Lusaka (/lˈsɑːkə/ loo-SAH-kə) is the capital and largest city of Zambia. It is one of the fastest developing cities in southern Africa[citation needed]. Lusaka is in the southern part of the central plateau at an elevation of about 1,279 metres (4,196 ft). As of 2019, the city's population was about 3.3 million, while the urban population is estimated at 2.5 million in 2018.[7] Lusaka is the centre of both commerce and government in Zambia and connects to the country's four main highways heading north, south, east and west. English is the official language of the city administration, while Nyanja and Bemba are the commonly spoken street languages.

Lusaka

Mwalusaka
City
Lusaka, Zambia at Night.jpg
Downtown Lusaka.JPG
Lusaka National Museum.JPG
Inauguration of Edgar Lungu.jpg
From top: Lusaka city at night, Downtown Lusaka, Lusaka National Museum, inauguration of Edgar Lungu
Lusaka is located in Zambia
Lusaka
Lusaka
Location of Lusaka in Zambia
Lusaka is located in Africa
Lusaka
Lusaka
Lusaka (Africa)
Coordinates: 15°25′S 28°17′E / 15.417°S 28.283°E / -15.417; 28.283Coordinates: 15°25′S 28°17′E / 15.417°S 28.283°E / -15.417; 28.283
ProvinceLusaka Province
DistrictLusaka District
Country Zambia
Established1905
City status25 August 1960
Government
 • Mayor of LusakaMiles Sampa
Area
 • City418 km2 (161 sq mi)
Elevation
1,279[3] m (4,190 ft)
Population
 (2010 Census)
 • City1,747,152[1]
 • Estimate 
(2020)
2,731,696[4]
 • Metro
2,238,569
Time zoneUTC+2 (CAT)
Area code(s)0211[5]
HDI (2018)0.664[6]
Medium
Websitehttp://www.lcc.gov.zm

HistoryEdit

 
Government House, built for the Governor of Northern Rhodesia

Lusaka was the site of a village named after its Chief Lusaka, which, according to history, was located at Manda Hill, near where the Zambia's National Assembly building now stands. In the Nyanja language, Manda means "graveyard." The area was expanded by European (mainly British) settlers in 1905 with the building of the railway.[8][9]

In 1935, due to its fairly central location, its situation on the railway and at the crossroads of the Great North Road and Great East Road, it was chosen to replace Livingstone as the capital of the British colony of Northern Rhodesia.[10][11]

After the federation of Northern and Southern Rhodesia in 1953, it was a centre of the independence movement amongst some of the educated elite that led to the creation of the Republic of Zambia. In 1964, Lusaka became the capital of the newly independent Zambia.[10]

In recent years, Lusaka has become a popular urban settlement for Zambians and tourists alike. Its central nature and fast growing infrastructure sector have increased donor confidence and as such Zambians are seeing signs of development in the form of job creation, housing, etc. Consequently, it is thought that with proper and effective economic reforms, Lusaka as well as Zambia as a whole will develop considerably. Lusaka is home to a diverse community of foreign nationals, many of whom work in the aid industry as well as diplomats, representatives of religious organisations and some business people.[10]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1990 769,353—    
2000 1,084,703+41.0%
2010 1,747,152+61.1%
2018 2,526,100+44.6%
2019 3,308,400+31.0%
source:[12]

GovernmentEdit

 
Supreme Court of Zambia
 
Freedom statue

As the national capital, Lusaka is the seat of the legislative, executive and judicial branches of government, epitomized by the presence of the National Assembly (parliament), the State House (office of the President), and the High Court. The Parliament is situated at the Parliament complex, which features a 15-story building. The city is also the capital of Lusaka Province, the smallest and most populous of the country's nine provinces, and forms an administrative district run by Lusaka City Council. In 2007, the mayor was Steven Chilatu (PF), and the deputy mayor was Mary Phiri.

