Kaduna State

Kaduna State (Hausa: Jihar Kaduna; Tyap: A̱si̱tet Ka̱duna) is a state in northern Nigeria. The state capital is its namesake, the city of Kaduna, the 8th largest city in the country as of 2006. Created in 1967 as North-Central State, which also encompassed the modern Katsina State, Kaduna State achieved its current borders in 1987. The fourth largest and third most populous state in the country, Kaduna State is nicknamed the Centre of Learning, owing to the presence of numerous educational institutions of note within the state such as Ahmadu Bello University.

Kaduna State
Kaduna State Collage.jpg
Nickname(s): 
Location of Kaduna State in Nigeria
Location of Kaduna State in Nigeria
Coordinates: 10°20′N 7°45′E / 10.333°N 7.750°E / 10.333; 7.750Coordinates: 10°20′N 7°45′E / 10.333°N 7.750°E / 10.333; 7.750
Country Nigeria
Date created27 May 1967
CapitalKaduna
Government
 • Governor[3]Mallam Nasir Ahmad el-Rufai (APC)
 • Deputy GovernorHadiza Sabuwa Balarabe
 • Senators
 • RepresentativesList
 • Chief JudgeMuhammadu Lawal Bello[2]
Area
 • Total46,053 km2 (17,781 sq mi)
Area rank4th of 36
Population
 (2006 census)1
 • Total6,113,503[1]
 • Rank3rd of 36
GDP (PPP)
 • Year2007
 • Total$13.33 billion[4]
 • Per capita$1,666[4]
Time zoneUTC+01 (WAT)
postal code
8000014
ISO 3166 codeNG-KD
HDI (2018)0.514[5]
low · 24th of 37
Website[1]
^1 Preliminary results

Modern Kaduna State is home to the sites of some of Africa's oldest civilizations, including the Nok civilization that prospered from c. 1500 BC to c. 500 AD.[6][7] In the 9th century, geographer and historian Ya'qubi documented the existence of the Hausa Kingdoms, which existed until the region was incorporated into the Sokoto Caliphate in the early 1800s following the Fulani War.[8] During the colonial era, the city of Kaduna was made the capital of Northern Nigeria Protectorate by British leadership.

The name Kaduna is believed to be a corruption of the Hausa word Kada, which means crocodile; the Kaduna River previously hosted a large crocodile population.[9] The state economy is reliant on agriculture, especially cotton and groundnut production.[9][10][11] In the modern era, Kaduna State has been the site of violent ethnic and religious conflict,[12] with the 2002 Miss World riots in the state capital over purported blasphemy leading to around 250 deaths and the loss of homes for around 30,000.[13]

EtymologyEdit

The word Kaduna is said to be a corruption of the Hausa language word '"Kada' " for Crocodile and the plural is "Kadduna" for crocodiles, as there were previously many crocodiles in the river of Kaduna.[9] Another version of the etymology of the name is a narrative linked to the Gbagyi word/name 'Odna' for River Kaduna.[14] in the coat of arm of the state, there is a symbol of crocodile, and majority of emblem related to the state uses crocodile as a symbol. The state football club Kaduna United F.C. used "The Crocodiles" as a nickname.[15]

HistoryEdit

It is indicative that the name, Kaduna, was taken up by Lord Frederick Lugard and his colonial colleagues when they moved the capital of the then Northern Region from Zungeru to Kaduna city in 1916. This move of the colonial office to Kaduna city started in 1912–1918/20 with the initial effort having been made in 1902 from Jebba to Zungeru.

At the start of British colonial rule in northern Nigeria the people groups who live in the area became 'Northern Nigerians'- a construct which continues even today. By 1967 these people groups again were carved into 'North Central State'; this was the case until 1975 that 'Kaduna State' was formerly created by the then military leader, Gen. Murtala Mohammed, with all distinct identities amalgamated into one state without a referendum. The state hence is the successor of the old Northern Region of Nigeria, which had its capital at Kaduna which is now the state capital to about 6.3 million people (Nigerian census figure, 2006).

