, Tasmania and minor islands 6,048,681
Australian Antarctic Territory 2,000,000[status 1]
Total 10,148,250

BrazilEdit

 
Brazil's exclusive economic zones

Brazil's EEZ includes areas around the Fernando de Noronha Islands, St Paul and St. Peter Archipelago and the Trindade and Martim Islands.

EEZ Area (km2)[47]
  Brazil 2 570 917
  Fernando de Noronha 363 362
St Paul and St. Peter Archipelago 413 636
Trindade & Martim Vaz Isl. 468 599
Total 3 830 955

In 2004, the country submitted its claims to the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) to extend its maritime continental margin.[48]

CanadaEdit

 
Canada's exclusive economic zone and territorial waters

Canada is unusual in that its exclusive economic zone, covering 5,599,077 km2 (2,161,816 sq mi), is slightly smaller than its territorial waters.[49] The latter generally extend only 12 nautical miles from the shore, but also include inland marine waters such as Hudson Bay (about 300 nautical miles (560 km; 350 mi) across), the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the internal waters of the Arctic archipelago.

ChileEdit

 
Chile's exclusive economic zones, including Antarctic claim

Chile's EEZ includes areas around the Desventuradas Islands, Easter Island and the Juan Fernández Islands.

Region EEZ Area (km2)[50] Land area Total
Mainland 1 975 760 755 757 2 731 517
Desventuradas 449 836 5 449 841
Easter 720 412 164 720 576
Juan Fernandez 502 524 100 502 624
Total 3 648 532 755 921 4 404 453

ChinaEdit

 
People's Republic of China's exclusive economic zone:
  China's EEZ
877,019 km2
  EEZ claimed by China, disputed by Taiwan
  EEZ claimed by China, disputed by others
3,000,000 km2 Total:3,877,019

The first figure excludes all disputed waters, while the last figure indicates China's claimed boundaries, and does not take into account neighboring powers' claims.

CyprusEdit

 
Exclusive economic zone between Israel and Cyprus as signed in Nicosia. (Labels in Hebrew.)

The Exclusive Economic Zone of Cyprus covers more than 70,000 km2 and is divided between 13 exploration blocks. The process of the establishment of Cyprus, Israel and Lebanon Exclusive Economic Zones was held in Nicosia in 2010 with separate meetings between each country.[51] Cyprus and Israel as part of their wider cooperation have agreed to start their gas explorations with a common American company, specifically Noble Energy. Cypriot and Israeli governments are discussing to export their natural gas through the shipping of compressed Natural Gas to Greece and then to the rest of Europe or through a subsea Pipelines starting from Israel and then leading to Greece via Cyprus.[52][53]

DenmarkEdit

 
The exclusive economic zones and territorial waters of the Kingdom of Denmark

The Kingdom of Denmark includes the constituent country (selvstyre) of Greenland and the constituent country (hjemmestyre) of the Faroe Islands.

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2)[54] Land area Total
  Denmark 105 989 42 506 149 083
  Faroe Islands 260 995 1 399 262 394
  Greenland 2 184 254 2 166 086 4 350 340
Total 2 551 238 2 210 579 4 761 817

FranceEdit

 
Exclusive economic zones of France, including Antarctic territorial claim

Due to its numerous overseas departments and territories scattered on all oceans of the planet, France possesses the largest EEZ in the world, covering 11,691,000 km2 (4,513,920 mi2)[55]. The EEZ of France covers approximately 8% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world, whereas the land area of the French Republic is only 0.45% of the total land area of the Earth.


