Malagasy (//; Malagasy pronunciation: [maləˈɡasʲ]) is an Austronesian language and the national language of Madagascar. Malagasy is the westernmost Malayo-Polynesian language, brought to Madagascar by the settlement of Austronesian peoples from the Sunda islands around the 5th century AD. The Malagasy language is one of the Barito languages and is most closely related to the Ma'anyan language, still spoken on Borneo to this day. Malagasy also includes numerous Malay and Javanese loanwords, from the time of the early Austronesian settlement and trading between Madagascar and the Sunda Islands. After c. 1000 AD, Malagasy incorporated numerous Bantu and Arabic loanwords, brought over by new settlers and traders.
|25 million (2015)|
|Latin script (Malagasy alphabet)|
Sorabe alphabet (Historically)
Official language in
Malagasy is spoken by around 25 million people in Madagascar and the Comoros. Most people in Madagascar speak it as a first language, as do some people of Malagasy descent elsewhere. Malagasy is divided between two main dialect groups; Eastern and Western. The central plateau of the island, where the capital Antananarivo and the old heartland of the Merina Kingdom is located, speaks the Merina dialect. The Merina dialect is the basis of Standard Malagasy, which is used by the government and media in Madagascar. Standard Malagasy is one of two official languages of Madagascar alongside French, in the 2010 constitution of the Fourth Republic of Madagascar.
The Malagasy language is the westernmost member of the Malayo-Polynesian branch of the Austronesian language family, a grouping that includes languages from Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines. In fact, Malagasy's distinctiveness from nearby African languages had already been noted by early scholars, such as the Dutch scholar Adriaan Reland in 1708.
Among all Austronesian languages, Dahl (1951) demonstrated that Malagasy and Ma'anyan – an East Barito language spoken in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia on the island of Borneo – were particularly closely related. The language also has apparent influence from early Old Malay. Furthermore, there appears to be a Bantu influence or substratum in Malagasy phonotactics (Dahl 1988).
|Proto-Austronesian, circa 4000 BC||*isa||*DuSa||*telu||*Sepat||*lima||*enem||*pitu||*walu||*Siwa||*puluq|
(incl. Indonesian and Malaysian)
Madagascar was first settled by Austronesian peoples from Maritime Southeast Asia from the Sunda Islands (Malay archipelago). As for their route, one possibility is that the Indonesian Austronesian came directly across the Indian Ocean from Java to Madagascar. It is likely that they went through the Maldives, where evidence of old Indonesian boat design and fishing technology persists until the present. The migrations continued along the first millennium, as confirmed by linguistic researchers who showed the close relationship between the Malagasy language and Old Malay and Old Javanese languages of this period. The Malagasy language originates from the Southeast Barito languages, and the Ma'anyan language is its closest relative, with numerous Malay and Javanese loanwords. It is known that Ma'anyan people were brought as labourers and slaves by Malay and Javanese people in their trading fleets, which reached Madagascar by ca. 50–500 AD. Later, c. 1000, the original Austronesian settlers mixed with Bantus and Arabs, amongst others. There is evidence that the predecessors of the Malagasy dialects first arrived in the southern stretch of the east coast of Madagascar.
Malagasy is the principal language spoken on the island of Madagascar. It is also spoken by Malagasy communities on neighboring Indian Ocean islands such as Réunion, Mayotte and Mauritius. Expatriate Malagasy communities speaking the language also exist in Europe and North America, including, to a lesser extent, in Belgium and Washington, D.C. in the United States.
The Merina dialect of Malagasy is considered the national language of Madagascar. It is one of two official languages alongside French in the 2010 constitution put in place the Fourth Republic. Previously, under the 2007 constitution, Malagasy was one of three official languages alongside French and English. Malagasy is the language of instruction in all public schools through grade five for all subjects, and remains the language of instruction through high school for the subjects of history and Malagasy language.
There are two principal dialects of Malagasy; Eastern (including Merina) and Western (including Sakalava), with the isogloss running down the spine of the island, the south being western, and the central plateau and much of the north (apart from the very tip) being eastern. Ethnologue encodes 12 variants of Malagasy as distinct languages. They have about a 70% similarity in lexicon with the Merina dialect.
The Eastern dialects are:
- Northern Betsimisaraka Malagasy (1,270,000 speakers) – spoken by the Betsimisaraka on the northeastern coast of the island
- Southern Betsimisaraka Malagasy (2,000,000 speakers) – spoken by the Betsimisaraka in the North of the region Vatovavy Fito Vinany.
- Plateau Malagasy (10,893,000 speakers) – spoken in the centre of the island and includes southeastern dialects like Antemoro and Antefasy.
- Tanosy Malagasy (639,000 speakers) – spoken by the Antanosy people in the south of the island
- Tesaka Malagasy (1,130,000 speakers) – spoken by the Antaisaka people in the southeast of the island.
The Western dialects are:
- Antankarana Malagasy (156,000 speakers) – spoken by the Antankarana in the northern tip of the island
- Bara Malagasy (724,000 speakers) – spoken by the Bara people in the south of the island
- Masikoro Malagasy (550,000 speakers) – spoken by the Masikoro in the southwest of the island
- Sakalava Malagasy (1,210,000 speakers) – spoken by the Sakalava people on the western coast of the island
- Tandroy-Mahafaly Malagasy (1,300,000 speakers) – spoken by the Antandroy and the Mahafaly people on the southern tip of the island
- Tsimihety Malagasy (1,615,000 speakers) – spoken by the Tsimihety people.
Region specific variationsEdit
The two main dialects of Malagasy are easily distinguished by several phonological features.
Sakalava lost final nasal consonants, whereas Merina added a voiceless [ə̥]:
- *tañan 'hand' → Sakalava [ˈtaŋa] **tan̈a, Merina [ˈtananə̥] tanana
Final *t became -[tse] in the one but -[ʈʂə̥] in the other:
- *kulit 'skin' → Sakalava [ˈhulitse] **holitse, Merina [ˈhudiʈʂə̥] hoditra
Sakalava retains ancestral *li and *ti, whereas in Merina these become [di] (as in huditra 'skin' above) and [tsi]:
- *putiq 'white' → Sakalava [ˈfuti] **foty, Merina [ˈfutsi] fotsy
However, these last changes started in Borneo before the Malagasy arrived in Madagascar.
The language has a written literature going back presumably to the 15th century. When the French established Fort-Dauphin in the 17th century, they found an Arabico-Malagasy script in use, known as Sorabe ("large writings"). This Arabic Ajami script was mainly used for astrological and magical texts. The oldest known manuscript in that script is a short Malagasy-Dutch vocabulary from the early 17th century, which was first published in 1908 by Gabriel Ferrand though the script must have been introduced into the southeast area of Madagascar in the 15th century.
The first bilingual renderings of religious texts are those by Étienne de Flacourt, who also published the first dictionary of the language. Radama I, the first literate representative of the Merina monarchy, though extensively versed in the Arabico-Malagasy tradition, opted in 1823 for a Latin system derived by David Jones and invited the Protestant London Missionary Society to establish schools and churches. The first book to be printed in Malagasy using Latin characters was the Bible, which was translated into Malagasy in 1835 by British Protestant missionaries working in the highlands area of Madagascar.
The current Malagasy alphabet consists of 21 letters: a, b, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, r, s, t, v, y, z. The orthography maps rather straightforwardly to the phonemic inventory. The letters i and y both represent the /i/ sound (y is used word-finally, and i elsewhere), while o is pronounced /u/. The affricates /ʈʂ/ and /ɖʐ/ are written tr and dr, respectively, while /ts/ and /dz/ are written ts and j. The letter h is often silent. All other letters have essentially their IPA values. The letters c, q, u, w and x are all not used in native Malagasy words.
Mp and occasionally nt may begin a word, but they are pronounced /p, t/.
@ is used informally as a short form for amin'ny, which is a preposition followed by the definite form, meaning for instance with the.
|ـَ||ب||د||ـِ||ف||غ||ه||ـِ||ج||ك||ل||م||ن||ـُ||ڡ||ر||س||ط||و||⟨ي⟩ & ⟨ز⟩||ع||⟨ڊ⟩ & ⟨رّ⟩||⟨̣ط⟩ & ⟨رّ⟩||ت||ڡّ||طّ||ـَيْ||ـَوْ||ـُوً||ـُيْ||⟨ـِيَا⟩ & ⟨ـِيْا⟩||ـِوْ||ـِيْ|
|a||b||d||e||f||g, ng||h||i, y||j||k||l||m||n||o||p||r||s||t||v||z||n̈||dr||tr||ts||mp||nt||ai||ao||oa||oi||ia, ea||io, eo||ie|
Diacritics are not obligatory in standard Malagasy, except in the case where its absence leads to an ambiguity: tanàna ("city") must have the diacritic to discriminate itself from tanana ("hand"). They may however be used in the following ways:
- ◌̀ (grave accent) shows the stressed syllable in a word. It is frequently used for disambiguation. For instance in tanàna (town) and tanana (hand), where the word that is an exception to the usual pronunciation rules (tanàna) gets an accent. Using the accent on the word that follows the pronunciation rules (tànana) is less common, mainly in dictionaries.[clarification needed] (This is very similar to the usage of the grave accent in Italian.)
- ◌́ (acute accent) may be used in
- very old dictionaries, along with grave accent
- dialects such as Bara
- French (Tuléar) and French-spelled (Antsirabé) names. Malagasy versions are Toliara or Toliary and Antsirabe.
- ◌̂ (circumflex) is used as follows:
- ô shows that the letter is pronounced /o/ and not /u/, in Malagasified foreign words (hôpitaly) and dialects (Tôlan̈aro). In standard Malagasy, ao or oa (as in mivoaka) is used instead.
- sometimes the single-letter words a and e are written â and ê but it does not change the pronunciation
- ◌̈ (diaeresis) is used with n̈ in dialects for a velar nasal /ŋ/. Examples are place names such as Tôlan̈aro, Antsiran̈ana, Iharan̈a, Anantson̈o. This can be seen in maps from FTM, the national institute of geodesy and cartography.
- ◌̃ (tilde) is used in ñ sometimes, perhaps when the writer cannot produce an n̈ (although ng is also used in such cases). In Ellis' Bara dialect dictionary, it is used for velar nasal /ŋ/ as well as palatal nasal /ɲ/.
|ô, ao, oa|
After a stressed syllable, as at the end of most words and in the final two syllables of some, /a, u, i/ are reduced to [ə, ʷ, ʲ]. (/i/ is spelled ⟨y⟩ in such cases, though in monosyllabic words like ny and vy, ⟨y⟩ is pronounced as a full [i].) Final /a/, and sometimes final syllables, are devoiced at the end of an utterance. /e/ and /o/ are never reduced or devoiced. The large number of reduced vowels, and their effect on neighbouring consonants, give Malagasy a phonological quality not unlike that of Portuguese.
/o/ is marginal in Merina dialect, found in interjections and loan words, though it is also found in place names from other dialectical areas. /ai, au/ are diphthongs [ai̯, au̯] in careful speech, [e, o] or [ɛ, ɔ] in more casual speech. /ai/, whichever way it is pronounced, affects following /k, ɡ/ as /i/ does.
|Nasal||m ⟨m⟩||n ⟨n⟩||ŋ ⟨n̈⟩|
|voiceless||p ⟨p⟩||t ⟨t⟩||ts ⟨ts⟩||ʈʳ ⟨tr⟩||k ⟨k⟩|
|voiceless prenasalized||mp ⟨mp⟩||nt
|nts ⟨nts⟩||ɳʈʳ ⟨ntr⟩||ŋk ⟨nk⟩|
|voiced||b ⟨b⟩||d ⟨d⟩||dz ⟨j⟩||ɖʳ ⟨dr⟩||ɡ ⟨g⟩|
|voiced prenasalized||mb ⟨mb⟩||nd
|ndz ⟨nj⟩||ɳɖʳ ⟨ndr⟩||ŋɡ ⟨ng⟩|
|Fricative||voiceless||f ⟨f⟩||s ⟨s⟩||h ⟨h⟩|
|voiced||v ⟨v⟩||z ⟨z⟩|
The alveolars /s ts z dz l/ are slightly palatalized. /ts, dz, s, z/ vary between [ts, dz, s, z] and [tʃ, dʒ, ʃ, ʒ], and are especially likely to be the latter when followed by unstressed /i/: Thus French malgache [malɡaʃ] 'Malagasy'. The velars /k ɡ ŋk ŋɡ h/ are palatalized after /i/ (e.g. alika /alikʲa/ 'dog'). /h/ is frequently elided in casual speech.
The reported postalveolar trilled affricates /ʈʳ ɳʈʳ ɖʳ ɳɖʳ/ are sometimes simple stops, [ʈ ɳʈ ɖ ɳɖ], but they often have a rhotic release, [ʈɽ̊˔ ɳʈɽ̊˔ ɖɽ˔ ɳɖɽ˔]. It is not clear if they are actually trilled, or are simply non-sibilant affricates [ʈɻ̊˔ ɳʈɻ̊˔ ɖɻ˔ ɳɖɻ˔]. However, in another Austronesian language with a claimed trilled affricate, Fijian, trilling occurs but is rare, and the primary distinguishing feature is that it is postalveolar. The Malagasy sounds are frequently transcribed [ʈʂ ɳʈʂ ɖʐ ɳɖʐ], and that is the convention used in this article.
In reduplication, compounding, possessive and verbal constructions, as well as after nasals, fricatives and liquids, 'spirants' become stops, as follows:
Here, stressed syllables are indicated by grave diacritics (à), although these diacritics are normally not used.
Words are generally accented on the penultimate syllable, unless the word ends in ka, tra and often na, in which case they are stressed on the antepenultimate syllable. Secondary stresses exist in even-numbered syllables from the last stressed syllable, when the word has more than four syllables (fàmantàranàndro [ˌfamˌtarˈnandʐʷ] "watch, clock"). Both affixation and prefixation do not affect stress placement.
Mamaky boky ny mpianatra
(reads book the student)
"The student reads the book"
Nividy ronono ho an'ny zaza ny vehivavy
(bought milk for the child the woman)
"The woman bought milk for the child"
Within phrases, Malagasy order is typical of head-initial languages: Malagasy has prepositions rather than postpositions (ho an'ny zaza "for the child"). Determiners precede the noun, while quantifiers, modifying adjective phrases, and relative clauses follow the noun (ny boky "the book(s)", ny boky mena "the red book(s)", ny boky rehetra "all the books", ny boky novakin'ny mpianatra "the book(s) read by the student(s)").
Somewhat unusually, demonstrative determiners are repeated both before and after the noun ity boky ity "this book" (lit. "this book this").
Verbs have syntactically three productive "voice" forms according to the thematic role they play in the sentence: the basic "agent focus" forms of the majority of Malagasy verbs, the derived "patient focus" forms used in "passive" constructions, and the derived "goal focus" forms used in constructions with focus on instrumentality. Thus
- (1) Manasa ny tanako amin'ny savony aho. ("I am washing my hands with soap.")
- (2) Sasako amin'ny savony ny tanako. ("My hands are washed with soap by me.")
- (3) Anasako ny tanako ny savony. ("It is with soap that my hands are washed by me.")
all mean "I wash my hands with soap" though focus is determined in each case by the sentence initial verb form and the sentence final (noun) argument: manasa "wash" and aho "I" in (1), sasako "wash" and ny tanako "my hands" in (2), anasako "wash" and ny savony "soap" in (3). There is no equivalent to the English preposition with in (3).
Verbs inflect for past, present, and future tense, where tense is marked by prefixes (e.g. mividy "buy", nividy "bought", hividy "will buy").
Nouns and pronounsEdit
Malagasy has no grammatical gender, and nouns do not inflect for number. However, pronouns and demonstratives have distinct singular and plural forms (cf. io boky io "that book", ireto boky ireto "these books").
There is a complex series of demonstrative pronouns, depending on the speaker's familiarity and closeness to the referent.
The following set of pronouns are the pronouns found in Standard Malagasy. Note: the nominative first person singular pronoun is divided between a long and short form; the long form occurs before a verb (focalized or topicalized subjects) and the short form after a verb. The genitive first and second person pronouns are also divided between long and short forms; the long form occurs if the root ends with anything but [na], [ka*] or [tra]; if the stem ends with [na], the long form also occurs but [na] is deleted; and if the stem ends with [ka*] or [tra], the final vowel of the root is deleted and the short form occurs.
|1st person singular||izaho/aho||-ko/-o||ahy|
|2nd person singular||ianao||-nao/-ao||anao|
|3rd person singular||izy||-ny||antsy|
|1st person plural inclusive||isika||-ntsika/-tsika||antsika|
|1st person plural exclusive||izahay||-nay/-ay||anay|
|2nd person plural||ianareo||-nareo/-areo||anareo|
|3rd person plural||izy (ireo)||-ny||azy (ireo)|
Malagasy has a complex system of deixis (these, those, here, there, etc.), with seven degrees of distance as well as evidentiality across all seven. The evidential dimension is prototypically visible vs. non-visible referents; however, the non-visible forms may be used for visible referents which are only vaguely identified or have unclear boundaries, whereas the visible forms are used for non-visible referents when these are topical to the conversation.
- Diacritics in deixis are not mandatory in Malagasy.
- Deixis marked by a * are rarely used.
Malagasy shares much of its basic vocabulary with the Ma'anyan language, a language from the region of the Barito River in southern Borneo. The Malagasy language also includes some borrowings from Arabic and Bantu languages (especially the Sabaki branch, from which most notably Swahili derives), and more recently from French and English.
The following samples are of the Merina dialect or Standard Malagasy, which is spoken in the capital of Madagascar and in the central highlands or "plateau", home of the Merina people. It is generally understood throughout the island.
|No||Tsia, (before a verb) Tsy||tsi, tsʲ|
|Hello! / How are you?||Manao ahoana!||manaˈʷonə̥/manaˈonə̥|
|Hello! (rural areas)||Salama!||saˈlamə̥|
|I'm fine, thank you.||Tsara fa misaotra.||ˈtsarə̥ fa mʲˈsoːtʂə̥|
|You're welcome||Tsisy fisaorana.||tsʲ ˈmisʲ fʲˈsoːranə̥|
|Excuse me||Azafady (with arm and hand pointing to the ground)||azaˈfadʲ|
|Sorry||Miala tsiny||mjala ˈtsinʲ|
|When?||Rahoviana?, (past tense) Oviana||roːˈvinə̥/rawˈvinə̥|
|Where?||Aiza?, (past tense) Taiza||ajzə̥|
|Why?||Fa maninona?||fa maninːə̥|
|What's your name?||Iza ny anaranao?||iza njanaraˈnaw|
|For||Ho an'ny / Ho an'i||wanːi|
|I don't understand.||Tsy mazava, Tsy azoko.||tsʲ mazavə̥|
|Yes, I understand.||Eny, mazava, Eny, azoko||ʲenʲ mazavə̥|
|Go away!||Mandehana!||man di anə|
|Can you help me please?||Afaka manampy ahy ve ianao azafady?||afaka manapʲ a ve enaw azafadʲ|
|Where are the toilets?||Aiza ny efitrano fivoahana?, Aiza ny V.C.?, Aiza ny toilet?||ajza njefitʂanʷ fiˈvwaːnə̥|
|Do you speak English?||Mahay teny anglisy ve ianao?||miˈtenʲ ãŋˈɡliʂ ve eˈnaw|
|I do not speak Malagasy.||Tsy mahay teny malagasy aho.||tsʲ maaj tenʲ malaˈɡasʲ a|
|I do not speak French.||Tsy mahay teny frantsay aho.||tsʲ maaj tenʲ frantsaj a|
|I am thirsty.||Mangetaheta aho.||maŋɡetaˈeta|
|I am hungry.||Noana aho.||noːna|
|I am sick.||Marary aho.|
|I am tired.||Vizaka aho, Reraka aho||ˈvizaka, rerakau|
|I need to pee.||Poritra aho, Ny olombelona tsy akoho||purtʂa|
|I would like to go to Antsirabe.||Te hankany Antsirabe aho.||tiku ankanʲ anjantsirabe|
|That's expensive!||Lafo be izany!||lafʷˈbe zanʲ|
|I'm hungry for some rice.||Noana vary aho.||noːna varja|
|What can I do for you?||Inona no azoko atao ho anao?||inːa ɲazʷkwataʷ wanaw|
|I love you.||Tiako ianao.||tikwenaʷ|
|eleven||iraika ambin'ny folo||rajkʲambefulʷ|
|twelve||roa ambin'ny folo||rumbefulʷ|
|ten thousand||iray alina||rajal|
|one hundred thousand||iray hetsy||rajetsʲ|
|one million||iray tapitrisa||rajtaptʂisə̥|
|one billion||iray lavitrisa||rajlavtʂisə̥|
|3,568,942||roa amby efapolo sy sivin-jato sy valo arivo sy enina alina sy dimy hetsy sy telo tapitrisa||rumbefapulʷ sʲsivdzatʷ sʲvalorivʷ sʲenːal sʲdimjetsʲ sʲtelutapitʂisə̥|
The first dictionary of the language is Étienne de Flacourt's Dictionnaire de la langue de Madagascar published in 1658 though earlier glossaries written in Arabico-Malagasy script exist. A later Vocabulaire Anglais-Malagasy was published in 1729. An 892-page Malagasy–English dictionary was published by James Richardson of the London Missionary Society in 1885, available as a reprint; however, this dictionary includes archaic terminology and definitions. Whereas later works have been of lesser size, several have been updated to reflect the evolution and progress of the language, including a more modern, bilingual frequency dictionary based on a corpus of over 5 million Malagasy words.
- Winterton, M. et al.: Malagasy–English, English–Malagasy Dictionary / Diksionera Malagasy–Anglisy, Anglisy–Malagasy. Raleigh, North Carolina. USA: Lulu Press 2011, 548 p.
- Richardson: A New Malagasy–English Dictionary. Farnborough, England: Gregg Press 1967, 892 p. ISBN 0-576-11607-6 (Original edition, Antananarivo: The London Missionary Society, 1885).
- Diksionera Malagasy–Englisy. Antananarivo: Trano Printy Loterana 1973, 103 p.
- An Elementary English–Malagasy Dictionary. Antananarivo: Trano Printy Loterana 1969, 118 p.
- English–Malagasy Phrase Book. Antananarivo: Editions Madprint 1973, 199 p. (Les Guides de Poche de Madagasikara.)
- Paginton, K: English–Malagasy Vocabulary. Antananarivo: Trano Printy Loterana 1970, 192 p.
- Bergenholtz, H. et al.: Rakibolana Malagasy–Alemana. Antananarivo: Leximal/Moers: aragon. 1991.
- Bergenholtz, H. et al.: Rakibolana Alemana–Malagasy. Antananarivo: Tsipika/Moers: aragon. 1994.
- Rakibolana Malagasy. Fianarantsoa: Régis RAJEMISOA – RAOLISON 1995, 1061 p.
- Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin
- Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh
- Otto Chr. Dahl, Malgache et Maanjan: une comparaison linguistique, Egede-Instituttet Avhandlinger, no. 3 (Oslo: Egede-Instituttet, 1951), p. 13.
- Malagasy's family tree on Ethnologue
- Blench, Roger (2007). "New Palaeozoogeographical Evidence for the Settlement of Madagascar" (PDF). Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa. 42 (1): 69–82. doi:10.1080/00672700709480451. S2CID 59022942. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-21.
- Dahl, Otto Christian (1951), Malgache et Maanyan: Une comparaison linguistique, Avhandlinger utgitt av Instituttet 3 (in French), Oslo: Egede Instituttet
- Adelaar, Alexander (1995). "Asian Roots of the Malagasy: A Linguistic Perspective". Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. 151 (3): 325–356. doi:10.1163/22134379-90003036. JSTOR 27864676.
- Blench, Roger (2018), Interdisciplinary Approaches to Stratifying the Peopling of Madagascar (PDF) – via www.rogerblench.info
- Ricaut, François-X; Razafindrazaka, Harilanto; Cox, Murray P; Dugoujon, Jean-M; Guitard, Evelyne; Sambo, Clement; Mormina, Maru; Mirazon-Lahr, Marta; Ludes, Bertrand; Crubézy, Eric (2009). "A new deep branch of eurasian mtDNA macrohaplogroup M reveals additional complexity regarding the settlement of Madagascar". BMC Genomics. 10 (1): 605. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-10-605. PMC 2808327. PMID 20003445.
- P. Y. Manguin. Pre-modern Southeast Asian Shipping in the Indian Ocean: The Maldive Connection. ‘New Directions in Maritime History Conference’ Fremantle. December 1993.
- Adelaar, K. Alexander; Himmelmann, Nikolaus, eds. (2005). The Austronesian Languages of Asia and Madagascar. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-7007-1286-1.
- Simon, Pierre R. (2006). Fitenin-drazana. L'Harmattan. ISBN 978-2-296-01108-3.
- There are also some Sulawesi loanwords, which Adelaar attributes to contact prior to the migration to Madagascar: See K. Alexander Adelaar, “The Indonesian Migrations to Madagascar: Making Sense of the Multidisciplinary Evidence”, in Truman Simanjuntak, Ingrid Harriet Eileen Pojoh and Muhammad Hisyam (eds.), Austronesian Diaspora and the Ethnogeneses of People in Indonesian Archipelago, (Jakarta: Indonesian Institute of Sciences, 2006), pp. 8–9.
- Dewar, Robert E.; Wright, Henry T. (1993). "The culture history of Madagascar". Journal of World Prehistory. 7 (4): 417–466. doi:10.1007/bf00997802. hdl:2027.42/45256. S2CID 21753825.
- Burney DA, Burney LP, Godfrey LR, Jungers WL, Goodman SM, Wright HT, Jull AJ (August 2004). "A chronology for late prehistoric Madagascar". Journal of Human Evolution. 47 (1–2): 25–63. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2004.05.005. PMID 15288523.
- Ferrand, Gabriel (1905), "Les migrations musulmanes et juives à Madagascar", Revue de l'histoire des religions, Paris
- Serva, Maurizio; Petroni, Filippo; Volchenkov, Dima; Wichmann, Søren (2011). "Malagasy Dialects and the Peopling of Madagascar". Journal of the Royal Society, Interface. 9 (66): 54–67. arXiv:1102.2180. doi:10.1098/rsif.2011.0228. PMC 3223632. PMID 21632612.
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|Malagasy edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Malagasy language.|
|Wikivoyage has a phrasebook for Malagasy.|
- Malagasy-English, English–Malagasy bilingual frequency dictionary
- Large audio database of Malagasy words with recorded pronunciation
- Searchable Malagasy–French–English Dictionary/Translator
- Malagasy–English Dictionary
- Malagasy–French dictionary
- Malagasy Swadesh list of basic vocabulary words (from Wiktionary's Swadesh-list appendix)
- Malagasy Vocabulary List (from the World Loanword Database)
- La Bible Malgache en texte intégral – the complete text of the 1865 Malagasy Bible
- List of references on Malagasy language (with links to online resources).
- Oxford University: Malagasy Language
- Paper on Malagasy clause structure