In 1967, the old Northern Region was divided into six states in the north, leaving Kaduna as the capital of North-Central State, whose name was changed to Kaduna State in 1976. Meanwhile, Kaduna State was further divided in 1987, creating Katsina State. Under the governance of Kaduna are the ancient cities of Zaria, Kafanchan, and Nok, the area where Africa's earliest civilization is recorded to have been excavated. The most intriguing aspect of this area is that the colonial construction and its post-colonial successor called 'Nigeria' hardly documented the history or the method of how Kaduna state's people groups encompassed in these constructs define and identify themselves as such the people groups who populate the area have lived in near oblivion or obscurity as they often are thought of as Hausa people. In 2019 Kaduna State celebrated its 100-year anniversary, making it one of the oldest states in Nigeria.[16]

Zazzau is said to have been founded in 1536 and later was renamed after the prominent Queen Zaria known as Amina. The Hausa people of Zaria are said to be the old ancestral of the region.[17]

GeographyEdit

The state is located at the Northern part of Nigeria's high plains. The vegetation cover is Sudan Savannah type, characterized by scattered short trees, shrubs and grasses. The soil is mostly loamy to sandy. A substantial amount of clay is found also.

Its northern half became Katsina state in 1987. The state is bordered by seven states.[18]

The state was ranked number four by total area of land and number three by population.

The Kaduna River, a tributary of River Niger, flows through the state. There are rocky stones in Zaria and Kogoro Hill.

Kaduna River

GovernmentEdit

The current governor of Kaduna state is legally under the control of Kaduna State Executives, Kaduna State House of Assembly and Kaduna State Judiciary. The current elected governor of the state is Nasir Ahmad el-Rufai and his deputy is Hadiza Sabuwa Balarabe.[19][20] In the state there 14 ministries that operate with the state government to improve the state: Ministries of Kaduna State. The governor of the state said he is trying to restore togetherness back in the state to make it hospitable for all Nigerians just as it has always been in the past. According to him, the city is now divided due to the frequent communal clashes that have been occurring in the last two decades.[21]

Local government areasEdit

Kaduna State consists of 23 local government areas. They are:

s/n Local government area Zone Total area Political chairman Population density
1 Birnin Gwari
2 Chikun
3 Giwa
4 Igabi
5 Ikara
6 Jaba
7 Jema'a
8 Kachia
9 Kaduna North
10 Kaduna South
11 Kagarko
12 Kajuru
13 Kaura
14 Kauru
15 Kubau
16 Kudan
17 Lere
18 Makarf
19 Sabon Gari
20 Sanga
21 Soba
22 Zangon Kataf
23 Zaria

KidnappingEdit

On 11 March 2021, thirty students were kidnapped in Kaduna State, when gunmen attacked the Federal College of Forestry Mechanization. This was the fourth school kidnapping in Nigeria in 2021, and also the fifth school attack.[22] On 20 April 2021, in another bloody raid by bandits on the students and staffs of the Greenfield University kidnapped 23 students and killed 5 of them.[23]

EconomicsEdit

The Kaduna State economy was ranked 15th largest state in Nigerian economy from 2002 to 2008, and it made up 3.3% of Nigerian GDP. While agriculture contributed 30% of SGDP in Kaduna.[24] Kaduna state cultivate cotton and peanuts (groundnuts) for exporting and domestic extraction of Peanut oil. In the state there is National Institute of Leather and Technology, to improve modern technology and traditional method.[9][10][11][25][26]

 
Sun-dried tomato and pepper farm, Hunkuyi, Kaduna State

MediaEdit

In Kaduna State there are many means of communication through mass media, broadcasting, internet communication and banking transaction. In Kaduna State there are 21 radio stations and more than four television stations broadcasting. Many of them are owned by the state government or federal government, and a few are private. The following is a list of radio stations in Kaduna.

