Demographics of Africa

(Redirected from African people)

The population of Africa has grown rapidly over the past century[1] and consequently shows a large youth bulge, further reinforced by a low life expectancy of below 50 years in some African countries.[2] Total population as of 2020 is estimated at more than 1.3 billion,[3] with a growth rate of more than 2.5% p.a. The total fertility rate (births per woman) for Sub-Saharan Africa is 4.7 as of 2018, the highest in the world according to the World Bank.[4] The most populous African country is Nigeria with over 206 million inhabitants as of 2020 and a growth rate of 2.6% p.a.[5]

Demographics of Africa
Density44 per sq km (2019 est.)
Growth rate2.5% per annum (2017 est.)
Map of Africa indicating Human Development Index (2018).

PopulationEdit

GeneticsEdit

HistoryEdit

Alternative Estimates of African Population, 0–1998 AD (in thousands)Edit

Source: Maddison and others. (University of Groningen).[6]

Year[6] 0 1000 1500 1600 1700 1820 1870 1913 1950 1973 1998 2018 2100
(projected)
Africa 16 500 33 000 46 000 55 000 61 000 74 208 90 466 124 697 228 342 387 645 759 954 1 321 000[7] 3 924 421[8]
World 230 820 268 273 437 818 555 828 603 410 1 041 092 1 270 014 1 791 020 2 524 531 3 913 482 5 907 680 7 500 000[9] 10 349 323[8]

Shares of Africa and World Population, 0–2018 AD (% of world total)Edit

Source: Maddison and others (University of Groningen) and others.[6]

Year[6] 0 1000 1500 1600 1700 1820 1870 1913 1950 1973 1998 2020 2100
(projected)
Africa 7.1 12.3 10.5 9.9 10.1 7.1 7.1 7.0 9.0 9.9 12.9 18.2[7] 37.9[8]

Vital Statistics 1950–2021ADEdit

Registration of vital events in most of Africa is incomplete. The website Our World in Data prepared the following estimates based on statistics from the Population Department of the United Nations.[10]

