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The Malagasy (French: Malgache) are an Austronesian and Southeast African ethnic group native to the island and country of Madagascar. They are divided into two subgroups: the "Highlander" Merina, Sihanaka and Betsileo of the central plateau around Antananarivo, Alaotra (Ambatondrazaka) and Fianarantsoa, and the "coastal dwellers" elsewhere in the country. This division has its roots in historical patterns of settlement. The original Austronesian settlers from Borneo arrived between the third and tenth centuries and established a network of principalities in the Central Highlands region conducive to growing the rice they had carried with them on their outrigger canoes. Sometime later, a large number of settlers arrived from East Africa and established kingdoms along the relatively unpopulated coastlines. The Bantu Africans mixed with the Austronesian settlers and this resulted in the modern Malagasy people.
|c. 25 million|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Madagascar, Comoros, Mayotte, Réunion, Mauritius, France, United Kingdom, United States, South Africa, Australia|
|Animism, Protestantism, Catholicism, Islam|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Other Austronesian peoples, Bantu peoples|
The difference in ethnic origins remains somewhat evident between the highland and coastal regions. In addition to the ethnic distinction between highland and coastal Malagasy, one may speak of a political distinction as well. Merina monarchs in the late 18th and early 19th century, the Malagasy people united the Merina principalities and brought the neighboring Betsileo people under their administration first. They later extended Merina control over the majority of the coastal areas as well. The military resistance and eventual defeat of most of the coastal communities assured their subordinate position vis-à-vis the Merina-Betsileo alliance. During the 19th and 20th centuries, the French colonial administration capitalized on and further exacerbated these political inequities by appropriating existing Merina governmental infrastructure to run their colony. This legacy of political inequity dogged the people of Madagascar after gaining independence in 1960; candidates' ethnic and regional identities have often served to help or hinder their success in democratic elections.
Within these two broad ethnic and political groupings, the Malagasy were historically subdivided into specifically named ethnic groups, who were primarily distinguished from one another on the basis of cultural practices. These were namely agricultural, hunting, or fishing practices; construction style of dwellings; music; hair and clothing styles; and local customs or taboos, the latter known in the Malagasy language as fady. The number of such ethnic groups in Madagascar has been debated. The practices that distinguished many of these groups are less prevalent in the 21st century than they were in the past. But, many Malagasy are proud to proclaim their association with one or several of these groups as part of their own cultural identity.
- "Highlander" ethnic groups
- Coastal ethnic groups
Recent genetic studies on the Malagasy people showed that they have mixed African and Asian ancestries. Three Malagasy populations, Temoro, Vezo, and Mikea, have approx. 70% African ancestry and 30% Asian ancestry. In a recent island-wide survey the male-only Y chromosomes of African origin are more common than those of East Asian origin (70.7 vs. 20.7%). However the mtDNA lineages, passed down from mother to child, are the opposite (42.4 African origin vs. 50.1% East Asian origin).
In a 2010 study, the Polynesian motif (mtDNA haplotype B4a1a1a) frequency occurs varied among three ethnic groups: 50% in Merina, 22% in Vezo, and 13% in Mikea. There are two additional mutations (1473 and 3423A) found in all Polynesian motif carriers of Madagascar, hence named the Malagasy motif. The most likely scenario is that Madagascar was settled approximately 1,200 years ago by a very small group, which consists of approximately 30 women; where 28 (93%) of them have Island Southeast Asian descent and 2 (7%) of them have African descent.
The closest Asian parental population of the Malagasy are the Banjarese and other South Kalimantan Dayak people of south east Borneo. Language footprints of their ancestors from Southeast Asia can presently be witnessed by many shared basic vocabulary with the Ma'anyan language, a language from the region of the Barito River in southern Borneo.
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There is a community of Malagasy expatriates living in France and elsewhere in Europe.
Some Malagasy were among peoples taken captive and sold as slaves in the Atlantic slave trade of the 18th and 19th centuries. The best-known community of descendants are in Morropón (Piura), a city in northern Peru; the Afro-Peruvians of Malagasy descent number about 7,000. They call themselves Mangaches or Malgaches. This section of Piura is called la Mangachería.
Malagasy slaves were also transported during slavery times to Brazil and the US, but their number and the number of their descendants in these countries is unknown. It is likely most of these descendants are not aware of their Malagasy ancestry. Robert Reed Church, an African-American businessman in Memphis, Tennessee in the 19th century, was said to be of Malagasy descent through his enslaved mother. Muhammad Ali, the former heavyweight champion, was said to be of Malagasy descent through his paternal 2nd great-grandmother, Sallie Anne Clay.
- Kusuma, P. et al. Contrasting Linguistic and Genetic Origins of the Asian Source Populations of Malagasy. Sci. Rep. 6, 26066; doi: 10.1038/srep26066 (2016).
- Pierron D, Heiske M, Razafindrazaka H, Rakoto I, Rabetokotany N, Ravololomanga B, et al. (2017). "Genomic landscape of human diversity across Madagascar". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 114 (32): E6498–E6506. doi:10.1073/pnas.1704906114. PMC 5559028. PMID 28716916.
- Murray P. Cox, Michael G. Nelson, Meryanne K. Tumonggor, François-X. Ricaut, Herawati Sudoyo. A small cohort of Island Southeast Asian women founded Madagascar. Proc Biol Sci. 2012 Jul 22; 279(1739): 2761–2768. Published online 2012 Mar 21. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2012.0012
- Brucato, Nicolas; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Cox, Murray P.; Pierron, Denis; Purnomo, Gludhug A.; Adelaar, Alexander; Kivisild, Toomas; Letellier, Thierry; Sudoyo, Herawati; Ricaut, François-Xavier (2016). "Malagasy Genetic Ancestry Comes from an Historical Malay Trading Post in Southeast Borneo". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 33 (9): 2396–2400. doi:10.1093/molbev/msw117. ISSN 0737-4038. PMC 4989113.
- Malagasy expatriates in France
- Maidei Magirosa (June 26, 2014). "Strong African presence in Peru". thePatriot. Retrieved April 15, 2015.
- John, Egerton (September 1, 1991). Shades of Gray: Dispatches from the Modern South. p. 134.
- Memories of Madagascar and Slavery in the Black Atlantic by Wendy Wilson-Fall, 2015, Ohio University Press—Malagasy diaspora
- Sandra Evers, Gwyn Campbell, Michael Lambek (2013). Contest for Land in Madagascar: Environment, Ancestors and Development. African Social Studies Series. Brill. ISBN 9004256237, ISBN 9789004256231.