s/n Name (AM) Frequency Motto
1 Brila FM 88.9
2 Kada 2 FM, Kaduna (KSMC) 89.9
3 Rockside FM, Kafanchan (KSMC) 89.9
4 Capital Sounds FM, Kaduna (KSMC) 90.9
5 Liberty Radio (English) Kaduna 91.7
6 Karama FM, Kaduna (FRCN) 92.1
7 Freedom Radio FM, Kaduna 92.9
8 Vision FM Kaduna 92.5
9 FCE Zaria FM 93.7
10 Queen FM, Zaria (KSMC) 94.1
11 Supreme FM, Kaduna (FRCN) 96.1
12 Alheri Radio FM, Kaduna 97.7
13 ASU FM (Kaduna State University Radio) 98.5
14 Invicta FM, Kaduna 98.9
15 Human Right Radio Kaduna 99.9
16 BU Samaru FM, Zaria 101.1
17 Teachers Radio (Nigeria Institute of Teachers, NTI) 102.5
18 Spider FM (Kaduna Polytechnic Radio) 102.7
19 Liberty Radio (Hausa) Kaduna 103.1
20 Ray Power FM Kaduna 106.5
21 Demographics 106.5

[27][28][29][30][31]

Ethnic groupsEdit

Kaduna State is populated by about 59 to 63 different ethnic groups, if not more, with the exactitude of the number requiring further verification through field work.[32] The question as in the last paragraph[clarification needed] with the Hausa and Fulani as the dominant ethnic groups followed by at least 60 others. These groups include:

S/N Ethnic group Origin Area
1 Abinu (dubbed Binawa)
2 Ada (dubbed Kuturmi)
3 Adara (dubbed Kadara)
4 Agbiri (dubbed Gure)
5 Akurmi (labelled Kurama by the Hausa)
6 Anghan (dubbed Kamanton by the Hausa)
7 Amo
8 Aniragu (dubbed Kahugu)
9 Aruruma (named Ruruma by the Hausa)
10 Asholio (dubbed Moro'a)
11 Atachaat (dubbed Kachechere)
12 Atuku
13 Atyap (dubbed Kataf by the Hausa)
14 Ayu
15 Bajju (dubbed Kaje by the Hausa)
16 Bakulu (Ikulu by the Hausa)
17 Bhazar (named Koro)
18 Bur (Sanga)
19 Dingi
20 Fantswam (dubbed Kafanchan)
21 Fulani
22 Gbagyi-Gbari (Gwari in Hausa) Southern Kaduna
23 Gwandara
24 Gwong (Kagoma in Hausa)
25 Ham (dubbed Jaba in Hausa, which is a derogatory name)
26 Hausa
27 Jangi (dubbed Gwari by the Hausa)
28 Kaivi (dubbed Kaibi)
29 Kanufi
30 Kanuri
31 Kigono
32 Kinugu
33 Kitimi
34 Kiwafa
35 Kiwollo
36 Koro
37 Kubvori (dubbed Surubu)
38 Mada (Mardan) Mada must have migrated during colonial rule
39 Marghi Borno
40 Nandu
41 Nduyah
42 Numana
43 Nindem
44 Ningeshe
45 Ninkyop
46 Ninzo
47 Nyenkpa (Yeskwa)
48 Oegworok (dubbed Kagoro)
49 Pikal
50 Pitti
51 Ribang
52 Rishuwa
53 Rumada
54 Ruruma
55 Rumayya
56 Shemawa
57 Siyawa (Bauchi state?)
58 Takad (dubbed Attakar)
59 Tarri
60 Tsam (dubbed Chawai)

ReligionEdit

The main religions in Kaduna State are Christianity and Islam. Some minority ethnic groups practice traditional worshiping, mostly in the southern area of the state. The people of Kaduna are very religious, causing two religious crises in 2001 and 2002, the Miss World riots.

ChristianityEdit

 
St. Peter's Catholic Church Kafanchan

Christian mission activities in the area began formally in the 1900s with the establishment of Sudan Interior Mission (SIM) in the Ham town of Har Kwain (Kwoi), hence today these people groups are mainly Christians. Culturally, the people groups of the then southern Zaria who are now Southern Kaduna, with some exception it must be acknowledged, share a lot in the cultural practices of marriage rites, naming, burial, farming, social organisations, kinship, etc. Until full scale research is undertaken, the diversity of Kaduna state remains blurred as some ethnic groups are so small in population that they are often overshadowed by the larger groups who live near them.[33] There are several churches across the state, including the Roman Catholic dioceses of Zaria, Kaduna, Kafachan and megachurches.

