Kwa languages

The Kwa languages, often specified as New Kwa, are a proposed but as-yet-undemonstrated family of languages spoken in the south-eastern part of Ivory Coast, across southern Ghana, and in central Togo. The name was introduced 1895 by Gottlob Krause and derives from the word for 'people' (Kwa) in many of these languages, as illustrated by Akan names.

Kwa
New Kwa
Geographic
distribution
Ivory Coast, Ghana, and Togo
Linguistic classificationNiger–Congo
Subdivisions
Glottologkwav1236[1]
Niger-Congo map.png
Map showing the distribution of Niger–Congo languages. Green is the Kwa subfamily.

LanguagesEdit

See the box at right for a current classification.

The various clusters of languages included in Kwa are at best distantly related, and it has not been demonstrated that they are closer to each other than to neighboring Niger–Congo languages.[2]

Stewart[3] distinguished the following major branches, which historical-comparative analysis supports as valid groups:

The Lagoon languages of southern Ivory Coast are not particularly close to any of these, nor to each other, so they are left ungrouped:

An Esuma language, extinct ca. 1800, remains unclassified.

Since Stewart, Ega has been tentatively removed, the Gbe languages reassigned to Volta–Niger, and Apro added. Some of the Na-Togo and Ka-Togo languages have been placed into separate branches of Kwa.[4] See the infobox at right for the resulting branches.

Ethnologue divides the Kwa languages into two broad geographical groupings: Nyo and Left bank, but this is not a genealogical classification. The Nyo group collapses Stewart's Potou–Tano and Ga–Dangme branches and also includes the ungrouped languages of southern Ivory Coast, while the Ka/Na-Togo and Gbe languages are called Left bank because they are spoken to the east of the Volta River.

History of the proposalEdit

The word 'Kwa' was introduced by Gottlob Krause in 1885 for the Akan (or perhaps Tano), Gã, and Gbe languages, which have kwa or kua as their word for 'human being'. Since then the proposal has been dramatically expanded, only to revert to something approaching its initial conception.

In 1952 Westermann and Bryan expanded Kwa to the various Lagoon languages of southern Ivory Coast and to what are now called the Volta–Niger languages of southern Nigeria. Greenberg (1963) added the Kru languages of Liberia, the Ghana–Togo Mountain languages which Westermann and Bryan had specifically excluded, and Ijaw of the Niger delta; West Kwa included the languages from Liberia to Dahomey (Republic of Benin), and East Kwa the languages of Nigeria. Bennett & Sterk (1977) proposed that the Yoruboid and Igboid languages belonged in Benue–Congo rather than in Kwa. Stewart (1989) removed Kru, Ijaw, and Volta–Niger (East Kwa), but kept the Ghana–Togo Mountain and Lagoon languages, as well as adding a few obscure, newly described languages. Stewart's classification is the basis of more recent conceptions. In order to disambiguate this from Greenberg's influential classification, the reduced family is sometimes called "New Kwa".

Comparative vocabularyEdit

Sample basic vocabulary of Kwa and related languages from Dumestre (1971) and other sources:[5]