List of mayors:[13]

  • F. Payne 1954–55.
  • H. K. Mitchell 1955–56
  • Ralph Rich 1956–57
  • H. F. Tunaley 1957–58
  • H. K. Mitchell 1958–60
  • Jack Fischer 1960–61
  • Richard Sampson 1962–63
  • S. H. Chilesh 1964–65
  • W. Banda 1965–69
  • Fleefort Chirwa 1969–71?[14]
  • Simon C. Mwewa up to 1982

List of Governors (decentralisation – one party participatory era)

List of Mayors – Multi-party era

  • John Chilambwe 1993–94
  • Fisho Mwale 1994–96
  • Gilbert R. Zimba Local Government Administrator – 1996–99
  • Patricia Nawa
  • Patrick Kangwa
  • John Kabungo
  • Levy Mkandawire
  • Stephen Mposha
  • Christine Nakazwe
  • Stephen Chilatu
  • Robert Chikwelete
  • Daniel Chisenga
  • Mulenga Sata
  • Wilson Chisala Kalumba – 2016 – May 2018 (died in office)
  • Miles Sampa – July 2018 – present

EducationEdit

 
University of Zambia campus

Zambia's largest institution of learning, the University of Zambia, is based in Lusaka. Other universities and colleges located in Lusaka include: University of Lusaka (UNILUS), Zambian Open University (ZAOU), Chainama Hills College, Evelyn Hone College of Applied Arts and Commerce, Zambia Centre for Accountancy Studies University (ZCASU), National Institute of Public Administration (NIPA), Cavendish University, Lusaka Apex Medical University and DMI-St. Eugene University. Lusaka has some of the finest schools in Zambia, including the American International School of Lusaka, Rhodes Park School, the Lusaka International Community School, the French International School, the Italian international School, the Lusaka Islamic Cultural and Educational Foundation (LICEF), the Chinese International School, Lusaka Russian Embassy School,[15] and Baobab College. Rhodes Park School is not an international school, though there is a large presence of Angolans, Nigerians, Congolese, South Africans, and Chinese. The children of the late President, Levy Mwanawasa as well as the children of late Vice-President George Kunda, attend the Rhodes Park School. Other well known schools located in Lusaka include: Matero Boys' Secondary School (MaBoys), Roma Girls' Secondary School, Munali Boys' and Girls' Secondary Schools, Chudleigh House School, Kabulonga Boys' and Girls' Secondary Schools, Lake Road PTA School, David Kaunda Technical School (DK), Ibex Hill School and St. Mary's Secondary School.

Residential areas and townshipsEdit

  • Kabulonga[16]
  • Woodlands
  • Rhodes Park[17]
  • Northmead
  • Emmasdale
  • Villa Elizabetha
  • Thornpark
  • Olympia Park
  • Roma
  • Foxdale
  • Sunningdale
  • Madras
  •  
    Street in PHI, Lusaka.
    PHI
  • Avondale
  • Kamwala
  • Kabwata
  • Libala
  • Chilenje
  • Chelstone
  • Kaunda Square
  • Munali
  • Nyumba Yanga
  • New Kasama
  • Chalala
  • Kanyama[18]
  • John Laing
  • Makeni
  • Misisi
  • Chawama
  • Kalingalinga
  • Mtendere
  • Bauleni
  • Chibolya
  • Kabanana
  • Chilenje South
  • Chazanga
  • George
  • Matero[19]

Places of worshipEdit

 
Lusaka Catholic church

Among the places of worship, they are predominantly Christian churches and temples : Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lusaka (Catholic Church), United Church in Zambia (World Communion of Reformed Churches), New Apostolic Church, Reformed Church in Zambia (World Communion of Reformed Churches), Baptist Union of Zambia (Baptist World Alliance), Assemblies of God.[20] There are also Muslim mosques.