GreeceEdit

Greece has claimed an exclusive economic zone, as it is entitled to do so, as per UNCLOS 1982 as well as customary international law.[56]

According to published maps, the Israel government has recognized the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) of Greece and Cyprus. They describe the course of the gas pipeline which will transfer gas produced by American Νoble Εnergy Ltd. from the Leviathan reservoir to Europe, through an undersea pipeline crossing Greece. The gas pipeline should traverse the sea area, which according to international law, is part of the Greek EEZ. By this proposal, Israel recognizes the Greek EEZ in the area and offers an advantage that Greece can use during negotiation procedures to support its claims on the area. In practice, this cooperation will set up a powerful energy coalition between Greece, Cyprus and Israel. The mining and operating part will be undertaken by an American company.[57] "The substance of the issue is that in an effort to protect and secure vital Israeli interests in the Mediterranean Sea, Israel has been left with no choice other than to officially delimit its maritime borders".[58]

IndiaEdit

 
India's exclusive economic zones

India is currently seeking to extend its EEZ to 350 miles.[59]

IsraelEdit

In 2010, an agreement was signed with Cyprus concerning the limit of territorial waters between Israel and Cyprus at the maritime halfway point, a clarification essential for safeguarding Israel's rights to oil and underwater gas reservoirs. The agreement was signed in Nicosia by Israeli Infrastructure Minister Uzi Landau and the Cypriot Foreign Minister Markos Kyprianou. The two countries agreed to cooperate in the development of any cross border resources discovered, and to negotiate an agreement on dividing joint resources.

JapanEdit

 
Japan's exclusive economic zones:
  Japan's EEZ
  Joint regime with Republic of Korea
  EEZ claimed by Japan, disputed by others
EEZ Area (km2)
Marcus Island 428,875
Nanpō Islands 862,782
Pacific Ocean (Japan) 1,162,334
Ryukyu Islands 1,394,676
Sea of Japan 630,721
Daito Islands 44
Senkaku Islands 7
Sea of Okhotsk 235
Total[60] 4,479,674

Japan has disputes over its EEZ boundaries with all its Asian neighbors (Russia, Republic of Korea, China and Taiwan). The above, and relevant maps at the Sea Around Us Project[61][62] both indicate Japan's claimed boundaries, and do not take into account neighboring powers' claims.

Japan also refers to various categories of "shipping area" – Smooth Water Area, Coasting Area, Major or Greater Coasting Area, Ocean Going Area – but it is unclear whether these are intended to have any territorial or economic implications.

MexicoEdit

 
Exclusive economic zone of Mexico

Mexico's exclusive economic zones comprise a total surface area of 3,144,295 km2, and places Mexico among the countries with the largest areas in the world.[63] This puts Mexico's total territory as 5,153,735 km2.

New ZealandEdit

 
Exclusive economic zones of the Realm of New Zealand, including the Ross Dependency (shaded)

New Zealand's EEZ covers 4,083,744 km2 (1,576,742 sq mi),[64][65] which is approximately fifteen times the land area of the country. Sources vary significantly on the size of New Zealand's EEZ; for example, a recent government publication gave the area as roughly 4,300,000 km2.[66] These figures are for the EEZ of New Zealand proper, and do not include the EEZs of other territories in the Realm of New Zealand (Tokelau, Niue, the Cook Islands and the Ross Dependency).

North KoreaEdit

 
The exclusive economic zone of North Korea

The exclusive economic zone of North Korea stretches 200 nautical miles from its basepoints in both the West Sea (Yellow Sea) and the Sea of Japan.[67] The EEZ was declared in 1977 after North Korea had contested the validity of the Northern Limit Lines (NLL) set up after the Korean War as maritime borders.[68] The EEZ has not been codified in law and North Korea has never specified its coordinates, making it difficult to determine its specific scope.[69]

In the West Sea, the EEZ remains unspecified in the Korean Bay because China has not determined its own EEZ in the area.[70] The border between the North Korean and South Korean EEZs in the West Sea cannot be determined because of potential overlap and disputes over certain islands.[71]

In the Sea of Japan, the North Korean EEZ can be approximated to be trapezoidal-shaped.[72] The border between North Korea and Russia's respective EEZs is the only such border that has been determined in East Asia.[73] Here, the EEZ does not cause many problems, even with regards to South Korea, because the sea is not thought to be rich in resources.[72]