Mid-year population (thousands) Live births (thousands) Deaths (thousands) Natural change (thousands) Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate (TFR) Infant mortality (per 1000 live births) Life expectancy (in years)
1950 227 549 10 949 6 063 4 886 48.1 26.6 21.5 6.59 186.6 37.62
1951   232 484   11 200   6 132   5 068 48.2 26.4 21.8 6.59 184.5 37.93
1952   237 586   11 448   6 155   5 293 48.2 25.9 22.3 6.60 181.3 38.44
1953   242 837   11 708   6 188   5 520 48.2 25.5 22.7 6.61 178.0 38.92
1954   248 245   11 941   6 234   5 708 48.1 25.1 23.0 6.61 174.7 39.30
1955   253 848   12 190   6 258   5 933 48.0 24.6 23.4 6.62 171.5 39.80
1956   259 631   12 453   6 312   6 141 47.9 24.3 23.6 6.63 168.9 40.17
1957   265 515   12 717   6 490   6 227 47.9 24.4 23.4 6.64 169.1 40.01
1958   271 430   12 982   6 556   6 427 47.8 24.1 23.7 6.65 166.5 40.30
1959   277 648   13 244   6 459   6 785 47.7 23.2 24.4 6.66 161.0 41.28
1960   284 288   13 538   6 553   6 985 47.6 23.0 24.6 6.67 158.6 41.48
1961   291 178   13 864   6 612   7 251 47.6 22.7 24.9 6.69 156.2 41.87
1962   298 334   14 205   6 670   7 535 47.6 22.3 25.2 6.71 153.9 42.32
1963   305 755   14 531   6 724   7 808 47.5 22.0 25.5 6.71 151.6 42.78
1964   313 466   14 864   6 773   8 090 47.4 21.6 25.8 6.72 149.3 43.25
1965   321 447   15 202   6 887   8 315 47.3 21.4 25.9 6.71 147.6 43.44
1966   329 658   15 559   7 054   8 505 47.2 21.4 25.8 6.72 146.8 43.43
1967   338 160   15 920   7 156   8 764 47.1 21.2 25.9 6.72 144.4 43.65
1968   346 980   16 292   7 210   9 082 46.9 20.8 26.2 6.72 142.6 44.10
1969   356 070   16 689   7 328   9 361 46.9 20.6 26.3 6.71 141.0 44.32
1970   365 450   17 086   7 384   9 702 46.7 20.2 26.5 6.71 139.2 44.78
1971   375 086   17 528   7 423   10 105 46.7 19.8 26.9 6.71 137.1 45.32
1972   384 930   17 939   7 572   10 367 46.6 19.7 26.9 6.71 135.6 45.41
1973   395 212   18 341   7 547   10 794 46.4 19.1 27.3 6.70 133.1 46.15
1974   406 069   18 817   7 658   11 160 46.3 18.9 27.5 6.70 132.0 46.46
1975   417 557   19 324   7 724   11 600 46.3 18.5 27.8 6.69 129.6 46.90
1976   429 573   19 818   7 710   12 109 46.1 17.9 28.2 6.68 126.1 47.64
1977   441 701   20 340   7 764   12 576 46.0 17.6 28.5 6.67 123.6 48.16
1978   454 463   20 861   7 841   13 019 45.9 17.3 28.7 6.66 121.3 48.57
1979   467 976   21 448   7 901   13 546 45.8 16.9 28.9 6.64 118.7 49.10
1980   481 543   21 984   7 986   13 998 45.6 16.6 29.0 6.60 116.4 49.51
1981   495 655   22 490   8 055   14 435 45.4 16.3 29.1 6.56 114.2 49.91
1982   510 540   23 060   8 146   14 914 45.2 16.0 29.2 6.51 111.7 50.28
1983   525 335   23 656   8 633   15 023 45.0 16.4 28.6 6.47 114.1 49.55
1984   540 183   24 153   8 774   15 379 44.7 16.2 28.5 6.41 112.0 49.71
1985   555 653   24 673   8 850   15 823 44.4 15.9 28.5 6.34 109.8 50.09
1986   571 646   25 161   8 891   16 270 44.0 15.6 28.5 6.26 107.0 50.55
1987   588 080   25 632   8 944   16 689 43.6 15.2 28.4 6.20 103.0 50.90
1988   604 511   26 013   9 360   16 653 43.0 15.5 27.5 6.11 105.1 50.43
1989   621 168   26 405   9 072   17 333 42.5 14.6 27.9 6.02 100.5 51.68
1990   638 157   26 758   9 278   17 480 41.9 14.5 27.4 5.91 99.8 51.65
1991   655 040   27 202   9 556   17 646 41.5 14.6 26.9 5.83 100.4 51.49
1992   671 932   27 649   9 850   17 798 41.1 14.6 26.5 5.76 99.7 51.24
1993   689 140   28 063   9 907   18 156 40.7 14.4 26.3 5.67 97.4 51.55
1994   706 488   28 449   10 476   17 973 40.2 14.8 25.4 5.59 96.5 50.52
1995   724 332   28 953   10 080   18 873 40.0 13.9 26.0 5.51 95.0 52.12
1996   742 765   29 395   10 282   19 113 39.6 13.8 25.7 5.42 94.0 52.13
1997   761 224   29 764   10 413   19 351 39.1 13.7 25.4 5.34 92.4 52.31
1998   779 908   30 212   10 806   19 406 38.7 13.8 24.9 5.27 91.7 51.90
1999   799 099   30 849   10 633   20 216 38.6 13.3 25.3 5.22 88.3 52.78
2000   818 952   31 448   10 614   20 833 38.4 13.0 25.4 5.18 85.9 53.35
2001   839 464   32 119   10 728   21 392 38.2 12.8 25.5 5.14 83.4 53.62
2002   860 611   32 750   10 799   21 951 38.0 12.5 25.5 5.10 80.9 54.00
2003   882 349   33 422   10 849   22 574 37.9 12.3 25.6 5.06 78.2 54.42
2004   904 781   34 130   10 876   23 254 37.7 12.0 25.7 5.02 75.5 54.90
2005   927 898   34 950   10 866   24 084 37.6 11.7 25.9 5.00 72.8 55.47
2006   951 740   35 735   10 807   24 928 37.5 11.3 26.2 4.97 70.2 56.14
2007   976 461   36 540   10 784   25 756 37.4 11.0 26.4 4.95 67.7 56.73
2008 1 001 981   37 411   10 769   26 642 37.3 10.7 26.6 4.93 65.3 57.31
2009 1 028 200   38 122   10 679   27 443 37.1 10.4 26.7 4.89 62.9 58.02
2010 1 055 233   38 920   10 652   28 268 36.9 10.1 26.8 4.86 60.9 58.61
2011 1 082 676   39 651   10 594   29 057 36.6 9.8 26.8 4.82 58.9 59.25
2012 1 110 797   40 262   10 562   29 700 36.2 9.5 26.7 4.77 57.0 59.81
2013 1 140 181   40 882   10 569   30 313 35.8 9.3 26.6 4.72 55.4 60.29
2014 1 170 299   41 517   10 590   30 927 35.5 9.0 26.4 4.67 53.9 60.75
2015 1 201 108   42 128   10 647   31 481 35.1 8.9 26.2 4.63 52.5 61.13
2016 1 232 112   42 515   10 652   31 863 34.5 8.6 25.8 4.56 51.3 61.59
2017 1 263 334   43 102   10 695   32 408 34.1 8.5 25.6 4.52 50.0 61.99
2018 1 295 265   43 713   10 763   32 950 33.7 8.3 25.4 4.47 48.8 62.34
2019 1 327 701   44 295   10 841   33 454 33.3 8.2 25.2 4.42 47.7 62.69
2020 1 360 677   44 807   11 390   33 417 32.9 8.4 24.6 4.36 46.4 62.23
2021 1 393 676   45 369   12 038   33 331 32.5 8.6 23.9 4.31 45.4 61.66