IslamEdit

 
A view of Kaduna Central Mosque (Sultan Bello Mosque)

Muslims have their central mosque in Kaduna metropolis known as Sultan Bello Mosque. The Jama't Izalat al Bid’a Wa Iqamat as Sunna and Jamatu Nasril Islam main branch is located in Kaduna metropolis. Also, the prominent Tijaniyyah leader Sheikh Dahiru Usman is in Kaduna. The Nigerian Islamic mover known as Ibrahim Zakzaky has his main branch in Zaria Kaduna State.

LanguagesEdit

LGA Languages
Birnin Gwari Acipa, Eastern; Gbagyi; Kamuku; Rogo; Shama-Sambuga
Chikun Gbagyi
Giwa Hausa
Igabi Hausa and Gbagyi
Ikara Hausa and T'kurmi
Jaba Ashe; Duya; Hyam
Jema'a Ashe; Berom; Duya; Fantswam; Gyong; Hyam; Jju; Kanufi; Mada; Kyoli; Nikyob-Kaninkon; Ninzo; Nungu; Nyankpa; Shamang; Tyap; Tyuku Zhire; Numana
Kachia Adara; Doka; Gbagyi; Hyam; Iku-Gora-Ankwa; Ikulu; Jju; Nghan; Koro Wachi; Kuturmi; Shamang; Tyap; Zhire
Kagarko Ashe; Duya; Gbagyi; Koro Wachi
Kajuru Adara; Ajiya; Kuce; Gbagyi; Shuwa-Zamani
Kaura Gworok; Iten; Takad; Sholyio; Tyap and Tyecarak (Tyecaat)
Kauru Abisi; Bina; Dungu; Jere; Ikulu; Kaivi; Kinuku; Koono; Mala; Rigwe; Ruma; Sheni; T'kurmi; Tsam; Tumi; Tyap; Vono; Vori and Hausa
Lere Amo; Bina; Janji; Lemoro; Lere; Sanga; Tugbiri-Niragu and Hausa
Makarfi Hausa
Sabon Gari Hausa
Sanga Ahwai; Ayu; Bu; Gwandara; Hasha; Ninzo; Numana; Nungu; Sambe; Sha; Toro
Soba Hausa and Gbagyi
Zangon Kataf Ikulu; Jju; Nghan; and Tyap; Tyecarak (Tyecaat)
Zaria Hausa

Other languages in Kaduna State are Bacama, Firan, and Sambe.[34] Almost all of these languages are spoken in Southern Kaduna.

EducationEdit

Kaduna is one of the largest centres of education in Nigeria. The slogan of the state is Center of Learning because of the presence of many institution like Ahmadu Bello University (established 1962). There are many government schools, include primary schools and secondary schools. All secondary schools in Kaduna are owned by the state government, federal government or private organisations. there are many tertiary institutions in the state. The state also has colleges for transportation and agriculture.[9]

Universities and institutesEdit

Secondary schools and collegesEdit

ArchitectureEdit

 
The entrance gate of Zazzau

Architecture includes the National Museum which was built in 1975 with archaeological and ethnographic exhibitions, the Kajuru Castle, Lugard Hall, Zaria walls and gates and Nok settlements. In the state there are many architectural buildings like Ahmadu Bello Stadium, Murtala Square, Investment house, Kaduna central market, and Sultan Bello Mosque. The palace of empire of Zazzau is one of the oldest traditional buildings in Kaduna state.[35][36]

Traditional architectureEdit

In Kaduna State there are a lot of ethnic groups, which lead to the variation of culture and architectural style, this include the city wall of Zaria. The walls constructed during the reigns of Queen Amina of Zazzau protected the city and they are between 14 and 16 km long, and are closed by eight gates, Also the Emir's Palace of Zaria is an important traditional heritage. The palace has luxurious interiors. The St. Bartholomew's Church Zaria, built by the Church Missionary Society in 1929, still stands in Zaria, the church was built based on Hausa traditional architecture.