NorwayEdit

 
Norway's exclusive economic zones, including dependent territory Bouvet Island

Norway has a large exclusive economic zone of 819 620 km2 around its coast. The country has a fishing zone of 1,878,953 km2, including fishing zones around Svalbard and Jan Mayen.[74]

In April 2009, the United Nations Commission for the Limits of the Continental Shelf approved Norway's claim to an additional 235,000 square kilometres of continental shelf. The commission found that Norway and Russia both had valid claims over a portion of shelf in the Barents Sea.[75]

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2) Land area Total
Mainland 1 273 482 323 802 1 597 284
Svalbard 402 574 61 002 463 576
Jan Mayen 273 118 373 273 491
Bouvet Island 436 004 49 436 053
Total 2 385 178 385 226 2 770 404

PhilippinesEdit

 
The exclusive economic zone of the Philippines shown in the lighter blue shade, with Archepelagic Waters in the darkest blue

The Philippines' EEZ covers 2,263,816 km2 (874,064 sq mi).[76]

PolandEdit

The Polish EEZ covers the area of 30,533 km2 (11,789 sq mi) within the Baltic Sea.[77]

PortugalEdit

 
Portugal's Exclusive Economic Zones plus submitted Extended Continental Shelf to the UN[78]

Portugal has the 20th largest EEZ in the world. Presently, it is divided in three non-contiguous sub-zones:

Portugal submitted a claim to extend its jurisdiction over additional 2.15 million square kilometers of the neighboring continental shelf in May 2009,[79] resulting in an area with a total of more than 3,877,408 km2. The submission, as well as a detailed map, can be found in the Task Group for the extension of the Continental Shelf website.

Spain disputes the EEZ's southern border, maintaining that it should be drawn halfway between Madeira and the Canary Islands. But Portugal exercises sovereignty over the Savage Islands, a small archipelago north of the Canaries, claiming an EEZ border further south. Spain objects, arguing that the Savage Islands do not have a separate continental shelf,[80] citing article 121 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.[81]

RussiaEdit

 
Russia's exclusive economic zone
  • Kaliningrad (Baltic Sea) – 11,634 km2
  • St. Petersburg (Baltic Sea) – 12,759 km2
  • Barents Sea – 1,308,140 km2
  • Black Sea (without the Crimean EEZ) – 66,854 km2
  • Pacific – 3,419,202 km2
  • Siberia – 3,277,292 km2
  • Total – 8,095,881 km2[82]

SomaliaEdit

 
Somalia's exclusive economic zone
  • 825,052 km2

South AfricaEdit

 
South Africa's maritime zones, including the exclusive economic zone

South Africa's EEZ includes both that next to the African mainland and that around the Prince Edward Islands, totalling 1,535,538 km2.[83]

  • Mainland – 1,068,659 km2
  • Prince Edward islands – 466,879 km2

South KoreaEdit

 
South Korean exclusive economic zone:
  Korean EEZ
  EEZ claimed by Republic of Korea and Japan
  Joint regime with Japan

Area: 300,851 (225,214) km2

United KingdomEdit

 
The exclusive economic zones of the United Kingdom in blue, including the British Overseas Territories and the Crown Dependencies. The British claim in Antarctica is shown in shaded blue.[84]
 
British Isles EEZ

The United Kingdom's exclusive economic zone is the fifth largest in the world at 6,805,586 square km. It comprises the exclusive economic zones surrounding the United Kingdom,[85] the Crown Dependencies, and the British Overseas Territories. The figure does not include the EEZ of the British Antarctic Territory. The exclusive economic zones associated with the Falkland Islands and South Georgia are disputed by Argentina. The EEZ of the Chagos archipelago also known as the British Indian Ocean Territory is also disputed with Mauritius which considers the EEZ as part of its territory.

The UK was late to establish an EEZ, relying on overlapping maritime zones for fisheries, pollution control, and energy matters. The Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009 gave the powers to establish an EEZ, with the zone defined by The Exclusive Economic Zone Order 2013 which came into force on 31 March 2014.[86][87]

Only the United Kingdom and Gibraltar are part of the EU. The Crown dependencies and the remaining overseas territories (that is, all except Gibraltar) are not part of the EU. The United Kingdom has not as yet claimed its rights with regards to Gibraltar or the Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus.

