Oromo people

The Oromo (pron. /ˈɒrəm/[10] Oromo: Oromoo) are a Cushitic ethnic group mostly native to the Oromia region of Ethiopia who speak the Oromo language (also called Afaan Oromoo or Oromiffa), which is part of the Cushitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. They are the largest ethnic group in Ethiopia and represent a large portion of Ethiopia's population.[11]

Oromo
Oromoo (Oromo)
Oromo Cultural dressing.jpg
Oromo people with dresses at Irreechaa festival, 2015
Regions with significant populations
 Ethiopia35,175,000 (2021)[1]
 Kenya656,636 (2019)[2]
 Somalia87,000[3]
 United States40,000[4]
 Canada3,350 (2016)[5]
 Australia2,030 (2014)[6]
Languages
Oromo
Religion
Islam (55%-60%), Christianity (40%-45%), Traditional religion (Waaqeffanna) (up to 15%)[7]
Related ethnic groups
Somali, Sidama, Gabra, Rendille and other Cushitic people[8][9]

The Oromo people traditionally used the gadaa system as the primary form of governance.[12][13] A leader is elected by the gadaa system and their term lasts eight years, with an election taking place at the end of those eight years.[14][15][16] Although most modern Oromos are Muslims and some Christians, about 3% practice Waaqeffanna, an ancient monotheistic religion native to Oromos and Somalis.[17]

Origins and nomenclatureEdit

 
Map of Ethiopia highlighting the Oromia Region

Knowledge of the origins and history of the Oromo people prior to the 16th century is based purely on oral tradition.[18][19] Both older and subsequent colonial era documents mention and refer to the Oromo people as Galla, which has now developed derogatory connotations,[20] but these documents were generally written by members of other ethnic groups.[18][19][21] The first verifiable record mentioning the Oromo people by a European cartographer is in the map made by the Italian Fra Mauro in 1460, which uses the term Galla.[22]

However, Fra Mauro's term Galla was the most used until the early 20th century. The term, stated Juxon Barton in 1924, was in use for Oromo people by Abyssinians and Arabs.[23] It was a term for a river and a forest, as well as for the pastoral people established in the highlands of southern Ethiopia.[24] This historical information, according to Mohammed Hassen, is consistent with the written and oral traditions of the Somalis.[23] A journal published by the International African Institute suggests it is an Oromo word (adopted by neighbors), for there is a word, gala, meaning 'wandering' or 'to go home' in their language.[25][26]

The Oromo never called themselves Galla and resist its use because the term is considered derogatory.[20] They traditionally identified themselves by one of their clans (gosas) and now use the common umbrella term of Oromo which connotes "free born people".[27][28] The word Oromo is derived from Ilm Orma meaning '[The] Children of Orma',[29] or 'Sons of Strangers',[30] or 'Man, stranger'.[31] The first known use of the word Oromo to refer to the ethnic group is traceable to 1893.[32]

 
Irreechaa celebrations

After Fra Mauro's mention, there is a profusion of literature about the peoples of this region, including the Oromo, particularly mentioning their wars and resistance to religious conversion, primarily by European explorers and Catholic Christian missionaries.[22] The earliest primary account of Oromo ethnography is the 16th-century "History of Galla" by Christian monk Bahrey who comes from the Sidama country of Gammo, written in the Ge'ez language.[25][22][33] According to an 1861 book by D'Abbadie, the Oromo are mentioned as the Galla in several maps and historical events. One mention of the Oromo before the Oromo expansion was when the Oromo led a campaign against the Sultanate of Ifat, the campaign being named Meeshii Dir Dhabi. The Oromo led an expedition against the Issa Dir clan who inhabited the great city. The Cisse clan would be victorious, ending the campaign. The Cisse would rule the city for the next two centuries till the expansion/Migration of the Oromo. One inscription of the Oromo from the 14th century notes that the Oromo inhabited Ethiopia long before the Oromo migration and founded several civilisations, including the Wej, Bale, Arsi, and Dawaro.[34][35] Sihabudin also mentioned that the Werra Qallo, who now inhabit Hararghe, were living in Dawaro long before the Oromo migration.[36] Historical evidence suggests that the Oromo people were already established in the southern highlands in or before the 15th century and that at least some Oromo people were interacting with other Ethiopian ethnic groups.[24] According to Alessandro Triulzi, the Oromo would get in contact and interact with the Nilo Saharan Groups.[37]

Historical linguistics and comparative ethnology studies suggest that the Oromo people probably originated around the lakes Lake Chew Bahir and Lake Chamo.[22][21] They are a Cushitic people who have inhabited the East and Northeast Africa since at least the early 1st millennium. The aftermath of the sixteenth century Ethiopian–Adal war led to Oromos to move to the north.[38] The Harla were assimilated by the Oromo in Ethiopia.[39] While Oromo people have lived in the region for a long time, the ethnic mixture of peoples who have lived here is unclear.[37] The Oromos increased their numbers through Oromization (Meedhicca, Mogasa and Gudifacha), assimilation, and forced assimilation of other ethnic groups, as well as the inclusion of mixed peoples (Gabbaro).[37] The native ancient names of the territories were replaced by the name of the Oromo clans who conquered it while the people were made Gabbaros.[37][40][41][42]

HistoryEdit

Pre-19th centuryEdit

 
Photograph taken during the Magdala Campaign of 1867–68 Queen of the "Oromos" and Son.
 
Oromos from Dire Dawa, 1886.

The earliest known documented and detailed history of the Oromo people was by the Ethiopian monk Bahrey who wrote Zenahu lä Galla in 1593, though the synonymous term Gallas was mentioned in maps[22] or elsewhere much earlier.[43][44] After the 16th century, they are mentioned more often, such as in the records left by Abba Paulos, Joao Bermudes, Jerónimo Lobo, Galawdewos, Sarsa Dengel and others. These records suggest that the Oromo were pastoral people in their history who stayed together. Their animal herds expanded rapidly, and they needed more grazing lands. They began migrating, not together, but after separating. They lacked kings, and had elected leaders called luba based on a gada system of government instead. By the late 16th century, two major Oromo confederations emerged: Afre and Sadaqa, which respectively refer to four and three in their language, with Afre emerging from four older clans, and Sadaqa out of three.[43] These Oromo confederations were originally located in southern Ethiopia, specifically the northwest of the Borena Zone near Lake Abaya,[45] but started moving north in the 16th century in what is termed as the "Great Oromo Migration".[43][46][47]

 
Map showing the location of the five Oromo kingdoms in the Gibe region.

