Portal:Zambia

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Zambia (/ˈzæmbiə, ˈzɑːm-/), officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country at the crossroads of Central, Southern and East Africa, although it is typically referred to as being in Southern Africa at its most central point. Its neighbours are the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the northeast, Malawi to the east, Mozambique to the southeast, Zimbabwe and Botswana to the south, Namibia to the southwest, and Angola to the west. The capital city of Zambia is Lusaka, located in the south-central part of Zambia. The nation's population of around 19.5 million is concentrated mainly around Lusaka in the south and the Copperbelt Province to the north, the core economic hubs of the country.

Originally inhabited by Khoisan peoples, the region was affected by the Bantu expansion of the thirteenth century. Following the arrival of European explorers in the eighteenth century, the British colonised the region into the British protectorates of Barotseland-North-Western Rhodesia and North-Eastern Rhodesia comprising 73 tribes, towards the end of the nineteenth century. These were merged in 1911 to form Northern Rhodesia. For most of the colonial period, Zambia was governed by an administration appointed from London with the advice of the British South Africa Company.

On 24 October 1964, Zambia became independent of the United Kingdom and prime minister Kenneth Kaunda became the inaugural president. Kaunda's socialist United National Independence Party (UNIP) maintained power from 1964 until 1991. Kaunda played a key role in regional diplomacy, cooperating closely with the United States in search of solutions to conflicts in Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), Angola, and Namibia. From 1972 to 1991 Zambia was a one-party state with UNIP as the sole legal political party under the motto "One Zambia, One Nation" coined by Kaunda. Kaunda was succeeded by Frederick Chiluba of the social-democratic Movement for Multi-Party Democracy in 1991, beginning a period of socio-economic development and government decentralisation. Zambia has since become a multi-party state and has experienced several peaceful transitions of power.

Zambia contains abundant natural resources, including minerals, wildlife, forestry, freshwater and arable land. In 2010, the World Bank named Zambia one of the world's fastest economically reformed countries. The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) is headquartered in Lusaka. (Full article...)

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Chikunda, sometimes rendered as Achicunda, was the name given from the 18th century onwards to the slave-warriors of the Afro-Portuguese estates known as Prazos in Zambezia, Mozambique. They were used to defend the prazos and police their inhabitants. Many of the chikunda were originally chattel slaves, raised to the status of soldiers, traders or administrators of parts of the prazo as a client or unfree dependent.

The prazo system based on agriculture broke down as a result of drought and disease in the early 19th century and was replaced by a small number of virtually independent states in the Zambezi valley that were based on the trade in slaves and ivory. The name ‘’’Achikunda’’’ was then applied to groups of professional soldiers in these minor states, who were rewarded with a share of the profits of those trades. Although these minor states were mainly in Mozambique, a small number extended their influence into what are now parts of Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi. (Full article...)
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A middle-aged, moustachioed gentleman sits with his arms folded outside a house.
A photograph reputed to show John Harrison Clark in later life in Broken Hill, Northern Rhodesia

John Harrison Clark or Changa-Changa (c. 1860–1927) effectively ruled much of what is today southern Zambia from the early 1890s to 1902. He arrived alone from South Africa in about 1887, reputedly as an outlaw, and assembled and trained a private army of Senga natives that he used to drive off various bands of slave-raiders. He took control of a swathe of territory on the north bank of the Zambezi river called Mashukulumbwe, became known as Chief "Changa-Changa" and, through a series of treaties with local chiefs, gained mineral and labour concessions covering much of the region.

Starting in 1897, Clark attempted to secure protection for his holdings from the British South Africa Company. The Company took little notice of him. A local chief, Chintanda, complained to the Company in 1899 that Clark had secured his concessions while passing himself off as a Company official and had been collecting hut tax for at least two years under this pretence. The Company resolved to remove him from power, and did so in 1902. Clark then farmed for about two decades, with some success, and moved in the late 1910s to Broken Hill. There he became a prominent local figure, and a partner in the first licensed brewery in Northern Rhodesia. Remaining in Broken Hill for the rest of his life, he died there in 1927. (Full article...)

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Cities

LusakaKitweNdolaKabweChingolaMufuliraLivingstoneLuanshyaKasamaChipataChililabombweSolwezi

History

Barotziland-North-Western RhodesiaThe Africa HouseBritish South Africa CompanyCopperbelt strike (1935)East African Campaign (World War I)Federation of Rhodesia and NyasalandGovernor-General of the Federation of Rhodesia and NyasalandGovernor of Northern RhodesiaHistory of Church activities in ZambiaLuapula Province border disputeLunda EmpireMulungushiMwata YamvoNorth-Eastern RhodesiaNorthern RhodesiaNorthern Rhodesian African National CongressNorth-Western RhodesiaRhodesian ManStairs ExpeditionZambia Independence Act

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Defence ForceDiplomatic missionsElectionsForeign relationsMinistry of HealthLusaka DeclarationNational AssemblyPresidentsPrime MinistersPolitical parties

Provinces

CentralCopperbeltEasternLuapulaLusakaNorth-WesternNorthernSouthernWesternMuchinga Province

Geography

BarotselandCongo PedicleDambosDistricts of ZambiaKariba GorgeMporokoso GroupNyika PlateauSouthern AfricaRift Valley lakesZambezi Escarpment

Economy

Bank of ZambiaCopperbeltList of Zambian companiesLusaka Stock ExchangeZambian kwachaMount Makulu ZambiaTazama PipelineKonkola Copper MinesZambia Consolidated Copper MinesZambia PostZambian AirwaysZamtelZambian poundRhodesia and Nyasaland pound

Languages

Bemba languageChichewa languageCilunguFanagaloKaonde languageLamba languageLozi languageLunda languageMambwe languageMbunda languageShona languageTonga language (Zambia)Tumbuka languageYauma languageLuvale language

Culture

2011 All-Africa Games Zambian traditional ceremonies

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Zambian AirwaysBenguela railwayTAZARA RailwayZambia RailwaysTrans–Caprivi HighwayGreat East Road (Zambia)Great North Road (Zambia)

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