Population growthEdit

 
Most African countries have annual population growth rates above 2%.

The population of Africa was 177 million in 1950, and it grew 7.6 times to more than 1.341 billion in 2020.[3]

The increase in population is explosive, with a population under the age of 14 in the exponential growth phase, a difference from almost the rest of the world, which is already in balance (USA 1966, Europe 1969, Mexico 1990, Latin America 2000, India 2009, Asia 1977).[citation needed]

As of 2019, the total population of Africa is estimated at 1.3 billion, representing 16 percent of the world's population.[11] According to UN estimates, the population of Africa may reach 2.49 billion by 2050 (about 26% of the world's total) and 4.28 billion by 2100 (about 39% of the world's total).[11] The number of babies born in Africa compared to the rest of the world is expected to reach approximately 37% in the year 2050.[12]

The population of Africa first surpassed one billion in 2009, with a doubling time of 27 years (growth rate 2.6% p.a.).[13]

Population growth has continued at almost the same pace, and total population is expected to surpass 2 billion by 2038 (doubling time 29 years, 2.4% p.a.).[5]

The reason for the uncontrolled population growth since the mid 20th century is the decrease of infant mortality and general increase of life expectancy without a corresponding reduction in fertility rate, due to a very limited use of contraceptives. Further factors generally associated with decreased fertility include wealth, education, and female labor participation.[14] Uncontrolled population growth threatens to overwhelm infrastructure development and crippling economic development.[15] Kenya and Zambia are pursuing programs to promote family planning in an attempt to curb growth rates.[16]

The extreme population growth in Africa is driven by East Africa, Middle Africa and West Africa, which regions are projected to more than quintuple their populations over the 21st century. The most extreme of these is Middle Africa, with an estimated population increase by 681%, from less than 100 million in 2000 to more than 750 million in 2100 (almost half of this figure is driven by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, projected to increase from 47 million in 2000 to 362 million in 2100). Projected population growth is less extreme in Southern Africa and North Africa, which are expected, respectively, to not quite double and triple their populations over the same period.[11]

 
  >80
  77.5–80
  75–77.5
  72.5–75
  70–72.5
  67.5–70
  65–67.5
  60–65
  55–60
  50–55
Life expectancy by region in 2016[17][18][19][20]

