Projections of population growth

Population projections are attempts to show how the human population living today will change in the future.[1] These projections are an important input to forecasts of the population's impact on this planet and humanity's future well-being.[2] Models of population growth take trends in human development, and apply projections into the future.[3] These models use trend-based-assumptions about how populations will respond to economic, social and technological forces to understand how they will affect fertility and mortality, and thus population growth.[3]

World population growth 1700–2100

The 2019 forecast from the United Nation's Population Division (made before the COVID-19 pandemic) shows that world population growth peaked at 2.1% per year in 1968, has since dropped to 1.1%, and could drop even further to 0.1% by 2100, a growth rate not seen since pre-industrial revolution days.[4] Based on this, the UN Population Division expects world population, currently (2020) at 7.8 billion, to level out at or soon after the end of the 21st Century at 10.9 billion (the median line),[5][6] assuming a continuing decrease in the global average fertility rate from 2.5 births per woman during the 2015–2020 period to 1.9 in 2095–2100, according to the medium-variant projection.[7] About two thirds of the predicted growth in population between 2020 and 2050 will take place in Africa.[8]

World population prospects, 2019

Because of population momentum the global population could continue to grow, although at a steadily slower rate, for the remainder of this century, but the main driver of long-term future population growth will be the evolution of the global average fertility rate.[7] However, estimates outside of the United Nations have put forward alternative models based on additional downward pressure on fertility (such as successful implementation of education and family planning goals in the Sustainable Development Goals) -- which could result in peak population mid-21st century rather than later.[3][9]

Table of UN projectionsEdit

The United Nation's Population Division publishes high & low estimates (by gender) & density.

UN World Population Projections (Average Estimates) [10]
Year Total population
2021 7,874,965,732
2022 7,953,952,577
2023 8,031,800,338
2024 8,108,605,255
2025 8,184,437,453
2026 8,259,276,651
2027 8,333,078,318
2028 8,405,863,301
2029 8,477,660,723
2030 8,548,487,371
2031 8,618,349,454
2032 8,687,227,873
2033 8,755,083,512
2034 8,821,862,705
2035 8,887,524,229
2036 8,952,048,885
2037 9,015,437,616
2038 9,077,693,645
2039 9,138,828,562
2040 9,198,847,382
2041 9,257,745,483
2042 9,315,508,153
2043 9,372,118,247
2044 9,427,555,382
2045 9,481,803,272
2046 9,534,854,673
2047 9,586,707,749
2048 9,637,357,320
2049 9,686,800,146
2050 9,735,033,900
2051 9,782,061,758
2052 9,827,885,441
2053 9,872,501,562
2054 9,915,905,251
2055 9,958,098,746
2056 9,999,085,167
2057 10,038,881,262
2058 10,077,518,080
2059 10,115,036,360
2060 10,151,469,683
2061 10,186,837,209
2062 10,221,149,040
2063 10,254,419,004
2064 10,286,658,354
2065 10,317,879,315
2066 10,348,098,079
2067 10,377,330,830
2068 10,405,590,532
2069 10,432,889,136
2070 10,459,239,501
2071 10,484,654,858
2072 10,509,150,402
2073 10,532,742,861
2074 10,555,450,003
2075 10,577,288,195
2076 10,598,274,172
2077 10,618,420,909
2078 10,637,736,819
2079 10,656,228,233
2080 10,673,904,454
2081 10,690,773,335
2082 10,706,852,426
2083 10,722,171,375
2084 10,736,765,444
2085 10,750,662,353
2086 10,763,874,023
2087 10,776,402,019
2088 10,788,248,948
2089 10,799,413,366
2090 10,809,892,303
2091 10,819,682,643
2092 10,828,780,959
2093 10,837,182,077
2094 10,844,878,798
2095 10,851,860,145
2096 10,858,111,587
2097 10,863,614,776
2098 10,868,347,636
2099 10,872,284,134
2100 10,875,393,719
2101 10,877,000,004
2102 10,877,008,846