Modern architectureEdit

 
Throneroom's Salama radio 14-storey tower, Kafanchan

Modern architecture is present in the state as a result of civilization and development. Most of these architectural buildings were built by the federal or state government, while the residential ones are mostly built by individuals; these buildings include Ahmadu Bello Stadium, Ten storey building, Investment house, federal secretary, Ranchers Bees Stadium, and Murtala square.

HealthEdit

Kaduna State has over 1,000 primary healthcare facilities to cater to every resident, even in the most remote village or ward of the state. To further improve on healthcare delivery, in 2016, the Kaduna State Government partnered with the UK Department for International Development (DFID) to install over 1.3 megawatts of solar power in primary healthcare facilities across the state.[37]

SportsEdit

In Kaduna State many sports are played, such as football,[38] golf, swimming, traditional wrestling and handball.[39][40] The Kaduna State government run a football club called Kaduna United F.C.. The club participated in playing Nigerian Professional Football League but are under relegation.[41] the state also host Kaduna Marathon .[42]

Entertainment and tourismEdit

In Kaduna State an annual festival is organized by Ministry of Culture and Tourism (Kaduna State). The festival exposes folklore talent and through these process, to promote unity and encourage tourism and build culture in the State. It takes place every November or December.[43] Cultural activities include Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha performed by the Muslims in the state; the Tuk Ham; the Afan National Festival; the Christmas and Easter celebrations, by Christians, and the Kallan-Kowa celebrations. Kaduna has a museum and a park, the Kofar Gamji park and Zoo. Lord Lugard's Residence, is also a tourist attraction and it currently houses the state assembly.[43]

EntertainmentEdit

  • Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha: This celebration is scheduled on the 1st of Shawwal and the 10th of Dhu al-Hijjah respectively according to the Islamic Calendar for three days usually in Kaduna, Usually, Muslims all over the world celebrate the end of the Ramadan fasting period and the conclusion of the hajj (pilgrimage) rites. Most of the emirates in Kaduna State and other parts of the northern Emirates celebrate it with a colourful Hausa traditional dressing, horse decoration and Durbar.[43]
  • Christmas celebrations: This takes place in every 25/26 December in Kaduna State to celebrate the birth of Jesus Christ by Christians all over the state.[43]
  • Easter celebrations: It takes place every March/April to remember the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ by all Christians in Kaduna State.[43]
  • Afan National Festival: This is a celebration on every 1 January, in Kagoro. The festival has assumed an international standard with the sons and daughters of Agworok land coming together to discuss issues that required their attention and to show their extreme cultural heritage.[43]
  • Kalankuwa Cultural Festival: It is a purely cultural festival that is celebrated in northern part of the state. It is a celebration to give thanks for good farm crops and to celebrate the season. It is celebrated in November/December. Young men and women come together in a peaceful manner to entertain themselves. It is celebrated in Bomo Village, Samara, in Sabon Gari local government area.[43]

Other small festivals include the following:

  • Batadon Festival
  • Ayet Atyap annual cultural festival
  • Durbar Festival
  • Kaduna State Festival of Arts and Culture
  • Kafanchan Day
  • Kalankuwa Cultural Festival
  • Moro’a Cultural Festival
  • Ninzo Cultural Festival
  • Zunzuk Dance
  • Tuk-Ham Festival
  • Unum-Akulu Festival
 