Population estimates by region (in billions):

2000 2050 2100
Eastern Africa 0.26 0.85 (+227%, +1.8% p.a.) 1.45 (+458%, +0.6% p.a.)
Middle Africa 0.096 0.38 (+296%, +2.1% p.a.) 0.75 (+681%, +0.8% p.a.)
North Africa 0.17 0.37 (+118%, +1.1% p.a.) 0.50 (+194%, +0.3% p.a.)
Southern Africa 0.051 0.087 (+70%, +0.6% p.a.) 0.094 (+82%, -0.1% p.a.)
West Africa 0.23 0.80 (+248%, +2.0% p.a.) 1.48 (+543%, +0.7% p.a.)
Africa 0.81 2.49 (+207%, +1.7% p.a.) 4.28 (+428%, +0.6% p.a.)
World 6.14 9.73 (+58%, +0.5% p.a.) 10.88 (+77%, +0.0% p.a.)

Total fertility rateEdit

All countries in sub-Saharan Africa had TFRs above replacement level in 2019 and accounted for 27.1% of global livebirths.[21]

HealthEdit

 
World map indicating infant mortality rates per 1000 births in 2006.[22]

History of health care development in sub-Saharan AfricaEdit

In September 1987, UNICEF and the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Committee announced the launching of the Bamako Initiative— chartered in response to financial issues occurring in the region during the 1980s, and with the aim of increasing access to vital medications through community involvement in revolving drug funds.[23][24] The 1987 Bamako Initiative conference, organized by the WHO was held in Bamako, the capital of Mali, and helped reshape the health policy of sub-Saharan Africa.[25] The meeting was attended by African Ministers of Health who advocated for improvement of healthcare access through the revitalization of primary healthcare.[23][24] The new strategy substantially increased accessibility through community-based healthcare reform, resulting in more efficient and equitable provision of services. The public health community within the region raised issues in response to the initiative, of which included: equity, access, affordability, integration issues, relative importance given to medications, management, dependency, logistics, and sustainability.[23] As a result of these critiques, the Initiative later transformed to address the increase of accessibility of health services, the enhancement of quality of health services, and the overall improvement of health system management.[23] A comprehensive approach strategy was extended to all areas of health care, with subsequent improvement in the health care indicators and improvement in health care efficiency and cost.[26][27]

Major health challengesEdit

The sub-Saharan African region experiences disproportionate rates of infectious and chronic diseases in comparison to other global regions.[28]

DiabetesEdit

Type 2 diabetes persists as an epidemic in the region posing a public health and socioeconomic crisis for sub-Saharan Africa. Scarcity of data for pathogenesis and subtypes for diabetes in sub-Saharan African communities has led to gaps in documenting epidemiology for the disease. High rates of undiagnosed diabetes in many countries leaves individuals at a high risk of chronic health complications, thus, posing a high risk of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality in the region.[29]

HIV/AIDSEdit

In 2011, sub-Saharan Africa was home to 69% of all people living with HIV/AIDS worldwide.[30] In response, a number of initiatives have been launched to educate the public on HIV/AIDS. Among these are combination prevention programmes, considered to be the most effective initiative, the abstinence, be faithful, use a condom campaign, and the Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation's outreach programs.[31] According to a 2013 special report issued by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the number of HIV positive people in Africa receiving anti-retroviral treatment in 2012 was over seven times the number receiving treatment in 2005, with an almost 1 million added in the last year alone.[32][33] The number of AIDS-related deaths in sub-Saharan Africa in 2011 was 33 percent less than the number in 2005.[34] The number of new HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa in 2011 was 25 percent less than the number in 2001.[34]

MalariaEdit

Malaria is an endemic illness in sub-Saharan Africa, where the majority of malaria cases and deaths worldwide occur.[35]

Maternal and infant mortalityEdit

 
Map of countries by fertility rate (2020), according to the Population Reference Bureau