CultureEdit

 
Lusaka National Museum

Attractions include Lusaka National Museum, the Political Museum, the Zintu Community Museum, the Freedom Statue, the Zambian National Assembly, the Agricultural Society Showgrounds (known for their annual agricultural show), the Moore Pottery Factory, the Lusaka Playhouse theatre, a cenotaph, Lusaka Golf Club, National Heroes Stadium, Woodlands Stadium, the Lusaka Central Sports Club, Kalimba Reptile Park, Mulungushi Conference Centre, Monkey Pools and the zoo and botanical gardens of the Munda Wanga Environmental Park.

EconomyEdit

RetailEdit

Lusaka is home to the largest and most numerous shopping centres in the country, including Manda Hill, Levy Junction, EastPark, Cosmopolitan, and the smaller but well-known Arcade Shopping Centre.

ArchitectureEdit

Along Great East Road are three of the largest shopping malls in Zambia: Arcades shopping mall (with open-air storefronts), East Park shopping mall and Manda Hill shopping mall (enclosed shops),[21] which was revamped and houses to international stores such as Shoprite, Game and Woolworths and Fresh View Cinemas.

 
Agricultural Society Show
 
Lusaka International Airport, main terminal

The city centre includes several blocks west of Cairo Road, around which lie the New City Market and Kamwala Market, a major shopping area, as well as the Zintu Community Museum. Further east lies the government area, including the State House and the various ministries, around Cathedral Hill and Ridgeway neighbourhoods. One of the main streets and points of interest upon business is Cairo Road.

TransportEdit

 
Lusaka Intercity Bus Station

AirportEdit

Lusaka is home to Kenneth Kaunda International Airport (which is used for both civil and military operations). There is also Lusaka City Airport, which is used by the Zambian Air Force. The airport is undergoing a major expansion and modernisation.

RailEdit

The city is served by the operating sections of the Cape to Cairo Railway, which connects it to Lubumbashi and Bulawayo. The international airport is connected to the railway line.

RoadEdit

The city is crossed by Transafican Highway 9 (TAH 9), which connects it to the cities of Harare and Lubumbashi, and by Transafrican Highway 4 (TAH 4), which connects it to Dodoma and Bulawayo.

Public transportEdit

Intracity public transport is provided primarily by minibuses, but also includes larger buses and shared taxis on fixed routes.[22] Vehicles on most routes travel between specific parts of the city and the four terminals in the central business district (referred to as "Town"): Kulima Tower, City Market, Millennium and Lumumba.[23] There is no official map of public transport routes in Lusaka, but an initiative to create a user-generated content map was begun in 2014.[24] All public transport vehicles in Lusaka are operated by private operators.

BusEdit

 
Pedestrian getting on minibus at local bus stop in Lusaka.

Bus services within Lusaka neighbourhoods, the CBD and towns surrounding Lusaka, such as Siavonga and Chirundu, use the Lusaka City Market Bus station, Inter-city Bus Terminus, Millenium Bus Station and Kulima Tower Station.

SportEdit

As the hosts of the 2012 Zone VI Games and the capital city of Zambia, Lusaka boasts extensive sports infrastructure, including Nkholoma Stadium in Chelstone, Sunset Stadium along Thabo Mbeki Road, Woodlands Stadium in Woodlands Residential Area, the Olympic Youth Development Centre (OYDC) along Great North Road, the Lusaka Golf Club in Chainama Hills and many other places. The city's ultra-modern 60,000 seat stadium, built by China, is named the National Heroes Stadium in memory of the Chipolopolo national team football players who died in a plane crash off the coast of Gabon in 1993.[25] The stadium was completed by the end of 2013 and since then has hosted most of the Zambia National Football team's international matches, local club matches, Zambia's 50th Year Golden Jubilee Celebrations and a Requiem Mass for the late President of Zambia, Michael Sata.

International relationsEdit

Lusaka is twinned with:

Notable peopleEdit

 
Old Manda Hill, Olympia Park.
 