History of population projectionsEdit

Walter Greiling projected in the 1950s that world population would reach a peak of about nine billion, in the 21st century, and then stop growing after a readjustment of the Third World and a sanitation of the tropics.[11]

Estimates published in the 2000s tended to predict that the population of Earth would stop increasing around 2070.[12] In a 2004 long-term prospective report, the United Nations Population Division projected the world population would peak at 7.85 billion in 2075. After reaching this maximum, it would decline slightly and then resume a slow increase, reaching a level of 5.11 billion by 2300, about the same as the projected 2050 figure.[13]

This prediction was revised in the 2010s, to the effect that no maximum will likely be reached in the 21st century.[14] The main reason for the revision was that the ongoing rapid population growth in Africa had been underestimated. A 2014 paper by demographers from several universities and the United Nations Population Division forecast that the world's population would reach about 10.9 billion in 2100 and continue growing thereafter.[15] In 2017 the UN predicted a decline of global population growth rate from +1.0% in 2020 to +0.5% in 2050 and to +0.1% in 2100.[16]

Jørgen Randers, one of the authors of the seminal 1972 long-term simulations in The Limits to Growth, offered an alternative scenario in a 2012 book, arguing that traditional projections insufficiently take into account the downward impact of global urbanization on fertility. Randers' "most likely scenario" predicts a peak in the world population in the early 2040s at about 8.1 billion people, followed by decline.[17]

Drivers of population changeEdit

The population of a country or area grows or declines through the interaction of three demographic drivers: fertility, mortality, and migration.[2]

FertilityEdit

 
Map of countries by fertility rate (2020), according to the Population Reference Bureau

Fertility is expressed as the total fertility rate (TFR), a measure of the number of children on average that a woman will bear in her lifetime. With longevity trending towards uniform and stable values worldwide, the main driver of future population growth will be the evolution of the fertility rate.[7]

Where fertility is high, demographers generally assume that fertility will decline and eventually stabilize at about two children per woman.[2]

During the period 2015–2020, the average world fertility rate was 2.5 children per woman,[7] about half the level in 1950-1955 (5 children per woman). In the medium variant, global fertility is projected to decline further to 2.2 in 2045-2050 and to 1.9 in 2095–2100.[7]

MortalityEdit

If the mortality rate is relatively high and the resulting life expectancy is therefore relatively low, changes in mortality can have a material impact on population growth. Where the mortality rate is low and life expectancy has therefore risen, a change in mortality will have much less an effect.[2]

Because child mortality has declined substantially over the last several decades,[2] Global life expectancy at birth, which is estimated to have risen from 47 years in 1950–1955 to 67 years in 2000–2005,[18] is expected to keep rising to reach 77 years in 2045–2050.[19] In the More Developed regions, the projected increase is from 79 years today[18] to 83 years by mid-century.[19] Among the Least Developed countries, where life expectancy today is just under 65 years,[18] it is expected to be 71 years in 2045–2050.[19]

The population of 31 countries or areas, including Ukraine, Romania, Japan and most of the successor states of the Soviet Union, is expected to be lower in 2050 than in 2005.

MigrationEdit

Migration can have a significant effect on population change. Global South-South migration accounts for 38% of total migration, and Global South-North for 34%.[20] For example, the United Nations reports that during the period 2010–2020, fourteen countries will have seen a net inflow of more than one million migrants, while ten countries will have seen a net outflow of similar proportions. The largest migratory outflows have been in response to demand for workers in other countries (Bangladesh, Nepal and the Philippines) or to insecurity in the home country (Myanmar, Syria and Venezuela). Belarus, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, the Russian Federation, Serbia and Ukraine have experienced a net inflow of migrants over the decade, helping to offset population losses caused by a negative natural increase (births minus deaths).[21]

World populationEdit

 
Estimates of population levels in different continents between 1950 and 2050, according to the United Nations (2011 edition). The vertical axis is logarithmic and is in millions of people.
 