Studies show that more than half of the world's maternal deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa.[36][37] However, progress has been made in this area, as maternal mortality rates have decreased for multiple countries in the region by about half since 1990.[37] Additionally, the African Union in July 2003 ratified the Maputo Protocol, which pledges to prohibit female genital mutilation.[38]

The sub-Saharan African region alone accounts for about 45% of global infant and child mortalities. Studies have shown a relationship between infant survival and the education of mothers, as years of education positively correlate with infant survival rates. Geographic location is also a factor, as child mortality rates are higher in rural areas in comparison to urban regions.[39]

MeaslesEdit

Routine immunization has been introduced to countries within sub-Saharan Africa in order to prevent measles outbreaks within the region.[40]

Neglected tropical diseasesEdit

Neglected tropical diseases such as hookworm infection encompass some of the most common health conditions which affect an estimated 500 million individuals in the sub-Saharan African region.[41]

Non-communicable diseasesEdit

Results of Global Burden of Disease studies reveal that the age-standardized death rates of non-communicable diseases in at least four sub-Saharan countries including South Africa, Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria, and Ethiopia supersede that of identified high-income countries.[28] Improvement in statistics systems and increase in epidemiological studies with in-depth analysis of disease risk factors could improve the understanding of non-communicable diseases (i.e.: diabetes, hypertension, cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, etc.) in sub-Saharan Africa as well as better inform decisions surrounding healthcare policy in the region.[28]

OnchocerciasisEdit

Onchocerciasis ("river blindness"), a common cause of blindness, is also endemic to parts of the region. More than 99% of people affected by the illness worldwide live in 31 countries therein.[42] In response, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) was launched in 1995 with the aim of controlling the disease.[42]

TuberculosisEdit

Tuberculosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality on a global scale, especially in high HIV-prevalent populations in the sub-Saharan African region, with a high case fatality rate.[43]

National healthcare systemsEdit

National health systems vary between countries. In Ghana, most health care is provided by the government and largely administered by the Ministry of Health and Ghana Health Services. The healthcare system has five levels of providers: health posts which are first level primary care for rural areas, health centers and clinics, district hospitals, regional hospitals and tertiary hospitals. These programs are funded by the government of Ghana, financial credits, Internally Generated Fund (IGF), and Donors-pooled Health Fund.[44]

A shortage of health professionals compounded by migration of health workers from sub-Saharan Africa to other parts of the world (namely English-speaking nations such as the United States and the United Kingdom) has negatively impacted productivity and efficacy of the region's health systems.[45]

More than 85% of individuals in Africa use traditional medicine as an alternative to often expensive allopathic medical health care and costly pharmaceutical products. The Organization of African Unity (OAU) Heads of State and Government declared the 2000s decade as the African Decade on African Traditional Medicine in an effort to promote The WHO African Region’s adopted resolution for institutionalizing traditional medicine in health care systems across the continent.[46] Public policy makers in the region are challenged with consideration of the importance of traditional/indigenous health systems and whether their coexistence with the modern medical and health sub-sector would improve the equitability and accessibility of health care distribution, the health status of populations, and the social-economic development of nations within sub-Saharan Africa.[47]

EthnicityEdit

 
Yoruba drummers in Kwara State, Nigeria (2004).

Speakers of Bantu languages (part of the Niger–Congo family) predominate in southern, central and southeast Africa. The Bantu farmers from West Africa's inland savanna progressively expanded over most of Africa.[50] But there are also several Nilotic groups in South Sudan and East Africa, the mixed Swahili people on the Swahili Coast, and a few remaining indigenous Khoisan (San and Khoikhoi) and Pygmy peoples in southern and central Africa, respectively. Native Bantu-speaking Africans also predominate in Gabon and Equatorial Guinea, and are found in parts of southern Cameroon. In the Kalahari Desert of Southern Africa, the distinct people known as the "San" have long been present. Together with the Khoikhoi, they form the Khoisan. The San are the pre-Bantu indigenous people of southern Africa, while Pygmies are the pre-Bantu indigenous African peoples of Central Africa.[51]

The peoples of West Africa primarily speak Niger–Congo languages belonging mostly, though not exclusively, to its non-Bantu branches, though some Nilo-Saharan and Afroasiatic-speaking groups are also found. The Niger–Congo-speaking Yoruba, Igbo, Fulani, Akan and Wolof ethnic groups are the largest and most influential. In the central Sahara, Mandinka or Mande groups are most significant. Chadic-speaking groups, including the Hausa, are found in the more northerly parts of the region nearest to the Sahara and Nilo-Saharan communities such as the Kanuri,[52][53] Zarma[53] and Songhai[53][54] are present in eastern parts of West Africa bordering Central Africa.