Suburban residential area

The rugby union players Corné Krige and George Gregan, who respectively captained the South African and Australian teams in both the 2002 and 2003 Tri Nations Series, were coincidentally born in the same hospital in Lusaka.[26][27][28]

The former Zimbabwe cricketer Henry Olonga was also born in Lusaka. He was the first black cricketer – and the youngest person – to play for Zimbabwe.[29]

Lusaka is the hometown and place of residence of Joseph and Luka Banda, the first conjoined twins to be successfully separated and in full neurological health.[30]

ClimateEdit

Primarily due to its high altitude, Lusaka features a humid subtropical climate (Cwa) according to Köppen climate classification. Its coldest month, July, has a monthly mean temperature of 14.9 °C (58.8 °F). Lusaka features hot summers and cool winters, with cold conditions mainly restricted to nights in June and July. The hottest month is October, which sees daily average high temperatures at around 32 °C (90 °F). There are three main seasons: a warm monsoon season between November to March, a dry winter between April and August, and a hot summer from September and October.

Climate data for Lusaka
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 39.6
(103.3)
36.4
(97.5)
33.6
(92.5)
33.0
(91.4)
32.0
(89.6)
29.9
(85.8)
29.7
(85.5)
33.5
(92.3)
38.5
(101.3)
37.2
(99.0)
38.6
(101.5)
33.9
(93.0)
39.6
(103.3)
Average high °C (°F) 27.4
(81.3)
27.4
(81.3)
27.5
(81.5)
27.1
(80.8)
25.8
(78.4)
23.8
(74.8)
24.0
(75.2)
26.5
(79.7)
30.3
(86.5)
31.7
(89.1)
30.4
(86.7)
27.7
(81.9)
27.5
(81.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 21.5
(70.7)
21.5
(70.7)
21.1
(70.0)
19.9
(67.8)
17.4
(63.3)
15.2
(59.4)
14.9
(58.8)
17.3
(63.1)
21.3
(70.3)
23.5
(74.3)
23.4
(74.1)
21.7
(71.1)
19.9
(67.8)
Average low °C (°F) 17.6
(63.7)
17.4
(63.3)
16.4
(61.5)
14.0
(57.2)
10.7
(51.3)
7.8
(46.0)
7.2
(45.0)
9.2
(48.6)
12.9
(55.2)
16.2
(61.2)
17.4
(63.3)
17.8
(64.0)
13.7
(56.7)
Record low °C (°F) 13.0
(55.4)
12.9
(55.2)
10.0
(50.0)
8.0
(46.4)
5.4
(41.7)
0.2
(32.4)
0.7
(33.3)
2.8
(37.0)
5.8
(42.4)
9.0
(48.2)
10.8
(51.4)
10.4
(50.7)
0.2
(32.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 245.4
(9.66)
185.9
(7.32)
95.0
(3.74)
34.7
(1.37)
3.1
(0.12)
0.0
(0.0)
0.1
(0.00)
0.4
(0.02)
1.7
(0.07)
18.4
(0.72)
89.3
(3.52)
208.1
(8.19)
882.1
(34.73)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 18 15 10 3 0 0 0 0 0 2 8 16 72
Average relative humidity (%) 82.3 82.5 80.7 75.8 69.3 65.2 61.1 53.6 46.3 48.6 60.2 78.6 67.0
Mean monthly sunshine hours 176.7 168.0 220.1 246.0 275.9 270.0 294.5 303.8 291.0 272.8 234.0 182.9 2,935.7
Source: NOAA[31]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Central Statistical Office. "Population and Demography of Zambia". Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  2. ^ City of Lusaka Website Archived 20 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Airport altitude, http://climexp.knmi.nl/ Retrieved 7 March 2015
  4. ^ Central Statistical Office. "Population and Demographic Projections". Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  5. ^ <%=hdrContact%>. "Zambia". www.itu.int. Archived from the original on 15 September 2017. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  6. ^ "Sub-national HDI – Area Database – Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  7. ^ "Zambia Population 2020 (Live)". worldpopulationreview.com. Retrieved 28 April 2020.
