Kaduna is the capital city of Kaduna State, and the former political capital of Northern Nigeria. It is located in north-western Nigeria, on the Kaduna River. It is a trade center and a major transportation hub as the gateway to northern states of Nigeria, with its rail and important road network.[3][4]

Kaduna
Clockwise from top:
Lugard Hall, the Kaduna River, columns in honour of Elizabeth II's state visit, and entrance of Hassan Usman Katsina House
Kaduna is located in Nigeria
Kaduna
Location in Nigeria
Coordinates: 10°31′23″N 7°26′25″E / 10.52306°N 7.44028°E / 10.52306; 7.44028
Country Nigeria
StateKaduna State
Government
 • GovernorUba Sani
Area
 • Total431 km2 (166 sq mi)
Elevation
250 m (820 ft)
Population
 (2006 census)[1]
 • Total760,084
 • Rank8th
 • Density1,800/km2 (4,600/sq mi)
 • Ethnicities
GDP (PPP, 2015 int. Dollar)
 • Year2023
 • Total$9.7 billion[2]
 • Per capita$8,200
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+1 (CEST)
ClimateAw
Websitewww.kdsg.gov.ng

The population of Kaduna was at 760,084 as of the 2006 Nigerian census.[5] Rapid urbanization since 2005 has created an increasingly large population, as at 2023, the estimated population is 1.1 million.[6]

Etymology edit

The etymology of the word Kaduna is said to be a corruption of the Hausa word for "crocodiles", Kaddanni in the Hausa language (kaduna being the plural form).[7] Another version of the name proposes a link to the Gbagyi word/name 'Odna', meaning 'river'.[8]

History edit

Kaduna was founded by British colonists in 1900.[9] The first British governor of Northern Nigeria, Sir Frederick Lugard, chose the present site for development due to its proximity to the Lagos-Kano Railway.[10] It became the capital of Nigeria's former Northern Region in 1917,[11] and retained this status until 1967. The city is still influential as the headquarters of various political, military and cultural organizations especially in Northern Nigeria.[citation needed]

In 1976, when the General Murtala Mohammed administration created seven new states in Nigeria, North Central State, with capital at Kaduna, was renamed Kaduna State. It was made up of the two colonial period Provinces of Zaria and Katsina. When in 1991, the number of states in the country was increased from twenty-one to thirty. Katsina Province became Katsina State, while the old Zaria Province became the new Kaduna State. There are twenty three local government areas (LGAs) in the state, although the number of ethnic groups is much larger.[12]


Economy edit

 
River Kaduna and Old Railway Bridge.

Industries edit

Kaduna is a major industrial center in Northern Nigeria, manufacturing products like textiles, machinery, steel, aluminum, petroleum products and bearings.[13] However, the textile industry has been in decline due to recent Chinese imports and factory closures caused by years of neglect during the military dictatorship in Nigeria. Other light manufactures include: plastics, pharmaceuticals, leather goods, furniture, and televisions.[10] Agriculture is also a major industry in Kaduna, and as such, the Bank of Agriculture has its headquarters in the city.[14] Some main agricultural exports include: cotton, peanuts, sorghum, and ginger.[15] Kaduna also has a branch of the Nigerian Stock Exchange.[10] Automobile manufacturing also remains an important part of Kaduna's economy.[16] Peugeot Automobiles Nigeria has an assembly plant in Kaduna.[17] Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company (KRPC), one of Nigeria's four main oil refineries is located in Kaduna. It is supplied by a pipeline from the Niger Delta oil fields.[10][18]

A 2009 World Bank survey states that Kaduna is one of the top six cities with the highest unemployment. 20% of the population was estimated to be unemployed.[16]

Sports and tourism edit

There is a large racecourse named Murtala Mohammed Square, approximately 1.6 kilometres (1 mi) round, inside which is found the Kaduna Polo Club. Kaduna Golf Club is also located within the Kaduna CBD. Other sports facilities include the Ahmadu Bello Stadium and Ranchers Bees Stadium. There are several hotels in the city.[19][citation needed]

Infrastructure edit

The infrastructure network in the city are currently being developed under the administration of Nasir el-Rufai. Kaduna has an inland dry port.[20] The Nigerian military has several installations in the city including the Nigerian Defence Academy.[21]

Airport edit

The city is served by Kaduna International Airport. The airport commenced operations in 1982.[22] The Nigerian Air Force maintains a presence in the city.[23][24]

Railways edit

Kaduna is also on the route of the planned Lagos–Kano Standard Gauge Railway, which has been completed between the national capital of Abuja and Kaduna. Trains for Abuja depart from the Rigasa Railway Station in Kaduna.[25] Kaduna is an important junction on Nigeria's Cape gauge railway network. At Kaduna, a branch line connects the Lagos–Nguru Railway to the Port Harcourt–Maiduguri railway.[citation needed]

Education edit

Kaduna is popularly known as the centre of learning, as evident from the numerous educational institutions located in the state. Tertiary Institutions in Kaduna city include:

Administrative Areas edit

Administration of the state started with the concept of Provincial Administration and Native/Local Authority systems. However, in 1976 the Mohammed Administration introduced the Local Government Area system (LGA) which delegated some responsibilities to the elected/appointed councillors. With each successive Federal Military Administration, the number of the LGAs in Kaduna State increased from fourteen in early 1980s to the present twenty three in 1998. In each LGA, smaller units such as districts and wards, are recognised.[12]

Places of worship edit

Among the places of worship, there are churches and mosques.[37] Sultan Bello Mosque is the biggest and a central mosque in Kaduna. There are also churches: Church of Nigeria (Anglican Communion), Presbyterian Church of Nigeria (World Communion of Reformed Churches), Nigerian Baptist Convention (Baptist World Alliance), Living Faith Church Worldwide, Redeemed Christian Church of God, Assemblies of God, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Kaduna (Catholic Church), Mountain of fire and miracles ministries, Universal Reformed Christian Church, Kaduna (Protestant Church).[citation needed]

Climate edit

 
Erosion Rigasa Kaduna

Climate: Kaduna State experiences a typical tropical continental climate with distinct seasonal regimes, oscillating between cool to hot dry and humid to wel. These two seasons reflect the influ- ences of tropical continental and equatorial mar itime airmasses which sweep over the entire coun try. However, in Kaduna State, the seasonality is pronounced with the cool to hot dry season being longer than the rainy season. Again, the spatial and temporal distribution of the rain varies. decreasing from an average of about 1530mm in Kafanchan-Kagoro areas in the Southeast to about 1015mm in Ikara-Makarfi districts in the northeast. High storm intensities (ranging from 60mm hr-1 to 99mm hr-1) plus the nature of surface runoff build up the good network of medium sized river sys- temps High evaporation during the dry season ton however, creates water shortage problems espe cinity in Igabi, Giwa, Soba, Makarfi)and Ikara LGA.[12]

 
climate issues. Kaduna, igabi

The Kaduna region has a tropical climate. The summers have a lot more rain than the winters do. The predominant climate in this area is categorised as Aw by the Köppen-Geiger scale. Kaduna's yearly mean temperature is 25.2 °C, or 77.4 °F. A total of 39.3 inches or 998 mm of precipitation falls per year.

Due to its proximity to the equator, Kaduna's summers are difficult to characterise. January, February, March, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, and December are the finest months to travel.[38]
Climate data for Kaduna
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 37.8
(100.0)
37.8
(100.0)
38.3
(100.9)
38.3
(100.9)
37.8
(100.0)
34.4
(93.9)
32.2
(90.0)
31.7
(89.1)
32.2
(90.0)
34.4
(93.9)
35.6
(96.1)
35.6
(96.1)
38.3
(100.9)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 31.7
(89.1)
33.4
(92.1)
35.0
(95.0)
34.2
(93.6)
31.7
(89.1)
29.5
(85.1)
27.5
(81.5)
27.0
(80.6)
29.0
(84.2)
31.1
(88.0)
32.7
(90.9)
31.8
(89.2)
31.2
(88.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 23.4
(74.1)
25.0
(77.0)
27.7
(81.9)
27.9
(82.2)
26.3
(79.3)
24.6
(76.3)
23.4
(74.1)
23.2
(73.8)
24.0
(75.2)
24.9
(76.8)
24.2
(75.6)
23.0
(73.4)
24.8
(76.6)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 15.1
(59.2)
16.7
(62.1)
20.4
(68.7)
21.6
(70.9)
20.9
(69.6)
19.8
(67.6)
19.4
(66.9)
19.3
(66.7)
19.1
(66.4)
18.7
(65.7)
15.6
(60.1)
14.3
(57.7)
18.4
(65.1)
Record low °C (°F) 9.4
(48.9)
8.9
(48.0)
15.0
(59.0)
14.7
(58.5)
16.7
(62.1)
15.6
(60.1)
16.7
(62.1)
16.7
(62.1)
15.6
(60.1)
13.3
(55.9)
10.0
(50.0)
9.4
(48.9)
8.9
(48.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 0.5
(0.02)
2
(0.1)
13
(0.5)
66
(2.6)
157
(6.2)
178
(7.0)
206
(8.1)
290
(11.4)
277
(10.9)
86
(3.4)
5
(0.2)
0
(0)
1,280
(50.4)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.3 mm) 0 0 2 5 13 16 18 22 21 8 0 0 105
Average relative humidity (%) 26 24 37 57 73 82 86 88 85 74 48 31 59
Mean monthly sunshine hours 279.0 262.7 266.6 243.0 241.8 216.0 155.0 120.9 171.0 248.0 285.0 294.5 2,783.5
Mean daily sunshine hours 9.0 9.3 8.6 8.1 7.8 7.2 5.0 3.9 5.7 8.0 9.5 9.5 7.6
Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst[39]

Notable people edit

See also edit

References edit

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External links edit

  Media related to Kaduna at Wikimedia Commons

10°31′N 7°26′E / 10.517°N 7.433°E / 10.517; 7.433