The peoples of North Africa comprise three main groups: Berbers in the northwest, Egyptians and Libyans in northeast, and Nilo-Saharan-speaking peoples in the east. The non-native Muslim settlers who arrived in the 7th century introduced the Arabic language and Islam to the region, initiating a process of linguistic Arabization of the region's inhabitants. The Semitic Phoenicians (who founded Carthage) and Hyksos, the Indo-Iranian Alans, the Indo-European Greeks, Romans and Vandals settled in North Africa as well.

Berber-speaking populations still make significant communities within Morocco and Algeria and are still also present in smaller numbers in Tunisia and Libya.[55] The Berber-speaking Tuareg and other often-nomadic peoples are the principal inhabitants of the Saharan interior of North Africa. In Mauritania, there is a small Berber community and Niger–Congo-speaking peoples in the South, though in both regions Arabic and Arab culture predominates. In Sudan, although Arabic and Arab culture predominates, it is also inhabited by originally Nilo-Saharan-speaking groups such as the Nubians, Fur, Masalit and Zaghawa[56] who over the centuries have variously intermixed with migrants from the Arabian peninsula. Small communities of Afro-Asiatic-speaking Beja nomads can also be found in Egypt and Sudan.

In the Horn of Africa, Afro-Asiatic-speaking groups predominate. Ethiopian and Eritrean groups like the Amhara and Tigrayans (collectively known as Habesha) speak languages from the Semitic branch of Afro-Asiatic language family, while the Oromo and Somali speak languages from the Cushitic branch of Afro-Asiatic. In southern Ethiopia and Eritrea, Nilotic peoples related to those in South Sudan are also found, while Bantu and Khoisan ethnic minorities inhabit parts of southern Somalia near the Kenyan border.

 
San man from Botswana.

Prior to the decolonization movements of the post-World War II era, Europeans were represented in every part of Africa.[57] Decolonisation during the 1960s and 1970s often resulted in the mass emigration of European-descended settlers out of Africa – especially from Algeria and Morocco (1.6 million pieds-noirs in North Africa),[58] Kenya, Congo,[59] Rhodesia, Mozambique and Angola.[60] By the end of 1977, more than one million Portuguese were thought to have returned from Africa.[61] Nevertheless, European Africans remain a minority in many African states, particularly South Africa, Zimbabwe, Namibia and Réunion.[62] The African country with the largest native European African population is South Africa.[63] The Boers or Afrikaners, the British diaspora and the Coloureds (multiracial) are the largest European-descended groups in Africa today.

European colonization also brought sizable groups of Asians, particularly people from the Indian subcontinent, to British colonies. Large Indian communities are found in South Africa, and smaller ones are present in Kenya, Tanzania, and some other southern and East African countries. The large Indian community in Uganda was expelled by the dictator Idi Amin in 1972, though many have since returned. The islands in the Indian Ocean are also populated primarily by people of Asian origin, often mixed with Africans and Europeans. The Malagasy people of Madagascar are Austronesian people and native African people, but those along the coast are generally mixed with Bantu, Arab, Indian and European origins. Malay and Indian ancestries are also important components in the group of people known in South Africa as Cape Coloureds (people with origins in two or more races and continents). Beginning with the 21st century many Hispanics, primarily Mexicans, Central Americans, Chileans, Peruvians, and Colombians, have immigrated to Africa. Around 500,000 Hispanics have immigrated to Africa, most of whom live in South Africa, Kenya, Nigeria, Uganda, and Ghana. During the 20th century, small but economically important communities of Lebanese and Chinese[64] have also developed in the larger coastal cities of West and East Africa, respectively.[65]

LanguagesEdit

 
1996 map of the major ethnolinguistic groups of Africa, by the Library of Congress Geography and Map Division (substantially based on G.P. Murdock, Africa, its peoples and their cultural history, 1959). Colour-coded are 15 major ethnolinguistic super-groups, as follows:
Afroasiatic
     Hamitic (Berber, Cushitic) + Semitic (Ethiopian, Arabic)
     Hausa (Chadic)
Niger–Congo
     Bantu
     "Guinean" (Volta-Niger, Kwa, Kru)
     "Western Bantoid" (Atlantic)
     "Central Bantoid" (Gur, Senufo)
     "Eastern Bantoid" (Southern Bantoid)
     Mande
Nilo-Saharan (unity debated)
     Nilotic
     Central Sudanic, Eastern Sudanic (besides Nilotic)
     Kanuri
     Songhai
other
     Khoi-San (unity doubtful; Khoikhoi, San, Sandawe + Hadza)
     Malayo-Polynesian (Malagasy)
     Indo-European (Afrikaaner)

There are three major linguistic phyla native to Africa: Niger–Congo languages (including Bantu) in West, Central, Southeast and Southern Africa; Nilo-Saharan languages (unity debated) spoken from Tanzania to Sudan and from Chad to Mali; Khoisan languages (probably no phylogenetic unit, see Khoe languages), concentrated in the Kalahari Desert of Namibia and Botswana; There are several other small families and language isolates, as well as languages that have yet to be classified.

In addition, the Afroasiatic languages are spread throughout Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa and parts of the Sahel. The Afroasiatic homeland may be either in Western Asia or in Africa.

More recently introduced to Africa are Austronesian languages spoken in Madagascar, as well as Indo-European languages spoken in South Africa and Namibia (Afrikaans, English, German), which were used as lingua francas in former European colonies.

The total number of languages natively spoken in Africa is variously estimated (depending on the delineation of language vs. dialect) at between 1,250 and 2,100,[66] and by some counts at "over 3,000",[67]Nigeria alone has over 500 languages (according to the count of SIL Ethnologue),[68]

Around a hundred languages are widely used for inter-ethnic communication. Arabic, Somali, Berber, Amharic, Oromo, Igbo, Swahili, Hausa, Manding, Fulani and Yoruba are spoken by tens of millions of people. Twelve dialect clusters (which may group up to a hundred linguistic varieties) are spoken by 75 percent, and fifteen by 85 percent, of Africans as a first or additional language.[69]

Niger–Congo is the largest phylum of African languages, with more than 500 million speakers (2017); it is dominated by the Bantu branch, spread throughout sub-Saharan Africa in the Bantu expansion, Bantu speakers accounting for about half of Niger–Congo speakers. Arabic is the most widely spoken single language in Africa by far, with a population of Arab Africa of the order of 330 million (2017). Other Afroasiatic languages are spoken by of the order of 100 million speakers in Africa (2017). Nilo-Saharan are spoken by of the order of 100 million speakers (2017). Khoisan groups a number of mostly endangered click languages, the largest being Khoekhoe with of the order of 300,000 speakers (2016).

ReligionEdit

See alsoEdit

External linksEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Zinkina J., Korotayev A. Explosive Population Growth in Tropical Africa: Crucial Omission in Development Forecasts (Emerging Risks and Way Out). World Futures 70/2 (2014): 120–139 Archived 23 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ See List of countries by life expectancy; according to the 2012 CIA Factbook, 4 of 53 countries show a life expectancy at birth below 50 years
  3. ^ a b "Population of Africa (2019) – Worldometers". www.worldometers.info. Archived from the original on 8 March 2018. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
  4. ^ "Fertility rate, total (births per woman) - Sub-Saharan Africa". The World Bank. Archived from the original on 13 May 2020. Retrieved 29 May 2020.
  5. ^ a b "World Population Prospects – Population Division – United Nations". esa.un.org. Archived from the original on 24 January 2018. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d Maddison. "Growth of World Population, GDP and GDP Per Capita before 1820" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 February 2021. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
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