UN estimates (as of 2017) for world population by continent in 2000 and in 2050 (pie chart size to scale).[16]
     Asia      Africa      Europe      Latin America      Northern America      Oceania
 
World population estimates from 1800 to 2100, based on "high", "medium" and "low" United Nations projections in 2010 (colored red, orange and green) and US Census Bureau historical estimates (in black). Actual recorded population figures (as of 2010) are colored in blue. According to the highest estimate, the world population may rise to 16 billions by 2100; according to the lowest estimate, it may decline to 7.2 billions.

2050Edit

The median scenario of the UN 2019 World Population Prospects[22] predicts the following populations per region in 2050 (compared to population in 2000), in billions:

2000 2050 growth %/yr
Asia 3.74 5.29 +41% +0.7%
Africa 0.81 2.49 +207% +2.3%
Europe 0.73 0.71 −3% −0.1%
South/Central America
+Caribbean
0.52 0.76 +46% +0.8%
North America 0.31 0.43 +39% +0.7%
Oceania 0.03 0.06 +100% +1.4%
World 6.14 9.74 +60% +0.9%

After 2050Edit

Projections of population reaching more than one generation into the future are highly speculative: Thus, the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs report of 2004 projected the world population to peak at 9.22 billion in 2075 and then stabilise at a value close to 9 billion;[23] By contrast, a 2014 projection by the United Nations Population Division predicted a population close to 11 billion by 2100 without any declining trend in the foreseeable future.[15]

United Nations projectionsEdit

The UN Population Division report of 2019 projects world population to continue growing, although at a steadily decreasing rate, and to reach 10.9 billion in 2100 with a growth rate at that time of close to zero.[22]

This projected growth of population, like all others, depends on assumptions about vital rates. For example, the UN Population Division assumes that Total fertility rate (TFR) will continue to decline, at varying paces depending on circumstances in individual regions, to a below-replacement level of 1.9 by 2100. Between now (2020) and 2100, regions with TFR currently below this rate, e.g. Europe, will see TFR rise.  Regions with TFR above this rate, will see TFR continue to decline.[7]  

 
Total Fertility Rate for six regions and the world, 1950-2100

Other projectionsEdit

  • A 2020 study published by The Lancet from researchers funded by the Global Burden of Disease Study projects world population to peak in 2064 at 9.7 billion and then decline to 8.8 billion in 2100. In this case TFR is assumed to decline more rapidly than the UN's projection, to reach 1.7 in 2100..[24]
  • An analysis from the Wittgenstein Center IIASA predicts global population to peak in 2070 at 9.4 billion and then decline to 9.0 billion in 2100.[25]

Other assumptions can produce other results.  Some of the authors of the 2004 UN report assumed that life expectancy would rise slowly and continuously. The projections in the report assume this with no upper limit, though at a slowing pace depending on circumstances in individual countries. By 2100, the report assumed life expectancy to be from 66 to 97 years, and by 2300 from 87 to 106 years, depending on the country. Based on that assumption, they expect that rising life expectancy will produce small but continuing population growth by the end of the projections, ranging from 0.03 to 0.07 percent annually. The hypothetical feasibility (and wide availability) of life extension by technological means would further contribute to long term (beyond 2100) population growth .[26][27][28]

Evolutionary biology also suggests the demographic transition may reverse itself and global population may continue to grow in the long term.[29] In addition, recent evidence suggests birth rates may be rising in the 21st century in the developed world.[30]

Growth regionsEdit

The table below shows that from 2020 to 2050, the bulk of the world's population growth is predicted to take place in Africa: of the additional 1.9 billion people projected between 2020 and 2050, 1.2 billion will be added in Africa, 0.7 billion in Asia and zero in the rest of the world. Africa's share of global population is projected to grow from 17% in 2020 to 26% in 2050 and 39% by 2100, while the share of Asia will fall from 59% in 2020 to 55% in 2050 and 43% in 2100.[22][8] The strong growth of the African population will happen regardless of the rate of decrease of fertility, because of the exceptional proportion of young people already living today. For example, the UN projects that the population of Nigeria will surpass that of the United States by about 2050.[6]

Sources of Population Growth
Region Pop

2020

% of

Total

Pop

2050

% of

Total

Chg

2020–50

Pop

2100

% of

Total

Africa 1.3 17 2.5 26 1.2 4.3 39
Asia 4.6 59 5.3 55 0.7 4.7 43
Other 1.9 24 1.9 20 0.0 1.9 17
World 7.8 100 9.7 100 1.9 10.9 100

The population of the More Developed regions is slated to remain mostly unchanged, at 1.3 billion for the remainder of the 21st century. All population growth comes from the Less Developed regions.[22][31]

Sources of Population Growth
Region Pop

2020

% of

Total

Pop

2050

% of

Total

Chg

2020–50

Pop

2100

% of

Total

More Developed 1.3 17 1.3 13 0.0 1.3 12
Less Developed 6.5 83 8.4 87 1.9 9.6 88
World 7.8 100 9.7 100 1.9 10.9 100

The table below breaks out the UN's future population growth predictions by region[8]

Annual Percent Change of Population For Three Periods In the Future
Region 2020–25

% chg/yr

2045–50

% chg/yr

2095–2100

% chg/yr

Africa 2.4 1.8 0.6
Asia 0.8 0.1 −0.4
Europe 0.0 −0.3 −0.1
Latin America & the Caribbean 0.8 0.2 −0.5
Northern America 0.6 0.3 0.2
Oceania 1.2 0.8 0.4
World 1.0 0.5 0.0

Between 2020 and the end of this century, the UN predicts that all six regions will experience declines in population growth, that by the end of the century three of them will be experiencing population decline, and the world will have reached zero population growth.

Most populous nations by 2050 and 2100Edit

The UN Population Division has calculated the future population of the world's countries, based on current demographic trends. Current (2020) world population is 7.8 billion. The 2019 report projects world population in 2050 to be 9.7 billion people, and possibly as high as 11 billion by the next century, with the following estimates for the top 14 countries in 2020, 2050, and 2100:[22]

Population Growth of the Top 14 Countries in 2020, 2050, and 2100
Country Pop 2020 (mil) Pop 2050 (mil) Pop 2100 (mil) 2020 Rank 2050 Rank 2100 Rank
China 1,439 1,402 1,065 1 2 2
India 1,380 1,639 1,447 2 1 1
United States 331 379 434 3 4 4
Indonesia 273 331 321 4 6 7
Pakistan 221 338 403 5 5 5
Brazil 212 229 181 6 7 12
Nigeria 206 401 733 7 3 3
Bangladesh 165 192 151 8 10 14
Russia 146 136 126 9 14 19
Mexico 129 155 141 10 12 17
Japan 126 106 75 11 17 36
Ethiopia 115 205 294 12 8 8
Philippines 110 144 146 13 13 15
Egypt 102 160 225 14 11 10
Democratic Republic of the Congo 90 194 362 16 9 6
Tanzania 60 135 286 24 15 9
Niger 24 66 165 56 30 13
Angola 33 77 188 44 24 11
World 7,795 9,735 10,875

From 2017 to 2050, the nine highlighted countries are expected to account for half of the world's projected population increase: India, Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan, Ethiopia, Tanzania, the United States, Uganda, and Indonesia, listed according to the expected size of their contribution to that projected population growth.[21]

Population projections of the largest metropolitan areasEdit

Large urban areas are hubs of economic development and innovation, with larger cities underpinning regional economies and local and global sustainability initiatives. Currently, 757 million humans live in the 101 largest cities;[32] these cities are home to 11% of the world's population.[32] By the end of the century, the world population is projected to grow, with estimates ranging from 6.9 billion to 13.1 billion;[32] the percentage of people living in the 101 largest cities is estimated to be 15% to 23%.[32]

The following 101 metropolitan areas with the largest population projections for the years 2025, 2050, 2075, and 2100 are listed below.[32]

Rank City Projected
Population (millions)
2025
City Projected
Population (millions)
2050
City Projected
Population (millions)
2075
City Projected
Population (millions)
2100
1   Tokyo 36.40   Mumbai 42.40   Kinshasa 58.42   Lagos 88.30
2   Mumbai 26.39   Delhi 36.16   Mumbai 57.86   Kinshasa 83.53
3   Delhi 22.50   Dhaka 35.19   Lagos 57.20   Dar es Salaam 73.68
4   Dhaka 22.02   Kinshasa 35.00   Delhi 49.34   Mumbai 67.24
5   São Paulo 21.43   Kolkata 33.04   Dhaka 46.22   Delhi 57.33
6   Mexico City 21.01   Lagos 32.63   Kolkata 45.09   Khartoum 56.59
7   New York City 20.63   Tokyo 32.62   Karachi 43.37   Niamey 56.15
8   Kolkata 20.56   Karachi 31.70   Dar es Salaam 37.49   Dhaka 54.25
9   Shanghai 19.41   New York City 24.77   Cairo 33.00   Kolkata 52.40
10   Karachi 19.10   Mexico City 24.33   Manila 32.75   Kabul 50.30
11   Kinshasa 16.76   Cairo 24.03   Kabul 32.67   Karachi 49.06
12   Lagos 15.80   Manila 23.55   Khartoum 30.68   Nairobi 46.66
13   Cairo 15.56   São Paulo 22.82   Tokyo 28.92   Lilongwe 41.38
14   Manila 14.81   Shanghai 21.32   Nairobi 28.42   Blantyre 40.91
15   Beijing 14.55   Lahore 17.45   New York City 27.92   Cairo 40.54
16   Buenos Aires 13.77   Kabul 17.09   Baghdad 24.39   Kampala 40.14
17   Los Angeles 13.67   Los Angeles 16.42   Mexico City 24.18   Manila 39.96
18   Rio de Janeiro 13.41   Chennai 16.28   Lahore 23.88   Lusaka 37.74
19   Jakarta 12.36   Khartoum 16.00   Addis Ababa 23.81   Mogadishu 36.37
20   Istanbul 12.10   Dar es Salaam 15.97   Chennai 22.21   Addis Ababa 35.82
21   Guangzhou 11.84   Beijing 15.97   Bangalore 21.31   Baghdad 34.10
22   Osaka-Kobe 11.37   Jakarta 15.92   São Paulo 21.28   New York City 30.19
23   Moscow 10.53   Bangalore 15.62   Shanghai 21.05   N'Djamena 28.81
24   Lahore 11.37   Buenos Aires 15.55   Niamey 20.37   Kano 28.28
25   Shenzhen 10.20   Baghdad 15.09   Kampala 20.23   Sana'a 27.21
26   Chennai 10.13   Hyderabad 14.61   Hyderabad 19.94   Lahore 27.05
27   Paris 10.04   Luanda 14.30   Luanda 19.65   Chennai 25.81
28   Chicago 9.93   Rio de Janeiro 14.29   Los Angeles 18.51   Tokyo 25.63
29   Tehran 9.81   Nairobi 14.25   Kano 17.69   Bangalore 24.77
30   Seoul 9.74   Istanbul 14.18   Jakarta 17.55   Ibadan 23.68
31   Bangalore 9.72   Addis Ababa 13.21   Ahmedabad 16.93   Luanda 23.55
32   Lima 9.60   Guangzhou 13.00   Sana'a 16.69   Hyderabad 23.17
33   Bogotá 9.60   Ahmedabad 12.43   Rio de Janeiro 16.56   Bamako 22.95
34   Wuhan 9.34   Chittagong 12.21   Buenos Aires 16.40   Mexico City 22.22
35   Tianjin 9.24   Chicago 11.93   Chittagong 16.04   Dakar 21.18
36   Hyderabad 9.09   Ho Chi Minh City 11.86   Mogadishu 15.94   Maputo 21.07
37   London 8.62   Lima 11.57   Beijing 15.78   Shanghai 20.79
38   Bangkok 8.33   Bogotá 11.56   Abidjan 15.52   Ouagadougou 20.63
39   Hong Kong 8.31   Shenzhen 11.20   Lilongwe 15.32   Antananarivo 20.53
40   Chongqing 8.28   Paris 11.12   Blantyre 15.06   Los Angeles 20.01
41   Luanda 8.24   Bangkok 11.08   Pune 14.91   Rio de Janeiro 19.84
42   Ho Chi Minh City 8.15   Tehran 11.00   Ibadan 14.81   Ahmedabad 19.71
43   Baghdad 8.06   Pune 10.92   Istanbul 14.68   Abidjan 19.70
44   Khartoum 7.94   Abidjan 10.71   Dakar 14.56   São Paulo 19.12
45   Ahmedabad 7.74   Kano 10.44   Lusaka 14.52   Chittagong 18.82
46   Chittagong 7.64   Wuhan 10.26   N'djamena 14.48   Abuja 18.58
47   Kabul 7.18   Moscow 10.24   Ho Chi Minh City 14.22   Kigali 18.30
48   Santiago* 7.03   Osaka-Kobe 10.19   Bamako 13.54   Jakarta 18.22
49   Pune 6.80   Tianjin 10.15   Chicago 13.44   Pune 17.32
50   Hanoi 6.75   Sana'a 10.05   Guangzhou 12.84   Conakry 17.32
51   Belo Horizonte 6.75   Hanoi 9.83   Bangkok 12.55   Buenos Aires 16.99
52   Santiago 6.31   London 9.75   Surat 12.51   Beijing 15.58
53   Riyadh 6.28   Seoul 9.47   Lima 12.44   Ho Chi Minh City 15.53
54   Miami 6.27   Hong Kong 9.47   Antananarivo 12.40   Istanbul 14.79
55   Dongguan 6.16   Kampala 9.43   Alexandria 11.99   Alexandria 14.72
56   Shenyang 6.16   Surat 9.17   Bogota 11.89   Lubumbashi 14.66
57   Addis Ababa 6.16   Chongqing 9.09   Hanoi 11.79   Chicago 14.54
58   Philadelphia 6.13   Ibadan 8.75   Abuja 11.75   Surat 14.53
59   Abidjan 6.03   Alexandria 8.73   Ouagadougou 11.70   Mbuji-Mayi 14.20
60   Toronto 5.95   Dakar 8.52   Paris 11.64   Mombasa 14.01
61   Madrid 5.94   Yangon 8.44   Shenzhen 11.06   Phnom Penh 13.88
62   Nairobi 5.87   Riyadh 8.09   Maputo 10.92   Kaduna 13.20
63   Yangon 5.87   Bamako 7.63   Conakry 10.63   Hanoi 12.87
64   Surat 5.70   Miami 7.53   Hong Kong 10.41   Lima 12.81
65   Dar es Salaam 5.69   Santiago 7.49   Tehran 10.36   Guangzhou 12.68
66   Alexandria 5.65   Kanpur 7.39   Yangon 10.26   Bangkok 12.14
67   DallasFort Worth 5.42   Philadelphia 7.36   Wuhan 10.13   Paris 11.86
68   Tlaquepaque 5.37   Antananarivo 7.26   Kanpur 10.09   Kanpur 11.73
69   Tonalá 5.37   Belo Horizonte 7.19   London 10.09   Al Hudaydah 11.51
70   Zapopan 5.37   Faisalabad 7.11   Tianjin 10.03   Hong Kong 11.46
71   Chengdu 5.32   Toronto 7.04   Kigali 9.79   Casablanca 11.42
72   Xi'an 5.23   Abuja 6.94   Faisalabad 9.73   Monrovia 11.21
73   Barcelona 5.18   Jaipur 6.91   Lubumbashi 9.57   Bogotá 11.20
74   Atlanta 5.15   Ouagadougou 6.90   Moscow 9.51   Benin City 11.14
75   Guiyang 5.11   Niamey 6.79   Jaipur 9.43   Giza 11.00
76   Singapore 5.10   Santiago 6.77   Mbuji-Mayi 9.27   Faisalabad 11.00
77   Kano 5.06   Dongguan 6.76   Osaka-Kobe 9.03   Accra 10.99
78   Houston 5.05   Shenyang 6.76   Riyadh 9.00   Jaipur 10.95
79   Boston 5.03   Mogadishu 6.57   Chongqing 8.98   Shenzhen 10.92
80   Guadalajara 4.97   Giza 6.52   Giza 8.96   Taiz 10.82
81   Guadalupe 4.95   Madrid 6.52   Phnom Penh 8.85   Lomé 10.21
82   Washington, D.C. 4.89   Dallas-Fort Worth 6.51   Lucknow 8.65   Lucknow 10.05
83   Sydney 4.83   Lucknow 6.34   Mombasa 8.53   Wuhan 10.00
84   Nanjing 4.77   Tlaquepaque 6.22   Miami 8.49   Tianjin 9.90
85   Harbin 4.70   Tonalá 6.22   Philadelphia 8.30   Douala 9.68
86   Porto Alegre 4.63   Zapopan 6.22   Kaduna 8.26   London 9.56
87   Detroit 4.61   Atlanta 6.19   Accra 7.98   Riyadh 9.40
88   Kanpur 4.60   Lubumbashi 6.15   Nagpur 7.86   Port Harcourt 9.40
89   Ankara 4.59   Conakry 6.14   Toronto 7.81   Miami 9.18
90   Brasilia 4.58   Houston 6.06   Seoul 7.67   Nagpur 9.13
91   Algiers 4.50   Boston 6.04   Aleppo 7.37   Philadelphia 8.98
92   St. Petersburg 4.48   Mbuji-Mayi 5.95   DallasFort Worth 7.34   Mosul 8.87
93   Monterrey 4.41   Accra 5.94   Lomé 7.25   Chongqing 8.87
94   Sana'a 4.38   Aleppo 5.90   Monrovia 7.08   Moscow 8.42
95   Recife 4.35   Washington, D.C. 5.87   Douala 7.07   Aleppo 8.37
96   Changchun 4.34   Chengdu 5.84   Al-Hudaydah 7.06   Toronto 8.33
97   Jaipur 4.30   Sydney 5.82   Patna 7.03   Patna 8.17
98   Faisalabad 4.28   Guadalajara 5.76   Santiago 6.98   Tehran 8.17
99   Melbourne 4.24   Nagpur 5.76   Atlanta 6.97   Osaka-Kobe 8.00
100   Ibadan 4.23   Xi'an 5.75   Rawalpindi 6.97   Dallas-Fort Worth 7.93
101   Dakar 4.23   Guadalupe 5.73   Benin City 6.96   Rawalpindi 7.88

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Population Projections". United States Census Bureau.
  2. ^ a b c d e Kaneda, Toshiko (June 2014). "Understanding Population Projections: Assumptions Behind the Numbers" (PDF). Population Reference Bureau.
  3. ^ a b c Roser, Max (2013-05-09). "Future Population Growth". Our World in Data.
  4. ^ Roser, Max (June 18, 2019). "Two centuries of rapid global population growth will come to an end". Our World in Data.
  5. ^ "World Population Prospects 2019". United Nations, Dept of Economic and Social Affairs. 2019.
  6. ^ a b "World Population Prospects 2019, Population Data, File: Total Population Both Sexes, Medium Variant tab". United Nations Population Division. 2019.
  7. ^ a b c d e f "World Population Prospects 2019, Dept of Economic and Social Affairs, File: Total Fertility". United Nations Population Division. 2019.
  8. ^ a b c "World Population Prospects 2019, Population Data, File: Population Growth Rate, Median Variant tab". United Nations Population Division. 2019.
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