Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front
The Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF; Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ሕዝቦች አብዮታዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ግንባር ye’ītiyop’iya ḥizibochi ābiyotawī dīmokirasīyawī ginibari) was an ethnic federalist political coalition in Ethiopia. The EPRDF consisted of four political parties, namely Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF), Amhara Democratic Party (ADP), Oromo Democratic Party (ODP) and Southern Ethiopian People's Democratic Movement (SEPDM). After leading the overthrow of the Communist People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, it dominated Ethiopian politics from 1991 to 2019.
|Dissolved||1 December 2019|
|Succeeded by||Prosperity Party|
|Youth wing||EPRDF Youth League|
|Women's wing||EPRDF Women's League|
|Membership (2011)||6,000,000|
|Political position||After 1991:|
Centre-left to left-wing
|Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front|
|Participant in Oromo conflict, Ethiopian Civil War, Eritrean–Ethiopian War|
|Status||majority unified into the Prosperity Party|
|Headquarters||Addis Ababa, Ethiopia|
|This article is part of a series on the|
politics and government of
In November 2019, the EPRDF dissolved, and Prime Minister and EPDRF chairman Abiy Ahmed merged most of the constituent parties of the coalition (except the TPLF) into a new party called the Prosperity Party. The party was officially founded on 1 December.
During the Ethiopian Civil War, the EPRDF was a rebel group battling the Derg, a military regime led by Mengistu Haile Mariam that was effectively in power from 1974 until it was replaced by the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia in 1987. During this period, the Derg was responsible for the deaths of tens of thousands of opponents without trial in the Qey Shibir and the 1983–1985 famine in Ethiopia resulting in 400,000 deaths.
The EPRDF was formed by the union of the TPLF and the Ethiopian People's Democratic Movement (EPDM) in early-1989. They were later joined by the OPDO (the Oromo members of the TPLF, EPLF, and EPDM) and the Ethiopian Democratic Officers' Revolutionary Movement (a small body of Derg officers captured by TPLF, most notably at Shire in February 1989, which was later disbanded after the establishment of the Transitional Government of Ethiopia).
Following the collapse of the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia in the early 1990s, the EPRDF gained support from the United States. Michael Johns, an Africa expert with The Heritage Foundation, wrote in 1991 that "there are some modestly encouraging signs that the front intends to abandon Mengistu's autocratic practices".
The EPRDF was an alliance of four political parties:
- Oromo Democratic Party (ODP), which is based in the Oromia Region (formerly known as OPDO)
- Amhara Democratic Party (ADP) based in the Amhara Region (formerly known as ANDM)
- Southern Ethiopian People's Democratic Movement (SEPDM) based in the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region
- Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF) based in the Tigray Region
The EPRDF was led by a Council as well as an Executive Committee, whose members were selected every three years by a congress of the party. The four member parties had the same organizational structure. Government and party structures were closely intertwined.
The other five regions of Ethiopia were governed by parties which were either created or heavily influenced by the EPRDF. One of the earliest was the Afar People's Democratic Organization in the Afar Region, which subsequently merged with other Afar political groups to create the Afar National Democratic Party (ANDP). These were the five regional parties:
- Afar National Democratic Party (ANDP) in Afar Region
- Argoba People's Democratic Organization (APDO) for the Argobba people
- Hareri National League (HNL) in Harari Region
- Gambela People's Democratic Movement (GPDM) in Gambela Region
- Ethiopian Somali People's Democratic Party (ESPDP) in Somali Region
- Benishangul-Gumuz People's Democratic Unity Front (BGPDUF) in Benishangul-Gumuz Region
The EPRDF had not espoused a well-defined unified ideology or political philosophy. Its members held a variety of positions that could be broadly defined as being to the left of the opposition parties. The EPRDF traditionally identified itself with a number of general goals, namely rapid export-based economic growth; close cooperation with the United States in foreign and defense policies; close cooperation with China on economic and trade policies: and several newer issues, such as administrative reform. Administrative reform encompassed several themes, namely simplification and streamlining of government bureaucracy; privatization of state-owned enterprises; and adoption of measures, including tax reform, in preparation for the expected strain on the economy posed by a rapidly growing population. Other priorities in the early 1990s included the promotion of a more active and positive role for Ethiopia following the collapse of the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, the internationalization of Ethiopia's economy by the liberalization and promotion of domestic demand (expected to lead to the industrialization) and the promotion of education. A business-inspired commitment to free enterprise was tempered by the insistence of protectionism and tariffs.
|Election||Leader||No. of candidates||No. of seats won||No. of Constituency votes||% of Constituency vote||Government/Opposition|
471 / 500
472 / 527
327 / 527
499 / 547
500 / 547
- "Alem Habtu, "Ethnic Federalism in Ethiopia: Background, Present Conditions and Future Prospects"". S2CID 11477280. Cite journal requires
- "- Warum Ahmed ein guter Preisträger ist – trotz seiner Fehler". ZDF.
- "Kommentar: Äthiopiens Reformregierung und die Kräfte des ethnischen Nationalismus". Deutsche Welle.
- Vaughan, Sarah (2003). "Ethnicity and Power in Ethiopia" (PDF). Archived 13 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine University of Edinburgh: Ph.D. Thesis. p. 168.
- Exclusive: Third day EPRDF EC discussing “Prosperity Party” Regulation. Find the draft copy obtained by AS
- de Waal, Alex (1997). Famine Crimes: Politics & the Disaster Relief Industry in Africa. Oxford: James Currey. ISBN 0-85255-810-4.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Johns, Michael (August 1991). "Does Democracy Have a Chance?". The World and I, in: The Congressional Record (6 May 1992).
- Parteien in Äthiopien: Zwischen ethnischer Orientierung und Programmausrichtung (PDF). Friedrich Ebert Foundation.
- Chanie, Paulos (2007). "Clientelism and Ethiopia's post-1991 decentralisation". The Journal of Modern African Studies. 45 (3): 355–384. doi:10.1017/S0022278X07002662.
- Yasin, Yasin Mohammed (2008). "Political history of the Afar in Ethiopia and Eritrea" (PDF). African Affairs, in: Africa Spectrum. 42 (1): p. 39–65.
- Aalen, Lovise (2006). "Ethnic Federalism and Self-Determination for Nationalities in a Semi-Authoritarian State: the Case of Ethiopia". International Journal on Minority and Group Rights. 13 (2): 243–261. doi:10.1163/157181106777909849.
- Ethiopia's Great Run: The Growth Acceleration and How to Pace It (PDF). World Bank. 2015.