Classification Language eye ear tooth tongue mouth blood bone tree water
Ghana-Togo Proto-Central Togo[6] *ki-nu-bí /bi- *ku-túe /a- *li-nía /a-; *li-lúma /a- *ki-níé-bí /bi- *ka-niána /ku-; *o- núí /i- *li-kúpá /a- *ku-wyéu /a- *n-tû
Potou-Tano Proto-Guang[7] *kω-sω *kɔ-nɔ̃ *ŋ-kalωŋ *o-yi *ɲ-ču
Potou-Tano Baoulé[5] ɲima su ɟe taama, tãflã nwã moɟa oɥje wake n̥zɥe
Potou-Tano Ebrié[5] m̥mɛ-ɓi n̥ɟɛ n̥nɔ allɛ m̥mɛ n̥ka n̥eʔwe aja n̥du
Potou-Tano Krobou[5] ɲɛ-bi su n̥ɲɛ dandre n̥nɔ̃ n̥krã m̥rɔ ɲamɛ n̥zɔ
Potou-Tano Aboure[5] ɛɲɛ ɔwɔ n̥ɲɛ nãnɛ ɔblɔ n̥nla eboɛ̃ elibe n̥tʃwɛ
Potou-Tano Eotile[5] ɛjima ɔho anna annɛ ãto n̥na n̥tɔwu edwɔ n̥su
Potou-Tano Mbatto[5] õɲɛ̃muo õdʒo ɔ̃nɔ̃gõ olɛ ẽmẽ õglɔ̃ õtʃɥi ojoku õdu
Lagoon Adioukrou[5] ɲama lɔru nɛn anm nɛɲ mebl luw l-ikŋ midʒ
Lagoon Abbey[5] aɛ̃mɔ̃ rɔkɔ eji lɛtɛ ejimbu m̥pje sfje ti midʒi
Lagoon Attie[5] himbɛ te hɛ̃ vø̃ fe dzakwɛ
Lagoon Alladian[5] ɛrɛ nuku n̥ɲi ɛwɛ̃ ɛmwã n̥krɛ n̥wi ɛtɛ n̥ʃi
Lagoon Avikam[5] eŋwaɓa ɛzjɛɓa ɛɲrã azraɓa enɔ̃ ɛvɛ̃ ɛwu eziba ɛsɔ̃
Lagoon Abidji[5] nɔnɔwɛ rɛte ɛɲi ine nimiti m̥bwo luvu tʰi mindi
Kru Aizi[5] zro lokɔ ɲɪ mrɔ mu ɲre kra ke nrɪ̃
Ega Ega[8] efí /e elowá /a- ɛnʊmà /a- eno /i- ɔ̀mà àsɔ̀ ìkù ote /a- aɗú
Pere Pere[9] jísì-kéé nɛ́ɛ́(ⁿ) ɲòŋòmù jèŋgé yúgú ɲààmú kóó gbèè-tííⁿ túmú
Mpra Mpra[10] anisi ate nchuma nchumu eyia nkaw; nkwõ
Dompo Dompo[11] nyisi sepe nyì dandulo kanu nkla wuu yi nsu
Gbe Proto-Gbe[12] *-tó *aɖú *-ɖɛ́ *-ɖũ; *-ɖũkpá *-ʁʷũ *-χʷú *-tĩ́ *-tsĩ

NumeralsEdit

Comparison of numerals in individual languages:[13]

Classification Language 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Left Bank, Avatime-Nyangbo Avatime ólè ɔ́βà ɔ́tà óné ót͡ʃù óɡlò ɡlóelè ɡɔ́tɔ́βà ɡɔ́tólé líɔfɔ
Left Bank, Avatime-Nyangbo Nyangbo (1) olí ɛbʰa ɛtá ɛlɛ́ ití holo ɡene ansɛ ʒita kɛfɔ
Left Bank, Avatime-Nyangbo Nyangbo (2) olié ɛbʰa ɛtaé ɛlɛ etié holō ɡěneé ansɛ ʒitaé kɛfɔ
Left Bank, Avatime-Nyangbo Tafi (1) olí ɛbʰa ɛtá ẽlɛ ití holō ɡéné asuɛ̄ ʒitá kɛfɔ̄
Left Bank, Avatime-Nyangbo Tafi (2) olí ɪbʰa ɪtá ĩlĩ́ ití holō ɡéné asʊī ʒitá kífɔ̄
Left Bank, Gbe Éwé èɖé èvè ètɔ̃ ènè àtɔ̃ àdẽ́ adrẽ́ èɲí aʃíeké èwó
Left Bank, Gbe Kotafon-Gbe ɖok͡po àwè àtɔ̃̂ ènɛ̀ àtɔ̃́ aɲizɛ̃ tsĩ́ã̀wè (litː hand+ 2) tsĩ́ã̀tɔ̃̂ (litː hand+ 3) tsĩ́ɛ̀nɛ̀ (litː hand+ 4) emewó
Left Bank, Gbe Saxwe-Gbe ɑ̀ɖé / ɖók͡pó òwê ɑ̀tɔ̃̂ ɛ̀nɛ̃̂ ɑ̀tṹ ɑ̀dɛ̃́ ɑ̀tʃówê (5 + 2) ɑ̀tɾótɔ̃̂ (5 + 3) ɑ̀tʃɛ̃́nɛ̃̂ (5 + 5) òwō
Left Bank, Gbe Waci-Gbe (Gen-Gbe) ɖeka (e)ve (e)tɔn (e)ne (a)tɔ́n (a)dén (á)dlén (e)nyí (e)asiɖeka (10 -1) ? (e)wo
Left Bank, Gbe Western Xwla-Gbe lók͡pó ɔ̀wè ɔ̀tɔ̃̀ ɛ̀nɛ̀ àtɔ̃́ àtroók͡pó (5 + 1) àcówè àtsítɔ̃̀ àtsíɛ̀ ɔ̀síɔsí (litː hand hand)
Left Bank, Gbe Xwla-Gbe òɖě(lók͡pō) ōwè ōtɔ̃̀ ēnɛ̀ àtɔ̃̄ɔ̃̄ ātrók͡pō ācíòwè àtĩ́tɔ̃̀ àcíɛ̀nɛ̀ ōwóé
Left Bank, Gbe, Aja Aja-Gbe (Aja) eɖé / ɖeka èvè / amɛ̃ve etɔ̃̂ / amɛ̃tɔ̃ enɛ̀ / amɛ̃nɛ̃ atɔ̃ / amãtɔ̃ adɛ̃ / amãdɛ̃ adɾɛ / amãdɾɛ eɲĩ / amɛ̃ɲĩ ɲíɖe / aʃiɖekɛ / amãʃíɖekɛ (10 -1) ewó
Left Bank, Gbe, Aja Gun-Gbe òɖè / ɖòk͡pó àwe àtɔn ɛnɛ̀n àtɔ́n t͡ʃíɖòk͡pó (?+1) t͡ʃiánwè (?+2) t͡ʃíantɔ̀n (?+3) t͡ʃíɛ́nnɛ̀n (?+4) àwò
Left Bank, Gbe, Fon Fon-Gbe (Fon) ɖě we atɔn ɛnɛ atɔ́ɔ́n ayizɛ́n tɛ́nwe (5 + 2) tántɔn (5 + 3) tɛ́nnɛ (5 + 5)
Left Bank, Gbe, Fon Maxi-Gbe ɖèé òwè ɔ̀tɔ̃̀ ɛ̀nɛ̀ àtɔ̃́ ayizɛ̃ tɛ́ɛwè (5 + 2) tã́tɔ̃̀ (5 + 3) tɛ̃ɛ̃nɛ̀ (5 + 5) òwó
Left Bank, Gbe, Mina Gen-Gbe (Gen) èɖě èvè ētɔ̃̀ ēnɛ̀ àtɔ̃́ɔ̃ ādɛ̃́ ǎdrɛ̃́ ēɲí ēɲíɖé (10 -1) ēwó
Left Bank, Kebu-Animere Akebu (1) ʈɛ́ì nìə̀ə̀ tʊ̄ʊ̀ kʊ̀rã̀ŋ pīrìmātā nɛ̀ĩ̀ŋ fã̀ŋt͡ʃẽ̄ŋt͡ʃẽ̄ŋ tə̀
Left Bank, Kebu-Animere Akebu (2) dɛi yi taː niə tuw turaŋ primata nɛŋ fant͡ʃet͡ʃeŋ (10 - 1) ?
Left Bank, Kebu-Animere Animere bɛɹi din tʰa aɳe atʰuŋ akʰuɹuŋ ɳotʰa ɳoɳa fʊɳe tʰi
Left Bank, Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili Igo (Ahlon) ili ìwà ìtã àlã̀ ùtɔ uɡo ùzòni ùmàlà úkàli ɔ̀wú
Left Bank, Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili Ikposo-uwi ɛ̀dɪ ɛ̀fʷà ɛ̀la ɛ̀na ɛ̀tʊ ɛ̀wlʊ ɛ̀wlʊdɪ (6 + 1) ? ɛ̀lɛ ɛ̀lɛdɪ (8 + 1) ? ìd͡ʒo
Left Bank, Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili Tuwuri (Bowiri) kédì kɛ́ɛ́yá kààlɛ̀ kɛ́ɛ́ná kùùló kévũ̀ kɛ́kɔ̀nɔ̀ kɛ̀ɛ̀lɛ̃̀ kàvèdí (10 - 1) ? kùwà
Nyo, Agneby Abé (Abbey) ŋ̀k͡pɔ̄ āɲʊ̃́ āɾí àlɛ́ ōní lɔ̀hɔ̃̀ lɔ̀hʍ̃ã̄ɾí èpʲè ɲāàkó ǹnɛ̀
Nyo, Agneby Abidji ń̩nɔ̀ áānʊ̄ ɛ̃́ɛ̃̄tɪ̄ ã́ã̄lā éēnē náhʊ̃̀ã̀ nɔ̃́ᵐbʊ̀ nówò nɛ̃́ᵐbrɛ̀ ń̩díɔ̀
Nyo, Agneby Adioukrou ɲâm ɲóɲ ɲâhǹ jâr jên nɔ̂hǹ lɔ́bŋ̀ níwǹ líbárm̀ lɛ̂w
Nyo, Attie Attié èk kɛ́mwʌ̃́ kɛ́hã́ kɛ́dʒí kɛ̋bʌ̃́ kɛ̋mũ̄ n̩ső mɔ̃̀kɥɛ́ ŋ̩ɡʷã kɛ̃̋ŋ
Nyo, Attie Ga ékòmé éɲɔ̀ étɛ̃ éɟwɛ̀ énùmɔ̃ ék͡pàa k͡pàwo (6 + 1) ? k͡pàaɲɔ̃ (6 + 2) ? nɛ̀ɛhṹ ɲɔ̀ŋmá
Nyo, Ga-Dangme Dangme kákē éɲɔ̃̀ étɛ̃̄ éywɛ̀ / éwìɛ̀ énũ̄ɔ̃̄ ék͡pà k͡pààɡō (6 + 1) ? k͡pàaɲɔ̃̄ (6 + 2) ? nɛ̃̀ɛ̃́ ɲɔ̃̀ŋ͡mã́ (plural formː ɲĩ̀ŋ͡mĩ́)
Nyo, Potou-Tano, Basila-Adele Adele ɛ̀kí ɛ̀nyɔ̀ɔ̀n àsì ɛ̀nàà tòn kòòròn kɔ̀rɔ̀nkí (6 + 1) ? nìyɛ̀ yɛ̀kí (10 - 1) ?
Nyo, Potou-Tano, Basila-Adele Anii dɨ̄ŋ, ɡādɨ̄ŋ, ɡīdɨ̄ŋ, ɡūdɨ̄ŋ īɲīʊ̄, bʊ̄ɲīʊ̄, bāɲīʊ̄, īrīū, īrīū, īrīū īnāŋ, īnāŋ, īnāŋ īnʊ̄ŋ, īnʊ̄ŋ, īnʊ̄ŋ īkōlōŋ, īkōlōŋ, īkōlōŋ kūlūmī ɡánááná tʃīīnī tɘ̄b
Nyo, Potou-Tano, Lelemi, Lelemi-Akpafu Lelemi ùnwì íɲɔ́ ɛ̀tɛ̀ ínɛ́ ɛ̀lɔ́ ɛ̀kú máátɛ̀ (4 + 3) ? máánɛ́ (4 + 4) ? lɛ́yàlìnwì (10 - 1) ? lèèvù
Nyo, Potou-Tano, Lelemi, Lelemi-Akpafu Siwu (Akpafu) ɔ̀wɛ̃̂ íɲɔ̂ ìtɛ́ ínâ írù íkùɔ̀ ìkɔ́dzɛ̂ (4 + 3) ? fàráfánà (4 + 4) ? káiwɛ̃̂ (10 - 1) ? ìwéó
Nyo, Potou-Tano, Lelemi, Likpe-Santrokofi Sekpele (1) nʊ̀ɛ́ (lɛ̀wɛ́) núə̀ ǹtsyə́ ńnà ǹnɔ́ ǹkùá kùánsè yèní nàsé lèfòsì
Nyo, Potou-Tano, Lelemi, Likpe-Santrokofi Sekpele (2) nùɛ́ núə̀ ǹtsyə́ ǹná ǹnɔ́ ǹkúa kúansè yèní nàsé lèfósì
Nyo, Potou-Tano, Lelemi, Likpe-Santrokofi Selee (Santrokofi) ònwíì ɔ̀ɲɔ́ òtìɛ́ ɔ́nà ɔ̀nɔ́ɔ̀ òkúɔ́ kùɛ́nsĩ́ ɔ̀nɛ́ nàásĩ́ lèfósì
Nyo, Potou-Tano, Logba Logba (1) ik͡pɛ inyɔ ita ina inú iɡló ɡlaŋk͡pe mlaminá ɡɔkwaɖu uɖú
Nyo, Potou-Tano, Logba Logba (2) ik͡pɛ iɲɔ ita ina inú iɡló ɡlaŋk͡pe mlaminá ɡɔkwaɖu uɖú
Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Akan Bono Twi baakó̃ mienu miensá nain num nsiã nsɔ ŋɔt͡ʃwie ŋkrɔŋ du
Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Akan Akan (Akuapem Twi) (1) baakó~ ə̀bìéń ə̀bìèsá~ ànáń ə̀núḿ ə̀sìá~ ə̀sɔ́ń àwòtɕɥé /tw/ àkróń
Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Akan Akan (2) baakó̃ mmienú mmeɛnsã́ (ɛ)náń (e)núḿ (e)nsĩã́ (ɛ)nsóń nwɔtwé (ɛ)nkróń (e)dú
Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern Anufo ɲ̀ɲɔ̀ ǹzã̀ ǹná ǹnú ǹʒɛ̃́ ǹzô mɔ̀cᵘɛ́ ŋ̀ɡɔ̀ná búɾú
Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern Anyin ɛ̀kʊ̃ (in counting)/ kʊ̃ (after a noun) ɲɲṹã nsɑ̃ nnɑ̃́ nnṹ nsĩ́ã́ nsʊ̂ mɔcuɛ́ ŋɡʊ̃ɑ̃lɑ̃́ búlú
Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern Baule (Baoulé) kùn ǹɲɔ̀n ǹsàn ǹnán ǹnún ǹsiɛ́n ǹsô ǹmɔ̀cuɛ́ ǹɡwlàn blú
Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern Sehwi kʊ̃̀ ɲɔ̀ ǹzã̀ ǹná ǹnú ǹziã́ ǹzɔ́ː mɔ̀tʃwɛ́ ǹɡɔ̃̀lã̀ bʊ́lʊ́
Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Southern Ahanta ɔ̀kʊ́n àɥɪ̀n àsàn ànlà ə̀nlù ə̀ʃiə̀ ə̀súŋwà àwɔ̀twɛ̀ àhɔ́nlà bùnlù
Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Southern Nzema ɛ̀kʊ̃ (in counting)/ kʊ̃ (after a noun) ɲ́ɲʊ̃ (tone reversals after nouns) ńsɑ̃ ńnɑ̃ ńnṹ ńsĩ́ã ńsṹũ mɔ́cʊɛ ŋɡʊ̃lɑ̃́ bulú
Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Southern Jwira-Pepesa ko ńwia ńsa ńna ńnu ńsiã ńsuw mɔ́twɛ nɡhoalá eburú
Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang Chumburung kɔ́ ɪ̀ɲɔ́ ɪ̀sá ɪ̀ná ɪ̀núː ìsíyé ìsúnóː ìbùrùwá ɪ̀kpánɔ́ː kúdú
Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang Dwang (Bekye) kɔ́ɔ́ aɲó asá aná anú asíé asʊ́nɔ at͡ʃwé ak͡pɔ́nɔ ídú
Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang Foodo ǹkɔ́ /ɔkʊlam ǹɲʸɔ́ ǹsá ǹnáàŋ ǹnṹũ̀ / ǹnúŋ ǹséè ǹsínō dùkwéè / dùkoi ǹk͡pánɔ̀ dúdu
Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang Ginyanga okou iɡno issa ina inoun issi sono ɡuikoe sonʔou ɡuidou
Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang Gonja à-kô à-ɲɔ́ à-sá à-ná à-nú à-ʃé à-ʃúnù à-bùrùwá à-k͡pánà kùdú
Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang Kplang (Prang) kɔ̃ / ɛkʊ́nkɔ́ áɲɔ asa aná ɛnʊ́ esé ɛsʊ́nʊ́ ɛkwé apʊ́nɔ́ ídú
Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang Krache (Kaakyi) kɔ́ɔ́ aɲɔ́ asá aná ɛnʊ̂ ɛsíɛ́ asʊ́nɔ́ kukwé ak͡pʊ́nɔ́ kúdú
Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang Nawuri kʊ́ːʔ aɲɔ́ asá aná anû asíjé asúnɔ̂ abᵘɾuwá akpʌ́nɔ̂ ɡúdú
Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang Nkonya ɛ̀-kʊ̃̀ (ɔ̀-kʊ̀ Northern Dialect) / ɪ̀-kʊ̀lɛ̀ à-ɲɔ̀ à-sà à-nà à-nù à-sìè à-sìènɔ́ ɪ̀-kʷè ɪ̀-kʷèbá ɪ̀-dú
Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, South Guang Awutu (Awutu-Efutu) kòmé ìɲɔ́ èsã́ ènaː́ ̀ ènú ìsɛ̃́ː ̀ ìsɔ̃́ itʃwé ɛ̀pán ìdù
Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, South Guang Cherepon àkʊ́ ìɲɔ́ ìsã́ ìnɛ̂ ìnî ìsíɛ̃̀ ìsúnɔ̋ ìtwî ìk͡púnɔ̋ ìdû
Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, South Guang Gua ákò nyɔ́ sã́ nɛ̃̀ nĩ́ sĩ̀ɛ̀ sùnɔ̃́ twí k͡plɔ̃́ ìdú
Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, South Guang Larteh (1) kɔ́ ɲyɔ́ nɛ́ síɛ̀ súnɔ́ tɕɥí k͡pʋ́nɔ́
Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, South Guang Larteh (2) ɲɔ̃ nɛ̃ sĩɛ̃ sũnɔ̃ cui k͡plɔ̃ du
Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Western Abouré (Abure) okuè aɲù nɳà nnàn nnú ncɪɛ̀ ncʋ̀n mɔ̀kʋ̀ɛ́ puálɛ́hʋ̀n óblún

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kwa Volta–Congo". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ MEK Dakubu (2005). "Kwa Languages". In Keith Brown (ed.). Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics (2 ed.). Elsevier. ISBN 0-08-044299-4.:
    "except at the lower levels of classification such as the Tano, Potou–Tano, and Ewe-Fon (Gbe) groups, genetic relationships among these languages are quite distant. It has never been adequately demonstrated using the comparative method that Akan, Ga, Ewe, and the Togo Mountain languages are more closely related to one another than to any other languages."
  3. ^ 1989, slightly revised in Blench & Williamson 2000:29
  4. ^ Williamson & Blench 2000:29
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Dumestre, Gérard. 1971. Atlas linguistique de Côte-d'Ivoire: les langues de la région lagunaire. Abidjan: Institut de Linguistique Appliquée (ILA).
  6. ^ Heine, Bernd. 1968. Die Verbreitung und Gliedering der Togorestsprachen (Kölner Beiträge zur Afrikanistik vol. 1). Köln: Druckerei Wienand.
  7. ^ Snider, Keith L. 1990. The consonants of proto-Guang. Journal of West African languages 20(1), 3-26.
  8. ^ Blench, Roger. 2004. The Ega Language of Côte d'Ivoire: Etymologies and Implications for Classification.
  9. ^ Heath, Jeffrey. 2019. Pere lexicon [Data set]. Zenodo. doi:10.5281/zenodo.3354193
  10. ^ Blench, Roger. 2007. Recovering data on Mpra [=Mpre] a possible language isolate in North-Central Ghana.
  11. ^ Blench, Roger. 2015. The Dompo language of Central Ghana and its affinities.
  12. ^ Capo, Hounkpati B.C. 1991. A Comparative Phonology of Gbe. Publications in African Languages and Linguistics, 14. Berlin/New York: Foris Publications & Garome, Bénin: Labo Gbe (Int).
  13. ^ Chan, Eugene (2019). "The Niger-Congo Language Phylum". Numeral Systems of the World's Languages.

NotationsEdit

  • Bennett, Patrick R. & Sterk, Jan P. (1977) 'South Central Niger–Congo: A reclassification'. Studies in African Linguistics, 8, 241–273.
  • Hintze, Ursula (1959) Bibliographie der Kwa-Sprachen und der Sprachen der Togo-Restvölker (mit 11 zweifarbigen Sprachenkarten). Berlin: Akademie-Verlag.
  • Stewart, John M. (1989) 'Kwa'. In: Bendor-Samuel & Hartell (eds.) The Niger–Congo languages. Lanham, MD: The University Press of America.
  • Westermann, Diedrich Hermann (1952) Languages of West Africa (Handbook of African Languages Part II). London/New York/Toronto: Oxford University Press.
  • Williamson, Kay & Blench, Roger (2000) 'Niger–Congo', in Heine, Bernd and Nurse, Derek (eds) African Languages - An Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University press, pp. 11–42.

External linksEdit