According to Richard Pankhurst, a British-born Ethiopian historian, this migration is linked to the first incursions into inland Horn of Africa by Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrahim.[48] According to historian Marianne Bechhaus-Gerst, the migration was one of the consequences of the fierce Ethiopian–Adal war which killed a lot of people and depopulated the regions near the Galla lands, but also probably a result of droughts in their traditional homelands. Further, they acquired horses and their gada system helped coordinate well-equipped Oromo warriors who enabled fellow Oromos to advance and settle into newer regions starting in the 1520s. This expansion continued through the 17th century.[49][46]

Historically, Afaan Oromo-speaking people used their own Gadaa system of governance. Oromos also had a number of independent kingdoms, which they shared with the Sidama people. Among these were the Gibe region kingdoms of Gera, Gomma, Garo, Gumma, Jimma, Leeqa-Nekemte and Limmu-Ennarea.

They would also establish dynasties such as the Yejju dynasty that would be de-facto rulers of Ethiopian Empire from 1769-1855 this period was known as Zemene Mesafint, they would particularly have control over the provinces of Begemder and Gojjam.[50] Notable rulers such as Gugsa of Yejju found cities like Debre Tabor[51] and for a period even change the official language of the empire from Amharic to Oromiffa during the rule of the half-Oromo emperor Iyoas I.[50]

Oromos would also establish several Muslim states and dynasties in what was Wollo Province: six to be exact; this included Qallu, House of the Borana and Gattiroch, the Arreloch, and the two longest and the most important ones: the Yejju dynasty and the Warra Himano, also called the Mahammadoch dynasty.

The Warra Himano (1700–1916) would use Islam as a resistance ideology with vigorous, creative ways to resist the Christian Abyssinian territorial expansion and cultural encroachment. This was the second Muslim Oromo state to be established in Wollo, the first to declare jihad in the name and interest of Islam, the first to adopt the title of imam for its rulers and the longest lasting one. It reached its zenith of power under Imam Muhammad Ali (1771–1785), a far sighted leader, a resourceful politician and a fervent Muslim who made Sharia the basis of the law in the state.[52]

Under another ruler, Amade II (1815–1838), Wollo would become the most active centre of Islamic teachings in the Horn of Africa. Amade is even reported to have asked Muhammad Ali of Egypt to help him conquer and convert northern Ethiopia and its peoples. He was considered by many to be one of the most important, if not the most important, Muslim ruler of Ethiopia. By his time, Wollo had become a veritable Islamic state in the heartland of Christian Ethiopia; the rise of Muslim Oromo power in Wollo was instrumental in the revival of Christian nationalism in Abyssinia.[52]

The Warra Himano dynasty would convert many Amhara Christians to Islam during its rule, and at the zenith of its power Mammadoch dynasty had their hegemony accepted in the various parts of Wollo: Ambasel, Qallu, Borena, Wore-Illu and Amhara Sayint. The territory extended from the Abbay river in the west to the Qallu and Garfa area in the east and the Wänchit and Jama rivers in the south. Moreover, under the leadership of Kollasse Amade, the Mammedoch had even started to take part in the power struggle among the lords of northern Ethiopia at Gonder.[53]

Notable rulers such as Ras Mikael of Wollo King of Wollo and the uncrowned emperor of Ethiopia, Lij Iyasu (1913–1916), descend from this ruling family.[53]

Both peaceful integration and violent competition between Oromos and other neighboring ethnicities such as the Amhara, Sidama, Afar and the Somali affected politics in the Oromo community.[48][47] Between 1500 and 1800, there were waves of wars and struggle between highland Christians, coastal Muslims and the polytheist population in the Horn of Africa. This caused a major redistribution of populations. The northern, eastern and western movement of the Oromos from the south around 1535 mirrored the large-scale expansion by Somalis inland. The 1500–1800 period also saw relocation of the Amhara people, and helped influence contemporary ethnic politics in Ethiopia.[54]

According to oral and literary evidence, the Borana Oromo clan and Garre Somali clan mutually victimized each other in seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, particularly near their eastern borders. There were also periods of relative peace.[55][56][57]

DemographicsEdit

The Oromos are the largest ethnic group in Ethiopia (34.9% of the population),[11] numbering about 37 million.[58] They are predominantly concentrated in the Oromia Region in central Ethiopia, the largest region in the country by both population and area. They speak Afaan Oromoo, the official language of Oromia.[59] Oromos constitute the third most populous ethnic group among Africans as a whole and the most populous among Horners specifically.[60]

Oromo also have a notable presence in northern Kenya in the Marsabit County, Isiolo County and Tana River County Totaling to about 656,636: 276,236 Borana 141,200 Gabra 158,000 Orma 45,200 Sakuye 20,000 Waata 16,000 Munyo Yaya. There are also Oromo in the former Wollo and Tigray provinces of Ethiopia.[61]

SubgroupsEdit

The Oromo consist of two major branches that break down into an assortment of clan families. From west to east: the Borana Oromo, also called the Booranaa, are a semi-pastoralist group living in southern Oromia and northern Kenya.[62][63] The Borana inhabit the Borena Zone of the Oromia Region of Ethiopia and the former Northern Frontier District (now northern Kenya) of Northern Kenya.[62][64] They speak a dialect of Afaan Oromo, the Oromo language.[64]Barentu/Barentoo or (older) Baraytuma is the other moiety of the Oromo people. The Barentu Oromo inhabit the eastern parts of the Oromia Region in the Zones of West Hararghe, Arsi Zone, Bale Zone, Dire Dawa city, the Jijiga Zone of the Somali Region, Administrative Zone 3 of the Afar Region, Oromia Zone of the Amhara Region, and are also found in the Raya Azebo Aanaas in the Tigray Region.

LanguageEdit

Oromo is written with Latin characters known as Qubee. The Sapalo script was invented by the Oromo scholar Sheikh Bakri Sapalo (also known by his birth name, Abubaker Usman Odaa) during the 1950s.[65] Oromo serves as one of the official languages of Ethiopia[66] and is also the working language of several of the states within the Ethiopian federal system including Oromia,[67] Harari and Dire Dawa regional states and of the Oromia Zone in the Amhara Region. It is a language of primary education in Oromia, Harari, Dire Dawa, Benishangul-Gumuz and Addis Ababa and of the Oromia Zone in the Amhara Region. It is used as an internet language for federal websites along with Tigrinya.[68][69]

More than 33.8% of Ethiopia's population are Oromo mother-tongue speakers, which makes it the most widely spoken primary language in Ethiopia.[67][70] It is also the most widely spoken Cushitic language and the fourth-most widely spoken language of Africa, after Arabic, Hausa and Swahili.[71] Oromo is spoken as a first language by more than 37 million Oromo people in Ethiopia and by an additional half-million in parts of northern and eastern Kenya.[72] It is also spoken by smaller numbers of emigrants in other African countries, such as South Africa, Libya, Egypt and Sudan. Besides first language speakers, a number of members of other ethnicities who are in contact with the Oromo speak it as a second language, such as the Omotic-speaking Bambassi[73] and the Nilo-Saharan-speaking Kwama[74] in western Ethiopia.

ReligionEdit

The Oromo followed their traditional religion, Waaqeffanna, and were resistant to religious conversion before assimilation in sultanates and Christian kingdoms.[22][17][41][42] The influential 30-year war from 1529 to 1559 between the three parties – the Oromo, the Christians and the Muslims – dissipated the political strengths of all three. The religious beliefs of the Oromo people evolved in this socio-political environment.[41] In the 19th century and first half of the 20th century, Protestant or Catholic missionaries' efforts spread Christianity among the Oromo. Organizations included the Sudan Interior Mission, the Bible Churchmen's Missionary Society, the Seventh-Day Adventists, the United Presbyterian Mission of the USA, the Church Mission to the Jews, Evangeliska Fosterlands-Stiftelsen, Bibeltrogna Vänner, and the Hermannsburg Mission.[75]

In the mid and late 19th century, the Ethiopian emperors were faced with widespread rifts and disputes in the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church and crippling ethnic and religious divisions that plagued the empire and exposed it to the intervention and meddling of neighboring Muslims (especially Egypt and the Ottoman Empire) and European powers. The emperors that ruled in that period, Tewodros II, Yohannes IV, and Menelik II, thus strove to suppress disunion and schism both within and without the Ethiopian Church and were often intolerant towards other religions. The Wollo Oromo, the Arsi Oromo, and the Tulama Oromo were among those who violently clashed with the Ethiopian expansion in the region in the 19th century and the empire's attempts at enforcing unity through the propagation of Orthodox Christianity, as the majority of these groups were not Christian at the time.[76][77]

In the 2007 Ethiopian census for Oromia region, which included both Oromo and non-Oromo residents, there was a total of 13,107,963 followers of Christianity (8,204,908 Orthodox, 4,780,917 Protestant, 122,138 Catholic), 12,835,410 followers of Islam, 887,773 followers of traditional religions, and 162,787 followers of other religions. Accordingly, the Oromia region is 48.1% Christian (8,204,908 or 30.4% Orthodox, 4,780,917 or 17.7% Protestant, 122,138 Catholic), 47.6% Muslim and 3.3% followers of traditional religions[78]

According to a 2016 estimate by James Minahan, about half of the Oromo people are Sunni Muslim, a third are Ethiopian Orthodox, and the rest are mostly Protestants or follow their traditional religious beliefs.[79] The traditional religion is more common in southern Oromo populations and Christianity more common in and near the urban centers, while Islam is more common near the Somali border and in the north.[61]

CuisineEdit

Oromo dishesEdit

The Oromos' cuisine consists of various vegetable and meat side dishes and entrées. Oromo do not eat pork because it is not halal.[80] Ancestors of today's Oromo people in a region of Oromia in Ethiopia were the first to cultivate the coffee plant and recognise the energising effect of coffee.[81]

 
Typical Oromo cuisine: Biddena (pancake-like bread) and several kinds of sauce, stew (slow cooked beef, lamb, goat, chicken) and on top of entrees.
 
A Foon Akaawwii: Foon Akaawwii looks like this at a restaurant in Addis Ababa
  • Foon Akaawwii – minced roasted meat; specially seasoned
  • Waaddii – outdoor grilled meat on heat bead or wood fire
  • Anchotte – a common dish in the western part of Oromia (Wallaga)
  • Baduu – liquid remaining after milk has been curdled and strained (cheese)
  • Maarqaa – porridge like made from wheat, honey, milk, chili and spices
  • Chechebsaa – shredded biddena stir-fried with chili powder and cheese
  • Qoocco – also known as kocho, it is not the Gurage type of kocho but a different kind; a common dish in the western part of Oromia
  • Itto – comprises all sorts of vegetables (tomato, potato, ginger, garlic), meat (lamb)
  • Chukkoo – also known as Micira; a sweet flavor of whole grain, seasoned with butter and spices[82]
  • Chororsaa – a common dish in the western part of Oromia
  • Dokkee – a common dish throughout Oromia state
  • Qince – similar to Marqaa but made from shredded grains as opposed to flour
  • Qorso (Akaayii) – as snacks in Oromia state
  • Dadhii – A drink made from honey
  • Farsho – Beer-like Beverage, made from barley
  • Buna – Ethiopian coffee[83]

CultureEdit

GadaaEdit

 
Gadaa flag

Oromo people governed themselves in accordance with the Gadaa system long before the 16th century. The system regulates the political, economic, social and religious activities of the community.[84] Oromo were traditionally a culturally homogeneous society with genealogical ties.[85] A male born in the Oromo clan went through five stages of eight years, where his life established his role and status for consideration to a Gadaa office.[85] Every eight years, the Oromo would choose by consensus nine leaders for the office.[86][87] A leader elected by the Gadaa system remains in power only for eight years, with an election taking place at the end of those eight years.[14][15][16]

There are three Gadaa organs of governance: Gadaa Council, Gadaa General Assembly (gumi gayo), and the Qallu Assembly. The Gadaa Council is considered the collective achievement of the members of the Gadaa class. It is responsible for coordinating irreecha. The Gadaa General Assembly is the legislative body of the Gadaa government, while the Qallu Assembly is the religious institution.[88]

CalendarEdit

The Oromo people developed a lunisolar calendar; different geographically and religiously distinct Oromo communities use the same calendar. This calendar is sophisticated and similar to ones found among the Chinese, the Hindus and the Mayans. It was tied to the traditional religion of the Oromos, and used to schedule the Gadaa system of elections and power transfer.[89]

 
In the 5000m women: Tirunesh Dibaba of Ethiopia sets new world record time 14:11:15

The Borana Oromo calendar system was once thought to be based upon an earlier Cushitic calendar developed around 300 BC found at Namoratunga. Reconsideration of the Namoratunga site led astronomer and archaeologist Clive Ruggles to conclude that there is no relationship.[90] The new year of the Oromo people, according to this calendar, falls in the month of October.[91] The calendar has no weeks but a name for each day of the month. It is a lunar-stellar calendar system.[92][93]

OromummaEdit

Some modern authors such as Gemetchu Megerssa have proposed the concept of Oromumma, or 'Oromoness' as a cultural common between Oromo people.[94] The word is derived by combining Oromo with the Arabic term ummah (community). However, according to Terje Østebø and other scholars, this term is a neologism from the late 1990s and its link Oromo ethno-nationalism and Salafi Islamic discourse has been questioned, in their disagreement with Christian Amhara and other ethnic groups.[95]

The Oromo people, depending on their geographical location and historical events, have variously converted to Islam, to Christianity, or remained with their traditional religion (Waaqeffanna). According to Gemetchu Megerssa, the subjective reality is that "neither traditional Oromo rituals nor traditional Oromo beliefs function any longer as a cohesive and integral symbol system" for the Oromo people, not just regionally but even locally.[94] The cultural and ideological divergence within the Oromo people, in part from their religious differences, is apparent from the constant impetus for negotiations between broader Oromo spokespersons and those Oromo who are Ahl al-Sunna followers, states Terje Østebø.[96] The internally evolving cultural differences within the Oromos have led some scholars such as Mario Aguilar and Abdullahi Shongolo to conclude that "a common identity acknowledged by all Oromo in general does not exist".[97]

Social stratificationEdit

 
This photo represents the varieties of dress and hairstyle of the Oromo culture.The child sitting in front of the group is dressed in Guji Oromo clothing. The four girls at the back, from left to right, are dressed in Harar, Kamise, Borena and Showa styles and all are Oromo style

Like other ethnic groups in the Horn of Africa and East Africa, Oromo people regionally developed social stratification consisting of four hierarchical strata. The highest strata were the nobles called the Borana; below them were the Gabbaro (some 17th- to 19th-century Ethiopian texts refer them as the dhalatta). Below these two upper castes were the despised castes of artisans, and at the lowest level were the slaves.[98]

In the Islamic Kingdom of Jimma, the Oromo society's caste strata predominantly consisted of endogamous, inherited artisanal occupations.[99][100][101][102] Each caste group has specialized in a particular occupation such as iron working, carpentry, weapon making, pottery, weaving, leather-working and hunting.[103][100]

Each caste in the Oromo society had a designated name. For example, Tumtu were smiths, Fuga were potters, Faqi were tanners and leatherworkers, Semmano were weavers, Gagurtu were beekeepers and honey-makers, and Watta were hunters and foragers.[99][104][105] While slaves were a stratum within the society, many Oromos, regardless of caste, were sold into slavery elsewhere. By the 19th century, Oromo slaves were sought after and a major part of slaves sold in Gondar and Gallabat slave markets at Ethiopia-Sudan border, as well as the Massawa and Tajura markets on the Red Sea.[106][107]

LivelihoodEdit

 
Oromo villagers in the Oromia Region

The Oromo people are engaged in many occupations. The southern Oromo (specifically the Borana Oromo) are largely pastoralists who raise goats and cattle. Other Oromo groups have a more diverse economy which includes agriculture and work in urban centers. Some Oromo also sell many products and food items like coffee beans (coffee being a favorite beverage among the Oromo) at local markets.[108]

Contemporary eraEdit

Human rights issuesEdit

In December 2009, a 96-page report titled "Human Rights in Ethiopia: Through the Eyes of the Oromo Diaspora", compiled by the Advocates for Human Rights, documented human rights violations against the Oromo in Ethiopia under three successive regimes: the Ethiopian Empire under Haile Selassie, the Marxist Derg and the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), dominated by members of the Tigrayan People's Liberation Front (TPLF) and which was accused to have arrested approximately 20,000 suspected OLF members, to have driven most OLF leadership into exile, and to have effectively neutralized the OLF as a political force in Ethiopia.[109]

According to the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, the Oromia Support Group (OSG) recorded 594 extrajudicial killings of Oromos by Ethiopian government security forces and 43 disappearances in custody between 2005 and August 2008.[110]

Starting in November 2015, during a wave of mass protests, mainly by Oromos, over the expansion of the municipal boundary of the city of Addis Ababa into Oromia, over 500 people have been killed and many more have been injured, according to human-rights advocates and independent monitors.[111][112] The protests have since spread to other ethnic groups and encompass wider social grievances.[112] Ethiopia declared a state of emergency in response to Oromo and Amhara protests in October 2016.

With the rising political unrest, there was ethnic violence involving the Oromo such as the Oromo–Somali clashes between the Oromo and the ethnic Somalis, leading to up to 400,000 displaced in 2017.[113] Gedeo–Oromo clashes between the Oromo and the Gedeo people in the south of the country and continued violence in the Oromia-Somali border region led to Ethiopia having the largest number of people in the world fleeing their homes in 2018, with 1.4 million newly displaced people.[114] In September 2018, in the minority protest that took place in Oromia near Addis Ababa, 23 people were killed following the deaths of 43 Oromos in the Addis Ababa neighborhood of Saris Abo.[115] Some have blamed the rise in ethnic violence in the Oromia Special Zone Surrounding Finfinne on the Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed for giving space to groups formerly banned by previous Tigrayan-led governments, such as the Oromo Liberation Front and Ginbot 7.[116]

Protests broke out across Ethiopia, chiefly in the Oromia region, following the assassination of musician Hachalu Hundessa on 29 June 2020, leading to the deaths of at least 200 people.[117] On 30 June 2020, a statue of former Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie in London was destroyed by Oromo protestors[118] in response to the killing of popular singer Hachalu Hundessa and grievances of the Oromo language being banned from education, and the use in administration under the Haile Selassie regime.[119][120][121]

Political organizationsEdit

The Oromo have played a major role in the internal dynamics of Ethiopia.[122] Accordingly, Oromos played major roles in all three main political movements in Ethiopia (centralist, federalist and secessionist) during the 19th and 20th century. In addition to holding high powers during the centralist government and the monarchy, the Raya Oromos in the Tigray regional state played a major role in the Weyane revolt, challenging Emperor Haile Selassie I 's rule in the 1940s.[123] Simultaneously, both federalist and secessionist political forces developed inside the Oromo community.[citation needed]

At present a number of ethnic-based political organizations have been formed to promote the interests of the Oromo. The first was the Mecha and Tulama Self-Help Association was founded in January 1963, but was disbanded by the government after several increasingly tense confrontations in November 1966.[124] Later groups include the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF), Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement (OFDM), the United Liberation Forces of Oromia (ULFO), the Islamic Front for the Liberation of Oromia (IFLO), the Oromia Liberation Council (OLC), the Oromo National Congress (ONC, recently changed to OPC) and others. Another group, the Oromo People's Democratic Organization (OPDO), is one of the four parties that form the ruling Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) coalition. The ONC, for example, was part of the United Ethiopian Democratic Forces coalition that challenged the EPRDF in the Ethiopian general elections of 2005.[citation needed]

A number of these groups seek to create an independent Oromo nation, some using armed force. Meanwhile, the ruling OPDO and several opposition political parties in the Ethiopian parliament believe in ethnic federalism. However, most Oromo opposition parties in Ethiopia condemn the economic and political inequalities in the country. Progress has been very slow, with the Oromia International Bank established in 2008, though the Oromo-owned Awash International Bank started in the early 1990s.[citation needed]

Radio broadcasts began in the Oromo language in Somalia in 1960 by Radio Mogadishu.[125] Within Kenya there has been radio broadcasting in Oromo (in the Borana dialect) on the Voice of Kenya since at least the 1980s.[126] Broadcasting in Oromo thought in Ethiopia as it would break radio until 1974 revolution in which Radio Harar began broadcasting.[needs copy edit][127][128] The first private Afaan Oromoo newspaper in Ethiopia, Jimma Times, also known as Oromo: Yeroo, was recently[when?] established, but it has faced a lot of harassment and persecution from the Ethiopian government since its beginning.[129][130][131][132][133] Abuse of Oromo media is widespread in Ethiopia and reflective of the general oppression Oromos face in the country.[134]

Various human rights organizations have publicized the government persecution of Oromos in Ethiopia for decades. In 2008, the OFDM opposition party condemned the government's indirect role in the death of hundreds of Oromos in western Ethiopia.[135] According to Amnesty International, "between 2011 and 2014, at least 5000 Oromos have been arrested based on their actual or suspected peaceful opposition to the government. These include thousands of peaceful protestors and hundreds of opposition political party members. The government anticipates a high level of opposition in Oromia, and signs of dissent are sought out and regularly, sometimes pre-emptively, suppressed. In numerous cases, actual or suspected dissenters have been detained without charge or trial, killed by security services during protests, arrests and in detention."[136]

According to Amnesty International, there is a sweeping repression in the Oromo region of Ethiopia.[136] On 12 December 2015, the German broadcaster Deutsche Welle reported violent protests in the Oromo region of Ethiopia in which more than 20 students were killed. According to the report, the students were protesting against the government's re-zoning plan named 'Addis Ababa Master Plan'.

On 2 October 2016, between 55 and 300 festival-goers were massacred at the most sacred and largest event among the Oromo, the Irreechaa cultural thanksgiving festival.[137] In just one day, dozens were killed and many more injured in what will go down in history as one of the darkest days for the Oromo people.[editorializing] Every year, millions of Oromos, the largest ethnic group in Ethiopia, gather in Bishoftu for this annual celebration. That year, however, the festive mood quickly turned chaotic after Ethiopian security forces responded to peaceful protests by firing tear gas and live bullets at over two million people surrounded by a lake and cliffs. In the week that followed, angry youth attacked government buildings and private businesses. On 8 October, the government responded with an abusive and far-reaching state of emergency, which was lifted in August 2017.[138] During the state of emergency, security forces arbitrarily detained over 21,000 people.[139]

Notable peopleEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Ethiopia". Ethnologue.
  2. ^ "Population and Housing Census: Ethnic Affiliation". knbs.or.ke. Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 21 May 2019. 210,000 Borana, 110,500 Gabra,85,000 Orma, 45,200 Sakuyye and 20,000 Waata
  3. ^ Project, Joshua. "Oromo, Southern in Somalia". Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  4. ^ "Oromo Community of Minnesota | CareerForce". www.careerforcemn.com.
  5. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on 23 September 2017. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
  6. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics 2014, The People of Australia Statistics from the 2011 Census, Cat. no. 2901.0, ABS, 30 November 2016, Archived 17 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ "Ethiopia and the Oromo People: Is it possible to determine whether an Ethiopian is an ethnic Oromo by the individual's last name? What religion or religions are practiced by ethnic Oromos in Ethiopia". UNHCR Refworld. United States Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services. 28 April 1998.
  8. ^ Joireman, Sandra F. (1997). Institutional Change in the Horn of Africa: The Allocation of Property Rights and Implications for Development. Universal-Publishers. p. 1. ISBN 1581120001.
  9. ^ Sarah Tishkoff; et al. (2009). "The Genetic Structure and History of Africans and African Americans" (PDF). Science. 324 (5930): 1035–44. Bibcode:2009Sci...324.1035T. doi:10.1126/science.1172257. PMC 2947357. PMID 19407144. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 August 2017. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
  10. ^ Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh
  11. ^ a b Ethiopia: People & Society, CIA Factbook (2016)
  12. ^ "Gada system, an indigenous democratic socio-political system of the Oromo – intangible heritage – Culture Sector – UNESCO". ich.unesco.org. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  13. ^ Harold G. Marcus A History of Ethiopia. University of California Press (1994) pp. 55 Google Books
  14. ^ a b John Ralph Willis (2005). Slaves and Slavery in Africa: Volume Two: The Servile Estate. Routledge. pp. 122–127, 129–134, 137. ISBN 978-1-135-78017-3.
  15. ^ a b John Ralph Willis (2005). Slaves and Slavery in Africa: Volume Two: The Servile Estate. Routledge. pp. 128–134. ISBN 978-1-135-78016-6.
  16. ^ a b Ira M. Lapidus (2014). A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press. p. 483. ISBN 978-1-139-99150-6.
  17. ^ a b Donald N. Levine (2014). Greater Ethiopia: The Evolution of a Multiethnic Society. University of Chicago Press. pp. 35–41. ISBN 978-0-226-22967-6.
  18. ^ a b Ta'a, Tesema (2006). The Political Economy of an African Society in Transformation. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 17. ISBN 978-3-447-05419-5. Retrieved 21 May 2015.
  19. ^ a b Ernesta Cerulli (1956), Peoples of South-west Ethiopia and its Borderland, International African Institute, Routledge, ISBN 978-1138234109, Chapter: History & Traditions of Origin
  20. ^ a b "ETHIOPIA LESSONS IN REPRESSION: VIOLATIONS OF ACADEMIC FREEDOM IN ETHIOPIA" (PDF). p. 26.
  21. ^ a b Lewis, Herbert S. (1966). "The Origins of the Galla and Somali". The Journal of African History. Cambridge University Press. 7 (1): 27–46. doi:10.1017/s0021853700006058. S2CID 163027084.
  22. ^ a b c d e f Tesema Ta'a (2006). The Political Economy of an African Society in Transformation: the Case of Macca Oromo (Ethiopia). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 17–19 with footnotes. ISBN 978-3-447-05419-5.
  23. ^ a b Juxon Barton (September 1924), The Origins of the Galla and Somali Tribes, The Journal of the East Africa Natural History Society, No. 19, pages 6–7
  24. ^ a b Mohammed Hassen (2015). The Oromo and the Christian Kingdom of Ethiopia: 1300–1700. Boydell & Brewer (Originally: Cambridge University Press). pp. 66–68, 85, 104–106. ISBN 978-1-84701-117-6.
  25. ^ a b International African Institute Ethnographic Survey of Africa, Volume 5, Issue 2 (1969) pp. 11
  26. ^ Claude Sumner Ethiopian Philosophy: The treatise of Zärʼa Yaʻe̳quo and Wäldä Ḥe̳ywåt Addis Ababa University, (1976) pp. 149 footnotes 312, Quote: "D'Abbadie claimed that the name Galla was explained to him as derived from a war cry, and used by the Gallas of themselves at war."
  27. ^ Mohammed Hassen (2015). The Oromo and the Christian Kingdom of Ethiopia: 1300–1700. Boydell & Brewer. pp. 3–4 with footnotes 14–18. ISBN 978-1-84701-117-6.
  28. ^ Abbas Gnamo (2014). Conquest and Resistance in the Ethiopian Empire, 1880 - 1974: The Case of the Arsi Oromo. BRILL Academic. pp. 59–81. ISBN 978-90-04-26548-6.
  29. ^ Mohammed Hassen (2015). The Oromo and the Christian Kingdom of Ethiopia: 1300-1700. Boydell & Brewer. pp. 109–110. ISBN 978-1-84701-117-6.
  30. ^ "Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Gallas" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 11 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 413.
  31. ^ "Oromo Archived 30 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine" in the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.
  32. ^ Oromo Archived 30 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Merriam-Webster (2014). Quote: "Origin and Etymology of Oromo, (western dialect) oromoo, a self-designation, First known use: 1893."
  33. ^ CF Beckingham and George Huntingford (1967). Some records of Ethiopia, 1593–1646, being extracts from the history of High Ethiopia or Abassia (Series: Oromo Peuple d'Afrique). Kraus Nendeln, Liechtenstein. pp. 1–7. OCLC 195934.
  34. ^ The Journal of Oromo studys. Snippet view: Brakumper. 2008. p. 210.
  35. ^ A River of Blessings essays in honor of Paul Baxter. Snippet view: David Brokensha. 1994. p. 52.
  36. ^ Pankhurst. 1997. p. 286.
  37. ^ a b c d Alessandro Triulzi (1996). Paul Trevor William Baxter, Jan Hultin and Alessandro Triulzi. (ed.). Being and Becoming Oromo: Historical and Anthropological Enquiries. Nordic Africa Institute. pp. 251–256. ISBN 9789171063793.
  38. ^ Gikes, Patrick (2002). "Wars in the Horn of Africa and the dismantling of the Somali State". African Studies. University of Lisbon. 2: 89–102. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
  39. ^ "Frankfurter afrikanistische Blätter". Frankfurt University Library (1). 1989. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
  40. ^ Mekuria Bulcha, Jan Hultin (1996). Paul Trevor William Baxter, Jan Hultin and Alessandro Triulzi. (ed.). Being and Becoming Oromo: Historical and Anthropological Enquiries. Nordic Africa Institute. pp. 55–56, 55–56, 85–90. ISBN 9789171063793.
  41. ^ a b c Erwin Fahlbusch (1999). The Encyclopedia of Christianity. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 157–158. ISBN 978-90-04-11695-5.
  42. ^ a b Tesema Ta'a (2006). The Political Economy of an African Society in Transformation: the Case of Macca Oromo (Ethiopia). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 22–24. ISBN 978-3-447-05419-5.
  43. ^ a b c Richard Pankhurst (1997). The Ethiopian Borderlands: Essays in Regional History from Ancient Times to the End of the 18th Century. The Red Sea Press. pp. 279–280. ISBN 978-0-932415-19-6.
  44. ^ Mohammed Hassen (2015). The Oromo and the Christian Kingdom of Ethiopia: 1300–1700. Boydell & Brewer. pp. 222–225. ISBN 978-1-84701-117-6.
  45. ^ Lewis, Herbert S. (1966). "The Origins of the Galla and Somali". The Journal of African History. VII: 27–43. doi:10.1017/S0021853700006058. S2CID 163027084 – via Researchgate.
  46. ^ a b Donald N. Levine (2000). Greater Ethiopia: The Evolution of a Multiethnic Society. University of Chicago Press. pp. 78–89. ISBN 978-0-226-47561-5.
  47. ^ a b W.A. Degu, "Chapter 7 Political Development in the Pre-colonial Horn of Africa" Archived 24 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, "The State, the Crisis of State Institutions and Refugee Migration in the Horn of Africa: The Cases of Ethiopia, Sudan and Somalia", Thela Thesis (Amsterdam, 2002), page 142
  48. ^ a b Richard Pankhurst (1997). The Ethiopian Borderlands: Essays in Regional History from Ancient Times to the End of the 18th Century. The Red Sea Press. pp. 281–283. ISBN 978-0-932415-19-6.
  49. ^ Marianne Bechhaus-Gerst (2013). Kevin Shillington (ed.). Encyclopedia of African History. Routledge. pp. 1182–1183. ISBN 978-1-135-45670-2.
  50. ^ a b Ethiopia: the Land, Its People, History and Culture, pg,275
  51. ^ Historical Dictionary of Ethiopia, pg119
  52. ^ a b Kaba, Amadu Jacky; Anyanwu, Ogechi; Mazrui, Ali A.; Haron, Muhammed; Sounaye, Abdoulaye; Morrow, John Andrew; Takim, Liyakat; Kersten, Carool; Bejja, Rachida; Rippin, Andrew; Kayadibi, Saim; Bruckmayr, Philipp (June 2009). "American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 26:3".
  53. ^ a b https://etd.uwc.ac.za/xmlui/bitstream/handle/11394/7290/melaku_phd_arts_2019.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y#page107[bare URL PDF]
  54. ^ "Oromo and Amhara rule in Ethiopia" (PDF). Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  55. ^ Paul Trevor William Baxter, Jan Hultin, Alessandro Triulzi. "Being and Becoming Oromo: Historical and Anthropological Enquiries'. Nordic Africa Institute (1996) pp. 123–124
  56. ^ Aṣma Giyorgis, Bairu Tafla "Aṣma Giyorgis and His Work: History of the Gāllā and the Kingdom of Šawā". Franz Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden GmbH (1987) pp. 439 Google Books
  57. ^ Günther Schlee Identities on the Move: Clanship and Pastoralism in Northern Kenya. Manchester University Press (1989) pp. 38–40 Google Books
  58. ^ "Oromo". ethnologue.com. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
  59. ^ "Oromia Regional State". Ethiopia Government Portal. Archived from the original on 28 July 2017. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
  60. ^ Gebrewold, Belachew (2017). "Civil Militias and Militarisation of Society in the Horn of Africa". Civil Militia. Routledge. pp. 187–212. ISBN 978-1-138-25332-2.
  61. ^ a b Oromo people Archived 18 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine Encyclopædia Britannica
  62. ^ a b "Oromo, Borana-Arsi-Guji". ethnologue.com). Archived from the original on 16 January 2009.
  63. ^ Aguilar, Mario (1996). "The Eagle as Messenger, Pilgrim and Voice: Divinatory Processes among the Waso Boorana of Kenya". Journal of Religion in Africa. Journal of Religion in Africa, Vol. 26, Fasc. 1 (Feb. 1996), pp. 56–72. 26 (1): 56–72. doi:10.1163/157006696X00352. JSTOR 1581894.
  64. ^ a b Steven L. Danver (2015). Native Peoples of the World: An Encyclopedia of Groups, Cultures and Contemporary Issues. Routledge. pp. 24–25. ISBN 978-1-317-46400-6.
  65. ^ Hayward, R. J.; Hassan, Mohammed (1981). "The Oromo Orthography of Shaykh Bakri Saṗalō". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 44 (3): 550–566. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00144209. S2CID 162289324.
  66. ^ Shaban, Abdurahman. "One to five: Ethiopia gets four new federal working languages". Africa News. Archived from the original on 15 December 2020. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
  67. ^ a b "The world factbook". cia.gov. 19 October 2021.
  68. ^ "Home". Ministry of Innovation and Technology. Archived from the original on 19 November 2019. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
  69. ^ "ቤት | FMOH". www.moh.gov.et. Archived from the original on 5 February 2021. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
  70. ^ Language data for Ethiopia, n.d.
  71. ^ "Children's books breathe new life into Oromo language". bbc.co.uk.
  72. ^ Eberhard, David M.; Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D. "Ethnologue Ethiopia". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. SIL International. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
  73. ^ Eberhard, David M.; Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D. "Ethnologue myf". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. SIL International. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
  74. ^ Eberhard, David M.; Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D. "Ethnologe kmq". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. SIL International. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
  75. ^ Erwin Fahlbusch (1999). The Encyclopedia of Christianity. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 158–159. ISBN 978-90-04-11695-5.
  76. ^ Hussein Ahmed (25 October 2000). Islam in Nineteenth-Century Wallo, Ethiopia. Brill. ISBN 9789004492288.
  77. ^ Abbas Gnamo. Conquest and Resistance in the Ethiopian Empire, 1880 – 1974: The Case of the Arsi Oromo. p. 176.
  78. ^ Census (PDF), Ethiopia, 2007, archived from the original (PDF) on 10 February 2016
  79. ^ James B. Minahan (2016). Encyclopedia of Stateless Nations: Ethnic and National Groups around the World, 2nd Edition. ABC-CLIO. pp. 319–320. ISBN 978-1-61069-954-9.
  80. ^ Let Us Talk About Food: Oromo vs. Ethiopian, 7 June 2009, retrieved 7 June 2009
  81. ^ The world of caffeine : the science and culture of the world's most popular drug, 2001
  82. ^ Ethiopia: Special Cuisines As a Symbol of Oromo Lifestyle, 15 September 2020, retrieved 15 September 2020
  83. ^ "Let Us Talk About Food: Oromo vs. Ethiopian". 7 June 2009. Retrieved 7 June 2009.
  84. ^ "Gada system, an indigenous democratic socio-political system of the Oromo". unesco.org.
  85. ^ a b Tesema Ta'a (2006). The Political Economy of an African Society in Transformation: the Case of Macca Oromo (Ethiopia). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 24–25. ISBN 978-3-447-05419-5.
  86. ^ Galla, Candace (2012). "Sustaining generations of Indigenous voices: Reclaiming language and integrating multimedia technology". {World Indigenous Nations Higher Education Consortium Journal: 46–48.
  87. ^ Tesema Ta'a (2006). The Political Economy of an African Society in Transformation: the Case of Macca Oromo (Ethiopia). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 26–27. ISBN 978-3-447-05419-5.
  88. ^ "Chapter 7: The Gadaa Council (Adula)". addis herald. Retrieved 14 October 2019.
  89. ^ Said S. Samatar (1992). In the Shadow of Conquest: Islam in Colonial Northeast Africa. The Red Sea Press. pp. 79–80. ISBN 978-0-932415-70-7.
  90. ^ Ruggles, Clive (2006). Ancient Astronomy: An Encyclopedia of Cosmologies and Myth. ABC-Clio. pp. 285–286. ISBN 978-1851094776. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  91. ^ Afe Adogame (2016). The Public Face of African New Religious Movements in Diaspora. Routledge. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-317-01863-6.