Kamuku Park, a tourism attraction

TourismEdit

Notable peopleEdit


GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "2006 PHC Priority Tables – NATIONAL POPULATION COMMISSION". population.gov.ng. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
  2. ^ "Website of the High Court of Kaduna Judiciary".
  3. ^ See List of Governors of Kaduna State for a list of prior governors
  4. ^ a b "C-GIDD (Canback Global Income Distribution Database)". Canback Dangel. Retrieved 20 August 2008.
  5. ^ "Sub-national HDI – Area Database – Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  6. ^ Breunig, Peter. 2014. Nok: African Sculpture in Archaeological Context: p. 21.
  7. ^ Fagg, Bernard. 1969. Recent work in west Africa: New light on the Nok culture. World Archaeology 1(1): 41–50.
  8. ^ Nwabara, Samuel (1963). "The Fulani conquest and rule of the Hausa Kingdom of Northern Nigeria (1804–1900)". Journal des Africanistes. 33 (2): 231–242. doi:10.3406/jafr.1963.1370.
  9. ^ a b c d e "Kaduna | Location, History, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  10. ^ a b "Overview of Kaduna State economy 2002–2008 | Eldis". www.eldis.org. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  11. ^ a b "Economy • Kaduna State Bureau of Statistics". Kaduna State Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  12. ^ "El-Rufai vows to restore Kaduna to its past glory". Vanguard News. 5 February 2021. Retrieved 12 March 2021.
  13. ^ "The "Miss World Riots": Continued Impunity for Killings in Kaduna". Human Rights Watch. 23 July 2003. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  14. ^ Shekwo, Joseph Amali (1979). Fundamentals of the Gbagyi Language. Zaria: Centre for Adult Education and Extension Services, Ahmadu Bello University.
  15. ^ "Kaduna United F.C.", Wikipedia, 6 December 2019, retrieved 12 April 2020
  16. ^ "Kalli hotunan bikin cika shekara 100 da kafa Kaduna". BBC Hausa (in Hausa). 17 December 2017.
  17. ^ "Zaria | Nigeria". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  18. ^ "Kaduna | state, Nigeria". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  19. ^ "Meet Hadiza Balarabe, the first female deputy governor of Kaduna State". Within Nigeria. 12 March 2019. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  20. ^ "StackPath". leadership.ng. 12 March 2019. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  21. ^ "El-Rufai vows to restore Kaduna to its past glory". Vanguard News. 5 February 2021. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  22. ^ https://www.nasdaq.com/articles/dozens-of-students-abducted-from-forestry-college-in-northwest-nigeria-2021-03-12
  23. ^ "Bandits raid Varsity kidnapped 23 students and killed 5 of them". Vanguard Nigeria. 22 April 2021. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
  24. ^ "Overview of Kaduna State economy 2002–2008 | Eldis". www.eldis.org. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  25. ^ "Elrufai ya bma kswn bbci waadin kwna uku". BBC News Hausa. 8 March 2020.
  26. ^ "An fara rusa kasuwan bacci". BBC News Hausa. 10 March 2020.
  27. ^ Nwabueze, Chinenye. "List Of Radio Stations In Kaduna State and Their Frequencies (2019) – MassMediaNG". Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  28. ^ "Kaduna State Nigeria Radio Stations". Africa Charts. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  29. ^ "Liberty Radio Station Kaduna". Radio.org.ng. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  30. ^ "Channels Info". nbc.gov.ng. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  31. ^ "Channels Info". nbc.gov.ng. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  32. ^ Hayab, 2014.
  33. ^ http://www.onlinenigeria.com/map.gif
  34. ^ "Nigeria". Ethnologue (22 ed.). Retrieved 10 January 2020.
  35. ^ Hotels.ng. "Kajuru Castle". Kajuru Castle | Hotel in Kajuru | Hotels.ng. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  36. ^ "Kajuru castle".
  37. ^ "Energy | Kaduna State Government". www.kdsg.gov.ng. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
  38. ^ "New Kaduna United FC Chairman pledges to promote club – Premium Times Nigeria". 5 February 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  39. ^ "Kaduna Golf club's huge honour for Omoluwa". guardian.ng. 9 March 2018. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  40. ^ Ekwere, Enobong Dennis; Kaduna (10 August 2018). "Poor state of Kaduna's Murtala Square". Daily Trust. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  41. ^ "LMC fines Kaduna United, bans Supporters Club". Vanguard News. 19 April 2014. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  42. ^ "Kenyans win Kaduna Marathon, as govt hails runners, sponsors, citizens on successful race". Vanguard News. 21 November 2020. Retrieved 22 November 2020.
  43. ^ a b c d e f g Adeleke, Dr Wale. "Kaduna State Festival of Arts and Culture – KADUNA STATE". NaijaSky. Retrieved 15 April 2020.

SourcesEdit

External linksEdit