  8. ^ Roman Adrian Cybriwsky, Capital Cities around the World: An Encyclopedia of Geography, History, and Culture, ABC-CLIO, USA, 2013, p. 167
  9. ^ Mwakikagile, Godfrey (2010). Zambia: Life in an African Country. New Africa Press. p. 158. ISBN 9789987160112. Archived from the original on 2 May 2018.
  10. ^ a b c Mwakikagile, Godfrey (2010). Zambia: Life in an African Country. New Africa Press. p. 159. ISBN 9789987160112. Archived from the original on 2 May 2018.
  11. ^ Britannica, Lusaka, britannica.com, USA, accessed on 30 June 2019
  12. ^ Lusaka population statistics
  13. ^ So this was Lusaakas, 2nd Edition, 1971 Mission Press, Ndola, Richard Sampson
  14. ^ "Los Angeles honors mayor of sister city in Africa". Jet. Johnson Publishing Company. 10 August 1972. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
  15. ^ "Russian Embassy School, lusaka, Zambia". bizpages.org. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  16. ^ https://www.zambiatourism.com/towns/lusaka/city-map/
  17. ^ https://www.google.com/maps/place/Lusaka/@-15.4084095,28.2788306,15.2z/data=!4m5!3m4!1s0x1940f37d3cbcaa49:0xd0d093c1462013eb!8m2!3d-15.3875259!4d28.3228165
  18. ^ https://www.google.com/maps/place/Kanyama,+Lusaka/@-15.4365722,28.1996717,13z/data=!3m1!4b1!4m5!3m4!1s0x1940f3afd4671d6b:0x979ffb71c608b72b!8m2!3d-15.4368124!4d28.2351192
  19. ^ https://www.google.com/maps/place/Matero,+Lusaka/@-15.377142,28.2464396,14z/data=!3m1!4b1!4m5!3m4!1s0x1940f5a2f971faab:0xe5030f49d59ca342!8m2!3d-15.3773823!4d28.2614332
  20. ^ Britannica, Zambia, britannica.com, USA, accessed on 7 July 2019
  21. ^ Mwakikagile, Godfrey (2010). Zambia: Life in an African Country. New Africa Press. p. 161. ISBN 9789987160112. Archived from the original on 13 November 2017.
  22. ^ "Can You Do It? Using Public Transportation in Lusaka Zambia". Travel Wanderings. 5 September 2013. Archived from the original on 28 May 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
  23. ^ "Making Public Transport in Lusaka City More Efficient and Effective" (PDF). Zambia Institute for Policy Analysis & Research. December 2013. Archived from the original on 28 May 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
  24. ^ "And We Have a Map!". Lusaka Public Transport Map: A User-Generated Mapping Project. 10 March 2014. Archived from the original on 27 May 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
  25. ^ Muchimba, Jerry (28 May 2015). Godfrey 'Ucar' Chitalu. Troubador Publishing Ltd. p. 213. ISBN 9781784622206. Archived from the original on 19 August 2017.
  26. ^ "George Gregan - Player Profile". Georgegregan.com. Archived from the original on 9 November 2008. Retrieved 13 November 2008.
  27. ^ "Captain Courageous: Corné Krige" Archived 26 July 2011 at Wikiwix, TheGoal.com, retrieved 26 June 2006.
  28. ^ "Rugby Union World Cup Special Reports: South Africa" Archived 19 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine, The Guardian, 6 October 2003.
  29. ^ "Henry Olonga- a short biography". ESPNcricinfo. 18 September 1999. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  30. ^ Terris, Ben; Kirchner, Stephanie (13 November 2015). "The Story of the Surgery that made Ben Carson Famous". Washington Post. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
  31. ^ "LUSAKA INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT Climate Normals 1961-1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 6 November 2012.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit