Narathiwat (Thai: นราธิวาส, pronounced [nā.rāː.tʰí.wâːt]) is one of the southern provinces (changwat) of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are (from west clockwise) Yala and Pattani. To the south it borders the Malaysian state of Kelantan and Perak. The southern railway line ends in this province, which is one of the nation's four provinces that border Malaysia. The province features a range of cultures as well as natural resources, and is relatively fertile. Narathiwat is about 1,140 kilometers south of Bangkok and has an area of 4,475 square kilometers. Seventy-five percent of the area is jungle and mountains and has a tropical climate.
Map of Thailand highlighting Narathiwat Province
|• Governor||Sittichai Sakda (since October 2015)|
|• Total||4,475.0 km2 (1,727.8 sq mi)|
|Area rank||Ranked 50th|
|• Rank||Ranked 36th|
|• Density rank||Ranked 24th|
|• HDI (2009)||0.636 (medium) (76th)|
|Time zone||UTC+7 (ICT)|
|ISO 3166 code||TH-96|
Narathiwat Province is on the Gulf of Thailand, on the Malay Peninsula. The Bang Nara is the main river and enters the Gulf of Thailand at the town of Narathiwat. Narathat Beach, the most popular in the province, is near the estuary.
Budo–Su-ngai Padi National Park is in the Sankalakhiri mountain range. Established in 1974, the park covers an area of 294 km², extending into neighbouring Yala and Pattani Provinces. The main attraction is Pacho Waterfall.
The former name of Narathiwat was Menara (Jawi: منارا), meaning a 'minaret' in Malay, the pre-Islamic name is unknown. This became Bang Nara (Thai: บางนรา) or Bang Nak (Thai: บางนาค) in Thai, but was changed to Narathiwat by King Rama VI in 1915. "Narathiwat", from the Sanskrit (Nara+adhivāsa), means the residence of wise people. Today, traffic signs in Malaysia still use Menara.
Historically, Narathiwat was the part of the semi-independent Malay Sultanate of Patani, paying tribute to the Thai kingdoms of Sukhothai and Siamese Ayutthaya Kingdom. After Ayutthaya fell in 1767, the Sultanate of Patani gained full independence, but under King Rama I it again came under Thai control 18 years later and in the early–1800s was divided into seven smaller kingdoms.
Narathiwat is one of four Thai provinces (along with Yala, Pattani, and Satun) with a predominantly Muslim population; 82% are Muslim and 17.9% are Buddhist. Also 80.4% speak the Patani Malay as their first language. Narathiwat Malays are very similar in ethnicity and culture to the Malays of Kelantan, Malaysia.
In 1963, the Thai government launched the Nikhom Sang Ton Eng Pak Tai ('self-development community in the south') program to move families from Thailand's northeastern and central provinces to the Sukhirin and Chanae Districts of Narathiwat. A total of 5,633 families were relocated to Narathiwat, where each family was rewarded with 18 rai of land. In Phukhao Thong Subdistrict as of 2019[update], most inhabitants migrated from the northeast. They speak Isan and are 90% Buddhist in what is a predominantly Muslim province.
The inhabitants of Narathiwat are largely farmers and fishermen. Narathiwat is an area with various religious places of historical significance.
The provincial seal shows a sailing boat with a white elephant on the sail. A white elephant is a royal symbol, and was put on the seal to commemorate the white elephant Phra Sri Nararat Rajakarini which was caught here and presented to the king.
There has been growing violence in southern Thailand since 4 January 2004, especially in the majority Muslim provinces of Narathiwat, Yala, and Pattani. Most of the inhabitants of these provinces are ethnic Malays, though the cities are mainly Thai, Thai Chinese, and Indian. Violent mujahideen activity has happened since the 1980s, but this lessened when Thaksin Shinawatra became prime minister in 2001.
Most of the violence has been directed towards the minority Buddhist population in the province.
The government has been suspected of organising violent attacks on Muslims. On 8 June 2009, at least 10 died in a shooting during Muslim evening prayers. Five or six gunmen disguised by ski masks attacked a mosque. The army denied involvement.
Central Mosque of NarathiwatEdit
The important religious site for Muslims is the central mosque of Narathiwat. This mosque is on Pitchitbamrung Road, Tambon Bangnark, Amphoe Muang, about 1 kilometer from the provincial town. This mosque is the center for Thai Muslims who come to worship on Fridays. It was built in 1981 in a three-storied Arabian-style building with a high tower and a domed roof as other mosques. The tower is used to call Muslims to prayer.
Khao Kong Buddhist ParkEdit
A minority of the people in Narathiwat are Buddhist. Although a minority, there are Buddhist temples in the same amphoe as the mosque. The most famous one is Khao Kong Buddhist Park. It occupies an area of 142 rai (227,200 square metres (2,446,000 sq ft)) in Tambon Lamphu about nine kilometers from town on the Narathiwat-Rangae Road.
Phra Buddha Thaksin Ming MongkolEdit
The main attraction in this site is a southern Buddha image, the golden "Pra Buddha Thaksin Ming Monkol", which is seated in the lotus position and giving posture. "This mountaintop Buddha image which is considered to be the most beautiful and largest (17 meters wide and 24 meters high) outdoor Buddha image in southern Thailand is decorated in the South Indian style". It is highly respected by locals and Buddhists in the south.
Narathiwat Airport has a direct flight from and to Bangkok daily, operated by Air Asia, departing from Bangkok in the morning and leaving Narathiwat for Bangkok in the afternoon. It also has Thai Smile from Narathiwat to Suvanrabhumi airport.
Although there is no direct access to Mueang Narathiwat District, Narathiwat's main railway station and nearest to Mueang District is Tanyong Mat Railway Station, on the Southern Line, in Ra-ngae District. Other major stations along the line in Narathiwat include Rueso, Su-ngai Kolok, Su-ngai Padi and Cho-airong. Distance to Narathiwat by rail is roughly 1100 kilometres from Bangkok Railway Station.
Narathiwat is mostly served by public hospitals. Its main hospital is Naradhiwas Rajanagarindra Hospital and the province has one university hospital which is Galyanivadhanakarun Hospital of the Faculty of Medicine, Princess of Naradhiwas University.
- "Population of the Kingdom" (PDF). Department of Provincial Affairs (DOPA) Thailand (in Thai). 2014-12-31. Retrieved 19 Mar 2015.
- "Narathiwat". Tourism Authority of Thailand (TAT). Retrieved 18 May 2018.
- "Budo–Su-ngai Padi National Park". National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department. Archived from the original on 2015-07-10.
- ประพนธ์ เรืองณรงค์. "บทผนวกเกียรติยศ". ใน รัฐปัตตานีใน "ศรีวิชัย" เก่าแก่กว่ารัฐสุโขทัยในประวัติศาสตร์. สุจิตต์ วงษ์เทศ (บรรณาธิการ). พิมพ์ครั้งที่ 2. กรุงเทพฯ:มติชน. 2547, หน้า 350
- ประกาศ เปลี่ยนชื่อเมืองบางนรา เป็นเมืองนราธิวาส (PDF). Royal Gazette (in Thai). 32 (0 ก): 145. August 8, 1915.
- Karnjanatawe, Karnjana (5 September 2019). "Seeking fortune in paradise". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 7 September 2019.
- Tasanasuwan, P. (1991). Changwat kong rao sib see changwat pak tai [Our province 14 provinces in the South]. Bangkok: Thai Watana Panitch
- "Army denies role in Thai attack". BBC News. June 9, 2009. Retrieved April 6, 2010.
- Government of Narathiwat. (2000). Narathiwat Thailand [Brochure]. Narathiwat: Author.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Narathiwat.|
- http://www.narathiwat.go.th/ Website of province (Thai)
- Province page from the Tourist Authority of Thailand
- Southern Comforts; Narathiwat Province (article in The Nation)