Areas of EEZs of the UK, crown dependencies and overseas territories[83]
Territory km2 sq mi Notes
United Kingdom 773,676 298,718 includes Rockall and the Isle of Man
Anguilla 92,178 35,590
Ascension Island 441,658 170,525
Bermuda 450,370 173,890
British Indian Ocean Territory 638,568 246,552 disputed with Mauritius
British Virgin Islands 80,117 30,933
Cayman Islands 119,137 45,999
Channel Islands 11,658 4,501
Falkland Islands 550,872 212,693 disputed with Argentina
Gibraltar 426 164 disputed with Spain
Montserrat 7,582 2,927
Pitcairn Island 836,108 322,823
Saint Helena 444,916 171,783
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 1,449,532 559,667 disputed with Argentina
Tristan da Cunha archipelago† 754,720 291,400
Turks and Caicos Islands 154,068 59,486
Total 6,805,586 2,627,651

†Part of the overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, which together has an EEZ of 1,641,294 square km.

United StatesEdit

 
Exclusive economic zones of the United States, including insular areas

The United States' exclusive economic zone is the second largest in the world, covering 11,351,000 km2. Areas of its EEZ are located in three oceans, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea.

The sizes of the components of the US EEZ/territorial seas are (in decreasing size):[88]

Total: 11,351,000 km2 (4,383,000 sq mi)

VietnamEdit

 
Territorial claims in the South China Sea. Vietnam's EEZ has a blue line.

Vietnam has an exclusive economic zone of 417,663 km2 (161,261 sq mi). It includes the Paracel Islands and Spratly Islands. It has disputes mainly with China due to the Nine-Dash Line.

Rankings by areaEdit

This list includes dependent territories within their sovereign states (including uninhabited territories), but does not include claims on Antarctica. EEZ+TIA is exclusive economic zone (EEZ) plus total internal area (TIA) which includes land and internal waters.

Rank Country EEZ km2[83] Shelf km2 EEZ+TIA km2
1   France 11,691,000 579,422 12,366,417
2   United States 11,351,000 2,193,526 21,814,306
3   Australia 8,505,348 2,194,008 16,197,464
4   Russia 7,566,673 3,817,843 24,664,915
5   United Kingdom 6,805,586 872,891 7,048,486
6   Indonesia 6,159,032 2,039,381 8,063,601
7   Canada 5,599,077 2,644,795 15,607,077
8   Japan 4,479,388 214,976 4,857,318
9   New Zealand 4,083,744 277,610 4,352,424
10   Brazil 3,830,955 774,563 12,345,832
11   Chile 3,681,989 252,947 4,431,381
12   Kiribati 3,441,810 7,523 3,442,536
13   Mexico 3,269,386 419,102 5,141,968
14   Federated States of Micronesia 2,996,419 19,403 2,997,121
15   Denmark 2,551,238 495,657 4,761,811
16   Papua New Guinea 2,402,288 191,256 2,865,128
17   Norway 2,385,178 434,020 2,770,404
18   India 2,305,143 402,996 5,592,406
19   Marshall Islands 1,990,530 18,411 1,990,711
20   Portugal 1,727,408 28,000 1,819,498
21   Philippines 1,590,780 272,921 1,890,780
22   Solomon Islands 1,589,477 36,282 1,618,373
23   South Africa 1,535,538 156,337 2,756,575
24   Seychelles 1,336,559 39,063 1,337,014
25   Mauritius 1,284,997 29,061 1,287,037
26   Fiji 1,282,978 47,705 1,301,250
27   Madagascar 1,225,259 101,505 1,812,300
28   Argentina 1,159,063 856,346 3,939,463[89]
29   Ecuador 1,077,231 41,034 1,333,600
30   Spain 1,039,233 77,920 1,545,225
31   Maldives 923,322 34,538 923,622
32   Peru 906,454 82,000 2,191,670
33   China 877,019 231,340 10,473,980
34   Somalia 825,052 55,895 1,462,709
35   Colombia 808,158 53,691 1,949,906
36   Cape Verde 800,561 5,591 804,594
37   Iceland 751,345 108,015 854,345
38   Tuvalu 749,790 3,575 749,816
39   Vanuatu 663,251 11,483 675,440
40   Tonga 659,558 8,517 660,305
41   Bahamas 654,715 106,323 668,658
42   Palau 603,978 2,837 604,437
43   Mozambique 578,986 94,212 1,380,576
44   Morocco 575,230 115,157 1,287,780
45   Costa Rica 574,725 19,585 625,825
46   Namibia 564,748 86,698 1,388,864
47   Yemen 552,669 59,229 1,080,637
48   Italy 541,915 116,834 843,251
49   Oman 533,180 59,071 842,680
50   Myanmar 532,775 220,332 1,209,353
51   Sri Lanka 532,619 32,453 598,229
52   Angola 518,433 48,092 1,765,133
53   Greece 505,572 81,451 637,529
54   South Korea 475,469 342,522 575,469
55   Venezuela 471,507 98,500 1,387,950
56   Vietnam 417,663 365,198 748,875
57   Ireland 410,310 139,935 480,583
58   Libya 351,589 64,763 2,111,129
59   Cuba 350,751 61,525 460,637
60   Panama 335,646 53,404 411,163
61   Malaysia 334,671 323,412 665,474
62   Nauru 308,480 41 308,501
63   Equatorial Guinea 303,509 7,820 331,560
64   Thailand 299,397 230,063 812,517
65   Pakistan 290,000 51,383 1,117,911
66   Egypt 263,451 61,591 1,265,451
67   Turkey 261,654 56,093 1,045,216
68   Jamaica 258,137 9,802 269,128
69   Dominican Republic 255,898 10,738 304,569
70   Liberia 249,734 17,715 361,103
71   Honduras 249,542 68,718 362,034
72   Tanzania 241,888 25,611 1,186,975
73   Ghana 235,349 22,502 473,888
74   Saudi Arabia 228,633 107,249 2,378,323
75   Nigeria 217,313 42,285 1,141,081
76   Sierra Leone 215,611 28,625 287,351
77   Gabon 202,790 35,020 470,458
78   Barbados 186,898 426 187,328
79   Côte d'Ivoire 176,254 10,175 498,717
80   Iran 168,718 118,693 1,797,468
81   Mauritania 165,338 31,662 1,190,858
82   Comoros 163,752 1,526 165,987
83   Sweden 160,885 154,604 602,255
84   Senegal 158,861 23,092 355,583
85   Netherlands 154,011 77,246 192,345
85   Ukraine 147,318 79,142 750,818
86   Uruguay 142,166 75,327 318,381
87   Guyana 137,765 50,578 352,734
88   São Tomé and Príncipe 131,397 1,902 132,361
89   Samoa 127,950 2,087 130,781
90   Suriname 127,772 53,631 291,592
91   Haiti 126,760 6,683 154,510
92   Algeria 126,353 9,985 2,508,094
93   Nicaragua 123,881 70,874 254,254
94   Guinea-Bissau 123,725 39,339 159,850
95   Kenya 116,942 11,073 697,309
96   Guatemala 114,170 14,422 223,059
97   Antigua and Barbuda 110,089 4,128 110,531
98   Tunisia 101,857 67,126 265,467
99   Cyprus 98,707 4,042 107,958
100   El Salvador 90,962 16,852 112,003
101   Finland 87,171 85,109 425,590
102   Bangladesh 86,392 66,438 230,390
103   Taiwan 83,231 43,016 119,419
104   Eritrea 77,728 61,817 195,328
105   Trinidad and Tobago 74,199 25,284 79,329
106   East Timor 70,326 25,648 85,200
107   Sudan 68,148 19,827 1,954,216
108   Cambodia 62,515 62,515 243,550
109   Guinea 59,426 44,755 305,283
110   Croatia 59,032 50,277 115,626
111   United Arab Emirates 58,218 57,474 141,818
112   Germany 57,485 57,485 414,599
113   Malta 54,823 5,301 55,139
114   Estonia 36,992 36,992 82,219
115   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 36,302 1,561 36,691
116   Belize 35,351 13,178 58,317
117   Bulgaria 34,307 10,426 145,186
118   Benin 33,221 2,721 145,843
119   Qatar 31,590 31,590 43,176
120   Congo, Republic of the 31,017 7,982 373,017
121   Poland 29,797 29,797 342,482
122   Dominica 28,985 659 29,736
123   Latvia 28,452 27,772 93,011
124   Grenada 27,426 2,237 27,770
125   Israel 26,352 3,745 48,424
126   Romania 23,627 19,303 262,018
127   Gambia 23,112 5,581 34,407
128   Georgia 21,946 3,243 91,646
129   Lebanon 19,516 1,067 29,968
130   Cameroon 16,547 11,420 491,989
131   Saint Lucia 15,617 544 16,156
132   Albania 13,691 6,979 42,439
133   Togo 12,045 1,265 68,830
134   Kuwait 11,026 11,026 28,844
135   Syria 10,503 1,085 195,683
136   Bahrain 10,225 10,225 10,975
137   Brunei 10,090 8,509 15,855
138   Saint Kitts and Nevis 9,974 653 10,235
139   Montenegro 7,745 3,896 21,557
140   Djibouti 7,459 3,187 30,659
141   Lithuania 7,031 7,031 72,331
142   Belgium 3,447 3,447 33,975
143   Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,606 1,593 2,346,464
144   Singapore 1,067 1,067 1,772
145   Iraq 771 771 439,088
146   Monaco 288 2 290
147   Palestine 256 256 6,276
148   Slovenia 220 220 20,493
149   Jordan 166 59 89,508
150   Bosnia and Herzegovina 50 50 51,259
151   Kazakhstan 2,724,900
152   Mongolia 1,564,100
153   Chad 1,284,000
154   Niger 1,267,000
155   Mali 1,240,192
156   Ethiopia 1,104,300
157   Bolivia 1,098,581
158   Zambia 752,612
159   Afghanistan 652,090
160   Central African Republic 622,984
161   South Sudan 619,745
162   Botswana 582,000
163   Turkmenistan 488,100
164   Uzbekistan 447,400
165   Paraguay 406,752
166   Zimbabwe 390,757
167   Burkina Faso 274,222
168   Uganda 241,038
169   Laos 236,800
170   Belarus 207,600
171   Kyrgyzstan 199,951
172     Nepal 147,181
173   Tajikistan 143,100
174   Malawi 118,484
175   Hungary 93,028
176   Azerbaijan 86,600
177   Austria 83,871
178   Czech Republic 78,867
179   Serbia 77,474
180   Slovakia 49,035
181    Switzerland 41,284
182   Bhutan 38,394
183   Moldova 33,846
184   Lesotho 30,355
185   Armenia 29,743
186   Burundi 27,834
187   Rwanda 26,338
188   North Macedonia 25,713
189   Swaziland 17,364
190   Kosovo[a] 10,887
191   Luxembourg 2,586
192   Andorra 468
193   Liechtenstein 160
194   San Marino 61
195    Vatican City 0.44
Total   United Nations 137,159,222 25,103,204 274,004,586

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

a. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the 2013 Brussels Agreement. Kosovo has been recognized as an independent state by 112 out of 193 United Nations member states, while 12 states have recognized Kosovo only to later withdraw their recognition.
  1. ^ The reference gives an approximate figure of 2 million square kilometres for the EEZ claimed by Australia as part of its Antarctic Territory. This is in addition to the 8 million square kilometre total given in the reference. This EEZ is also distinct from the 2.56 million square kilometres of additional continental shelf mentioned in the reference.

ReferencesEdit

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  89. ^ Considering the maritime areas claimed, the total area of the Argentine reaches 6 581 500 km²

Works cited:

External linksEdit