  92. ^ Clive L. N. Ruggles (2005). Ancient Astronomy: An Encyclopedia of Cosmologies and Myth. ABC-CLIO. pp. 45–46. ISBN 978-1-85109-477-6.
  93. ^ Doyle, Laurance R. (1986). "The Borana Calendar Reinterpreted". Current Anthropology. 27 (3): 286–287. doi:10.1086/203439. S2CID 144426218.
  94. ^ a b Gemetchu Megerssa (1996). Paul Trevor William Baxter; et al. (eds.). Being and Becoming Oromo: Historical and Anthropological Enquiries. Nordic Africa Institute. pp. 92–96. ISBN 978-91-7106-379-3.
  95. ^ Terje Østebø (2011). Localising Salafism: Religious Change Among Oromo Muslims in Bale, Ethiopia. BRILL Academic. pp. 292–293 with footnotes. ISBN 978-90-04-18478-7. Orumumma can best be translated as Oromoness, signifying belonging to the Oromo people. (...) neologism introduced by Mekuria Bulcha (1996) and Gemetchu Megersa (1996). (...) Whether this was a result of the larger ethno-nationalist discourse is yet another question.
  96. ^ Terje Østebø (2011). Localising Salafism: Religious Change Among Oromo Muslims in Bale, Ethiopia. BRILL Academic. pp. 301–302 with footnotes. ISBN 978-90-04-18478-7.
  97. ^ Günther Schlee (2002). Imagined Differences: Hatred and the Construction of Identity. LIT Verlag Münster. pp. 142–146. ISBN 978-3-8258-3956-7.
  98. ^ Abbink, J. (1985). "Review: Oromo Religion. Myths and Rites of the Western Oromo of Ethiopia by Lambert Bartels". Anthropos. 80 (1–3): 285–287. JSTOR 40460901.
  99. ^ a b Herbert S. Lewis (1965). Jimma Abba Jifar, an Oromo Monarchy: Ethiopia, 1830–1932. The Red Sea Press. pp. 53–54. ISBN 978-1-56902-089-0.
  100. ^ a b Haberland, Eike (1993). Hierarchie und Kaste : zur Geschichte und politischen Struktur der Dizi in Südwest-Äthiopien (in German). Stuttgart: Steiner. pp. 105–106, 117–119. ISBN 3-515-05592-4.
  101. ^ Quirin, James (1979). "The Process of Caste Formation in Ethiopia: A Study of the Beta Israel (Felasha), 1270–1868". The International Journal of African Historical Studies. Boston University African Studies Center. 12 (2): 235–258. doi:10.2307/218834. JSTOR 218834.
  102. ^ Haji, Abbas (10 April 1997). "Pouvoir de bénir et de maudire : cosmologie et organisation sociale des Oromo-Arsi". Cahiers d'Études africaines. 37 (146): 289–318. doi:10.3406/cea.1997.3515 – via www.persee.fr.
  103. ^ Asafa Jalata (2010), Oromo Peoplehood: Historical and Cultural Overview Archived 19 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Sociology Publications and Other Works, University of Tennessee Press, page 12, see "Modes of Livelihood" section
  104. ^ Donald N. Levine (2014). Greater Ethiopia: The Evolution of a Multiethnic Society. University of Chicago Press. pp. 195–196. ISBN 978-0-226-22967-6.
  105. ^ Cerulli, Ernesta (1922). The Folk-Literature of the Oromo of Southern Abyssinia. Harvard African studies. Vol. 3. Istituto Orientale di Napoli, Harvard University Press. pp. 341–355. OCLC 42447447.
  106. ^ William Gervase Clarence-Smith (2013). The Economics of the Indian Ocean Slave Trade in the Nineteenth Century. Routledge. pp. 93–97. ISBN 978-1-135-18214-4.
  107. ^ Ronald Segal (2002). Islam's Black Slaves: The Other Black Diaspora. MacMillan. p. 154. ISBN 978-0-374-52797-6.
  108. ^ Winston, Robert, ed. (2004). Human: The Definitive Visual Guide. New York: Dorling Kindersley. p. 413. ISBN 0-7566-0520-2.
  109. ^ "HUMAN RIGHTS IN ETHIOPIA : THROUGH THE EYES OF THE OROMO DIASPORA" (PDF). Theadvocatesforhumanrights.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 February 2017. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  110. ^ "Human rights abuses under EPRDF" (PDF). Lib.ohchr.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 September 2017. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  111. ^ "Ethiopian forces 'kill 140 Oromo protesters'". 8 January 2015. Archived from the original on 8 January 2016.
  112. ^ a b "Unrest in Ethiopia: Grumbling and rumbling: Months of protests are rattling a fragile federation". The Economist. 26 March 2016. Archived from the original on 25 March 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2016.
  113. ^ "Ethnic violence displaces hundreds of thousands of Ethiopians". irinnews.com. 8 November 2017.
  114. ^ "Ethiopia tops global list of highest internal displacement in 2018". Relief Web. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  115. ^ "At least 23 die in weekend of Ethiopia ethnic violence". The Daily Star. 17 September 2018.
  116. ^ Ahmed, Hadra; Goldstein, Joseph (24 September 2018). "Thousands Are Arrested in Ethiopia After Ethnic Violence". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 April 2019.
  117. ^ "Ethiopia arrests suspects over Haacaaluu Hundeessaa killing", Al Jazeera. 10 July 2020.
  118. ^ "Haile Selassie statue destroyed in London park". BBC News. BBC News. 2 July 2020.
  119. ^ Oromo children's books keep once-banned Ethiopian language alive, 13 February 2016, retrieved 14 February 2016
  120. ^ Language & Culture (PDF)
  121. ^ ETHIOPIANS: AMHARA AND OROMO, January 2017
  122. ^ "Migrations profoundly affected the Oromo unity". Lcweb2.loc.gov. Archived from the original on 18 March 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  123. ^ "Raya Oromos inside the Weyane revolt of Tigray" (PDF). Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  124. ^ Bahru Zewde, "A History of Modern Ethiopia: 1855–1991", 2nd edition (Oxford: James Currey, 2001), pp. 261f.
  125. ^ Thomas Lucien Vincent Blair, Africa: a market profile, (Praeger: 1965), p.126.
  126. ^ Stroomer, p. 4.
  127. ^ World Radio and Television Handbook. Amsterdam. 1975. pp. 133, 316, 432.
  128. ^ "All that glitters is not gold: Can Ethiopia's new PM deliver?". opride.com.
  129. ^ "Govt. continues rejecting license for Jimma Times Afaan Oromoo newspaper". Ethioguardian.com. 9 May 2008. Archived from the original on 17 February 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  130. ^ "Ethiopia's "government" attacks Macha-Tulama, Jimma Times media & Oromo opposition party". Nazret.com. Archived from the original on 20 May 2008. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  131. ^ http://www.ayyaantuu.com/Oromiyaa/NewsBlog/tabid/36/EntryID/3280/Default.aspx[permanent dead link]
  132. ^ "CJFE award nominee". Archived from the original on 25 September 2010.
  133. ^ http://www.cjfe.org/awards06/jimma.html[permanent dead link]
  134. ^ "Ethiopia's Largest Ethnicity Group Deprived of Linguistic and Cultural Sensitive Media Outlets". Rap21.org. Archived from the original on 4 May 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  135. ^ "OFDM Press Release: The Massacre of May, 2008". Jimmatimes.com. Archived from the original on 10 February 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  136. ^ a b "Ethiopia: 'Because I am Oromo': Sweeping repression in the Oromia region of Ethiopia". Amnesty.org. Archived from the original on 2 January 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  137. ^ "Ethiopia mourns 55 killed during protest at Oromia festival". BBC News. 3 October 2016. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  138. ^ "Investors shy away from Ethiopia in the wake of violent protests – The Washington Post". washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
  139. ^ "Security Force Response to the 2016 Irreecha Cultural Festival". hrw.org. 19 September 2017. Retrieved 16 October 2019.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit