Meles Zenawi

Meles Zenawi Asres (Tigrinya: መለስ ዜናዊ ኣስረስ, mäläs zenawi asräs; pronounced [mɛllɛs zenawi asrɛs] About this soundlisten , born Legesse Zenawi Asres; 9 May 1955 – 20 August 2012)[2] was an Ethiopian soldier and politician who ruled Ethiopia as President from 1991 to 1995 and as Prime Minister from 1995 until his death in 2012. He was considered the founder of ethnic federalism, which still followed in modern Ethiopia.

Meles Zenawi
መለስ ዜናዊ
Meles Zenawi - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2012.jpg
Prime Minister of Ethiopia
In office
23 August 1995 – 20 August 2012
PresidentNegasso Gidada
Girma Wolde-Giorgis
Preceded byTamirat Layne
Succeeded byHailemariam Desalegn
President of Ethiopia
In office
28 May 1991 – 22 August 1995
Prime MinisterTesfaye Dinka
Tamirat Layne
Preceded byTesfaye Gebre Kidan (Acting)
Succeeded byNegasso Gidada
Member of the
House of People's Representatives
In office
19 May 1995 – 20 August 2012
Personal details
Legesse Zenawi Asres

(1955-05-09)9 May 1955
Adwa, Tigray province, Ethiopian Empire
Died20 August 2012(2012-08-20) (aged 57)
Brussels, Belgium[1]
Cause of deathEncephalitis
Political partyTigray People's Liberation Front
Other political
Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front
Marxist–Leninist League of Tigray
Spouse(s)Azeb Mesfin
Military service
AllegianceTigray Region Tigray People's Liberation Front
Battles/warsEthiopian Civil War

After leading the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front to victory in the Ethiopian Civil War, he served as President of the Transitional Government of Ethiopia from 1991 to 1995,[3] then as the 2nd Prime Minister of Ethiopia from 1995 to his death in 2012.[4] From 1989, he was the chairman of the Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF), and the head of the EPRDF since its formation in 1991.

In 1975, he left Haile Selassie I University to join the TPLF and fight against the Derg (the Mengistu Haile Mariam-led military dictatorship in Ethiopia). After the overthrow of the Derg's military government, he became president of the transitional government and later prime minister. During his tenure, Ethiopia became one of Africa's fastest-growing economies.[5][6][7]

Early life and educationEdit

Meles Zenawi, a panelist at World Economic Forum on Africa 2012.

Meles was born in Adwa in northern Ethiopia, to Zenawi Asres, a Tigrayan from Adwa and Alemash Ghebreluel, an Eritrean from Adi Quala.[8][9] He was the third of six children. His first name at birth was "Legesse" (thus Legesse Zenawi, Ge'ez: ለገሰ ዜናዊ legesse zēnāwī). He eventually became better known by his nom de guerre Meles, which he adopted in honor of University student and fellow Tigrayan Meles Tekle who was executed by the Derg government in 1975.[10] He received primary education at Queen of Sheba Junior High School in Adwa.[11] Because he started school at age 11 or 12 it took him 5 years to complete the regular 8-year program as he was able to skip grades. He then joined the prestigious General Wingate High school in Addis Ababa on full scholarship and completed high school in 1972. Upon graduating with honors from General Wingate, he was awarded the Haile Selassie I Prize, a selective award given only to the most outstanding students. At this time, .[12][13] In 1975, Meles left the University to join the Tigray People's Liberation Front.

Meles Zenawi was an Ethiopian Orthodox Christian.

Early political careerEdit

Ethiopian Civil War (1974-1991)Edit

Meles was first with the Tigrayan National Organization (TNO), the forerunner of the Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF). Aregawi Berhe, a former member of the TPLF, notes that historians John Young and Jenny Hammond "vaguely indicated" Meles as a founder of the TPLF in their books. Aregawi insists that both he and Sebhat Nega joined the Front "months" after it was founded.[14] While a member of the TPLF, Meles established the Marxist-Leninist League of Tigray (MLLT).

TPLF was one of armed groups struggling against the Derg, the junta which led Ethiopia from 1974 to 1991. Meles was elected member of the leadership committee in 1979 and chairman of the executive committee of TPLF in 1983. He was the chairperson of both the TPLF and the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) after the EPRDF assumed power at the end of the Ethiopian Civil War in 1991. He was president of the Transitional Government of Ethiopia (TGE) during which he paved the way for Eritrea to secede from the country.[8]

President of Ethiopia (1991–1995)Edit

Domestic affairsEdit

Meles stated that EPRDF's victory was a triumph for the thousands of TPLF-fighters who were killed, for the millions of Ethiopians who were victims of the country's biggest famine during the Derg regime, when some estimates put up to 1.5 million deaths of Ethiopians from famine and the Red Terror. Accordingly, he maintained that the big support it received from peasants and rural areas helped EPRDF maintain peace and stability. Foreign support was diverse; the Arab League, as well as Western nations, supported the EPRDF rebels against the communist Moscow-supported government (although the TPLF was at the time Marxist) at the height of the Cold War.

"What the implications of this will be in terms of relations between Ethiopia and the European Union, we will have to wait and see but I don't think you will be surprised if Ethiopia were to insist that it should not be patronised."[15]

The United States facilitated peace talks between different rebel groups including EPRDF and the Derg to bring an end to civil war which lasted for 17 years and reach some kind of political settlement in 1991.[16] The talks didn't bear any fruit as EPRDF's force were moving to the capital and Mengistu fled the country. The United States agreed to support the EPRDF which would have, nevertheless, seized power without anyone's support.Many angry demonstrators in Addis Ababa reacted to this by protesting against Herman Cohen, the U.S. State Department's chief of African affairs who attended a conference that demonstrators viewed as legitimizing the EPRDF.

In July 1991, Convention of Nationalities was held. It was the first Ethiopian multinational convention where delegates of various nations and organizations were given fair and equal representation and observed by various international organizations including the United Nations, Organization for African Unity, European Economic Community, and the United States and the United Kingdom.

Foreign affairsEdit

Although Meles and his administration claimed they preferred a united but federal state that included the Eritrean state, since Meles' TPLF fought together with EPLF, Meles did not have a choice but to leave the decision to Eritrean leadership in the hope that the independence referendum would vote against secession, according to Time magazine's 1991 analysis.[17] The majority of Eritreans were given the choice, "freedom or slavery!" and voted for "freedom" on 24 May 1993, Isaias Afewerki became the leader of Eritrea. Meles was in Asmara, Eritrea as the keynote speaker. Many[who?] in the Meles administration, as well as opposition parties were angry over the decision to grant Eritrea its independence.[18]

Despite working together[19] against the Derg regime, Meles and Afewerki's positive relationship turned sour after Meles succumbed to U.S. pressure to hold an election within a year, but Afewerki abandoned his original promise to create a transitional government in the early 1990s.[20] The Eritrean-Ethiopian War began in May 1998 following the Eritrean troops invasion of Badme and parts of Sheraro woredas.[21] Following the invasion Ethiopia demanded that the Eritrean troops leave the invaded areas completely. However, president Afeworki of Eritrea refused to pull out. Then the Ethiopians responded with huge counter - offensive measures which subsequently lead to the capture of the disputed Badme area and most parts of western Eritrea, Ethiopian President Negaso Gidada gave a victory speech and a peace treaty was signed a few weeks later. According to the peace treaty Ethiopia then pulled out of the Eritrean Territory.[22] Though Ethiopian troops controlled Badme,[23] after an international court[which?] ruled that Badme belonged to Eritrea, Ethiopia continued to maintain a presence of Ethiopian soldiers in the town.[24]

Prime Minister of Ethiopia (1995–2012)Edit

A new constitution was approved in 1994, providing for a parliamentary system. The president served as ceremonial head of state, with the prime minister as head of government and chief executive. The EPRDF handily won the 1995 elections, and Meles was sworn in as prime minister when the new Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia was formally inaugurated on 21 August 1995.

Domestic affairsEdit

Foreign affairsEdit

Meles with Russian President Vladimir Putin on 3 December 2001

Meles moved to have Ethiopia gain a larger share of the Nile River water. Part of this entailed using Ethiopia's hydropower prospects as leverage in exporting power to Egypt, amongst others. He had also aided the Sudan People's Liberation Army/Movement prior to South Sudan's independence as the rebels fought the government in Khartoum. Since the War on Terrorism, Meles sought to consolidate Ethiopia's hegemony in East Africa, including his mediation efforts with Sudan and South Sudan, as well as stabilizing Somalia towards the end of the mandate of the Transitional Federal Government. Though he had controversially sent troops to fight against the Islamic Courts Union, since 2009 he had been praised for working towards a stable situation along with the African Union.[19]


President George W. Bush welcomes President Daniel arap Moi of Kenya and Meles Zenawi to the Oval Office, December 2002

Meles Zenawi and President of Eritrea Isaias Afwerki were on good terms, as Eritrean forces helped TPLF overthrow the Mengstu Hailemariam regime (Derg). As the TPLF came to power in Ethiopia, it had occurred simultaneously with the EPLF (Eritrean People's Liberation Front) rise to power in Eritrea. After the 30 years of war between the two countries, the people of both countries enjoyed the fruit of peace, but not for long. In 1998, the Ethiopian government - led by Meles Zenawi, waged war with Eritrea on bases of boarder conflicts. The war comes to end in 2000. During the war, between 70,000 and 98,217 people were killed and 650,000 displaced, of whom 19,000–67,000 were Eritrean soldiers and between 34,000 and 60,000 were Ethiopian soldiers. The Algiers Agreement was a peace agreement between the governments of Eritrea and Ethiopia signed on 12 December 2000, at Algiers, Algeria. Which was supposed to be final and binding. Nevertheless, Meles Zenawi refused to pull back Ethiopian forces for Eritrean territory. Leading to no-war-no-peace situation in the region. Ethiopian forces reside in the sovereign lands of Eritrea, around the town Badme despite the EEBC Border ruling granting Badme to Eritrea. Eritreans feel Meles Zenawi and the TPLF have betrayed them and he is responsible for the loss of lives, relationship and mutually benefiting opportunities of the two countries.


Meles declared war on the ICU unprovoked in order to curry favor with the West. In 2006, the Islamic Courts Union (ICU) assumed control of much of the southern part of Somalia and promptly imposed Shari'a law. The Transitional Federal Government sought to re-establish its authority, and, with the assistance of Ethiopian troops, African Union peacekeepers and air support by the United States, managed to drive out the rival ICU.[25] On 8 January 2007, as the Battle of Ras Kamboni raged, TFG President and founder Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, a former colonel in the Somali Army, entered Mogadishu for the first time since being elected to office. The Somali government then relocated to Villa Somalia in the capital from its interim location in Baidoa. This marked the first time since the fall of the Siad Barre regime in 1991 that the federal government controlled most of the country.[26]

In October 2011, a coordinated multinational operation began against Al-Shabaab in southern Somalia, with the Ethiopian military eventually joining the mission the following month.[27] According to Ramtane Lamamra, the AU Commissioner for Peace and Security, the additional Ethiopian and AU troop reinforcements are expected to help the Somali authorities gradually expand their territorial control.[28]

Climate changeEdit

At the 33rd G8 summit in Heiligendamm in 2007 (Meles at elevated row fourth from left)

Meles played an important role in developing the African Union's position on climate change since 2009[19] and was a 'friend of the Chair' at the 15th Conference of the Parties (COP15) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).[original research?]

On 31 August 2009, Meles was appointed Chair of the African Heads of State and Government on Climate Change (CAHOSCC). The group had been established following the 4 February 2009 decision at the 12th AU Assembly of Heads of States to build a common Africa position on climate change in preparations for COP15.[citation needed]

Meles attending the G-8 Summit in 2009

Prior to Meles' appointment, but in light of the AU's decision and the Algiers Declaration on the African Common Platform to Copenhagen, on 19 May 2009 the Africa Group made a submission to the UNFCCC that included demands for US$67 billion per year in finance for adaptation funding and US$200 billion per year for mitigation and set targets in terms of reductions of emissions by developed countries not by reference to temperature.[29]

On 3 September 2009, Meles made a speech to the Africa Partnership Forum, where he said:[30]

We will never accept any global deal that does not limit global warming to the minimum unavoidable level, no matter what levels of compensation and assistance are promised to us… While we will reason with everyone to achieve our objective, we will not rubber stamp an agreement by the powers that be as the best we could get for the moment. We will use our numbers to delegitimize any agreement that is not consistent with our minimal position. If needs be we are prepared to walk out of any negotiations that threaten to be another rape of our continent.

Illness and deathEdit

In July 2012, questions arose concerning Meles' health when he did not attend African Union summit meetings in Addis Ababa.[31][32] Opposition groups[which?] claimed that Meles may have already died on 16 July while undergoing treatment in Belgium; however, Deputy Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn attributed Meles' absence to a minor illness.[32] A press conference, during which the government planned to clarify Meles' health status, was scheduled for 18 July but postponed until later in the week. While the government acknowledged that Meles had been hospitalised, it stated that his condition was not serious.[33] There were further rumours of his death when he was not seen in public after the 2012 G20 summit[34] and at the time of the death of the head of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, Abune Paulos.

On 20 August, Meles Zenawi died after contracting an infection in Belgium.[4][19][34][35][36]

Minister of Information Bereket Simon announced on state television:[19]

It's a sad day for Ethiopia. The man who led our country for the past 21 years and brought economic and democratic changes, has died. We have lost our respected leader. Meles has been receiving treatment abroad. He was getting better and we were expecting him to return to Addis Ababa. But he developed a sudden infection and died around 11:40pm last night. His body will be returned to Ethiopia soon. We have set up a committee to organise his funeral. More information will be released about that soon. As per Ethiopian law, Hailemariam Desalegn has now taken over the leadership. He will also be in charge of the Ethiopian military and all other government institutions. I would like to stress, nothing in Ethiopia will change. The government will continue. Our policies and institutions will continue. Nothing will change in Ethiopia. Desalegn will be confirmed by parliament.

After his body was repatriated two days later, thousands of mourners congregated on streets from the airport to Meles' former residence to pay their last respects as his coffin, draped in the flag of Ethiopia, was accompanied by a military band. The event was attended by political, military and religious leaders, as well as diplomats and his wife, Azeb Mesfin. The body lie in state. A declaration of national mourning was also issued.[34] There were also fears of a power vacuum after his death, as well as a possible detriment to Eritrea-Ethiopian relations.[37]

Meles's funeral took place in Addis Ababa on 2 September 2012 in a religious ceremony attended by at least 20 African presidents and thousands of Ethiopians gathered in Meskel Square.[38]


Political leaders, states and institutions offered their thoughts on Meles following his death.[34]

  • Olympic gold medalist and Ethiopian national Haile Gebrselassie praised Meles' achievements.[39]
  • Contemporary United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon praised Meles' "exceptional leadership."[40]
  • Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu's office issued a statement that read: "[Netanyahu] presented his condolences to the Ethiopian people. Meles was loved in his country. He was also a true friend of Israel. During his mandate Ethiopia became one of Israel's closest friends."[40]
  • United Kingdom Prime Minister David Cameron called Meles "an inspirational spokesman for Africa."[40]
  • United States President Barack Obama released the statement: "It was with sadness that I learned of the passing of Prime Minister Meles Zenawi of Ethiopia. Prime Minister Meles deserves recognition for his lifelong contribution to Ethiopia’s development, particularly his unyielding commitment to Ethiopia’s poor. I met with Prime Minister Meles at the G-8 Summit in May and recall my personal admiration for his desire to lift millions of Ethiopians out of poverty through his drive for food security. I am also grateful for Prime Minister Meles’s service for peace and security in Africa, his contributions to the African Union, and his voice for Africa on the world stage. On behalf of the American people, I offer my condolences to Prime Minister Meles' family and to the people of Ethiopia on this untimely loss, and confirm the U.S. Government's commitment to our partnership with Ethiopia. Going forward, we encourage the Government of Ethiopia to enhance its support for development, democracy, regional stability and security, human rights and prosperity for its people."[41]
  • South Korean President Lee Myung-bak released this statement: "The passing of Prime Minister Meles is being mourned across the globe. We all have just lost a great leader of Ethiopia and a preeminent advocate for Africa and the developing world. [...] I pray for the repose of a truly bright mind who lived an intense and moving life – my close friend."[42]

Western NGOs Amnesty International called for the new administration to end Meles' "ever-increasing repression" and Human Rights Watch similarly added that the next administration should repeal the 2009 anti-terrorism law.[34] As the New York Times asked about a gap between the United States of America's strategic and ideological goals in relation to its support for Meles' government, it quoted HRW researcher Leslie Lefkow as saying: "There is an opportunity here. If donors are shrewd, they will use the opportunity that this presents to push a much stronger and bolder human rights stance and need for reform." Author Dan Connell, who had interviewed Meles in June, said that "he seemed focused [then] on wrapping up a number of major projects as if he were aware the end was near. Meles knew his days were numbered."[43] The Committee to Protect Journalists cited and criticised the secrecy around Meles' death.[44] The Washington Post said that the "circumstances of his death remained laced with intrigue."[45]

Regional groups responded with the Ogaden National Liberation Front saying it hoped his death "may usher [in] a new era of stability and peace" and Al Shabaab that it was celebrating the "uplifting news."[34]

Personal lifeEdit

Meles acquired an MBA from the Open University of the United Kingdom in 1995 and a masters of science in economics from the Erasmus University of the Netherlands in 2004.[46] In July 2002, he received an honorary doctoral degree in political science from the Hannam University in South Korea.[47] Meles was married to Azeb Mesfin, a former rebel fighter in the TPLF and, as of 2013, a Member of Parliament.[48][49] Meles was the father of three children; Semhal, Marda and Senay Meles.


Economic prosperity of EthiopiaEdit

During Prime Minister Meles Zenawi's rule, Ethiopia prospered economically (with double digit economic growth for his last 9 years). The high economic growth is continuing 7 years on after his death, since his party Tigray People's Liberation Front & EPRDF continued to work with the same policies. Ethiopia even became the fastest-growing economy in Africa [50]

Titles, awards and honorsEdit

Prime Minister Meles received various international awards for setting up a good foundation for the development of Ethiopia. Even though Ethiopia remains one of the poorest countries in the world, the near double-digit annual economic growth rate recently is seen as the beginning of Ethiopia's long marathon struggle to eliminate poverty. Acknowledging the rapid GDP growth of the country, the UK newspaper The Economist said in December 2007 that "Ethiopia's economy has been growing at record speed in recent years."[51] In 2008, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) described the speed of Ethiopia's economic growth in recent years as the "fastest for a non-oil exporting country in Sub-Saharan Africa",[52] with Ethiopia ranked as the second-most attractive African country for investors.[53]

  • Prime Minister Meles was awarded the Haile Selassie I Prize Trust, a highly selective award given only to the most outstanding graduating students.[12][13]
  • The Rwanda government awarded Meles Rwanda's National Liberation Medal, the "Uruti," in July 2009 for helping to liberate Rwanda and end the genocide in the country. Alongside two other African leaders, Meles was also given Rwanda's highest accolade, the "Umurinzi" medal, Rwanda's Campaign Against Genocide Medal.[54][55]
  • PM Meles Zenawi was allegedly awarded the World Peace Prize for his contributions to global peace and his effort to stabilize the Horn of Africa through cooperation with Inter-Governmental Authority for Development (IGAD).[56] However, the World Peace Council strongly denied that they have awarded this prize to Meles Zenawi: saying " WPC press bureau wishes to declare that no such award was given by our organization in the past or will be given"[57]
  • Tabor 100, an African American entrepreneur's organization, honored PM Meles for his contribution toward economic and social transformation in Africa with its prestigious Crystal Eagle International Leadership Award in April 2005.[58] Tabor 100, a U.S.-based nongovernmental organization, calling Meles Zenawi "international leader of the year 2005", also honored the efforts of the Ethiopian government in general for its war on poverty and backwardness.[59]
  • PM Meles was awarded the Good Governance Award of the Global Coalition for Africa for leading Ethiopia along a democratic path during the challenging period of transition.[60][61] He was selected for the good governance award by the US-based Corporate Council on Africa.[62]
  • PM Meles received the Norway-based 2005 Yara Prize for Green Revolution for initiating a good foundation for economic progress in Ethiopia, particularly in the agricultural sector, where the poor country has doubled its food production. During the award ceremony held in the Norwegian capital of Oslo on 3 September, the director of the UN project for Africa said, "With our support, Ethiopia can lift itself from poverty and hunger. Under Prime Minister Meles the country has created the grass roots structure to enable this to happen."[63]
  • Meles was given the Africa Political Leadership Award of 2008 by the US-based newspaper, Africa Times. Previous winners of the award include Desmond Tutu, Nelson Mandela and others.[64]
  • Ethiopia's military honored Prime Minister Meles for his leadership during the 1998–2000 war with its northern neighbour when Eritrea invaded Ethiopia in 1998.[23][65]
  • Residents of the historic and ancient UNESCO town of Axum in Ethiopia honored Prime Minister Meles for his political and diplomatic leadership role in the return and re-erection of the Obelisk of Axum after a 68-year stay in Rome, Italy.[66]
  • Meles received a Gold Order of Merit award from the Confederation of African Football (CAF) in February 2007. PM Meles was given the CAF organisation's highest award for his services in advancing the progress of African football. Ethiopia was one of the founding countries of the CAF (1957) and the organization, with the dedication of AU leaders like Meles, was celebrating the International Year of African Football in 2007.[67]


  • Meles was a Co-Chairperson of the Global Coalition for Africa (GCA.)[68] The Global Coailition for Africa brings together senior African policy makers and their partners to deepen dialogue and build consensus on Africa's priority development issues.
  • Prime Minister Meles served as the Chairman of the Organization for African Unity (OAU, now the African Union – AU) from June 1995 to June 1996.
  • In 2007, the African Union elected Meles to chair the executive committee of the NEPAD (the New Partnership for Africa's Development)
  • Meles was chosen to represent Africa at the G8 Summit and the G20 summit in London.[69][70][71]
  • In February 2010, the UN named Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles as co-chair of the Advisory Group on Climate Change Financing, a new high-level U.N. advisory group on climate change financing.[72]


Several social, economic, religious and political developments and systems were established for the first time in Ethiopia under Meles' rule.[73]

  • First regional referendum for peaceful Secession (Eritrea, 1991–)
  • First Multi-party National election for opposition (2000, 2005, 2010)
  • First institutionalized linguistic freedom at local level (1994–)
  • First ethnic based federalism (since 1994)
  • First private media outlets in Ethiopian history (since 1994)
  • First consecutive double-digit GDP growth – International Monetary Fund (since 2006)
  • First multi-party parliament with opposition MPs (since 2000)
  • First unrestricted freedom of religion for evangelicals/Pentecostals (since 1994; a Pentecostal succeeded him in 2012)


Meles was given the Green Revolution award and a financial prize of 200,000 dollars by the Norwegian Yara Foundation in September 2005 "in recognition of past accomplishments and encouragement to achieve economic development for the people of Ethiopia."

Meles donated his $200,000 financial award to a foundation called "Fre—Addis Ethiopia Women Fund" (Fre-Addis Ethiopia Yesetoch Merja Mahiber).[74] The Fre-Addis Ethiopia Women Fund has an objective "to empower girls through providing educational opportunities" and it currently supports 514 needy and orphan rural girls to pursue their education throughout the country.


  • The Eritrean Struggle: From Where to Where? (1980)
  • African Development: Dead Ends and New Beginnings (2006)
  • Agricultural Development-Led Industrialisation (ADLI) strategy

Media appearancesEdit

See alsoEdit



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  2. ^ "How Meles Zenawi went from medical school dropout to Prime Minister". The Guardian. London. 21 August 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  3. ^ "Ethiopians mourn strongman ruler Meles, dead at 57". Reuters. 21 August 2012.
  4. ^ a b TADESSE, KIRUBEL. "Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi Dead at 57". ABC News. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  5. ^ "Meles Zenawi, Prime Minister of Ethiopia, Dies at 57". The New York Times. 21 August 2012.
  6. ^ "Meles Zenawi". britannica. 16 August 2018.
  7. ^ "After Meles Zenawi: Implications for Ethiopia's Development". 7 November 2012.
  8. ^ a b Amimo, Uduak (10 August 2005). "Profile: Ethiopian leader Meles Zenawi". BBC News. BBC. Archived from the original on 31 December 2005. Retrieved 6 February 2011.
  9. ^ "Revisiting the Life of the Late Meles Zenawi: Part One".
  10. ^ Ivo Romein. "Nom de guerre Meles". Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 September 2006. Retrieved 21 November 2006.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ a b "Meles given the Haile Selassie I Prize Trust". Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  13. ^ a b Meles awarded the Haile Selassie I Prize Trust Archived 3 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ A Political history of the Tigray People's Liberation Front (1975–1991) (Los Angeles: Tsehai, 2009), p. 62.
  15. ^ Quotations. "Meles Zenawi quotes". Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  16. ^[bare URL]
  17. ^ Beyer, Lisa (10 June 1991). "TIME magazine 1991 June 10". Time. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  18. ^ opposition and government members angry on Meles granting Eritrean independence Archived 25 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ a b c d e "Meles: The titan who changed Africa – Opinion". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  20. ^ Beyer, Lisa (10 June 1991). "Ethiopia: Rebels Take Charge". Time. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 21 November 2009.
  21. ^ "Ethiopian troops celebrate(2000)". BBC News. 20 May 2000. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  22. ^ "Negaso Gidada victory speech". BBC News. 28 May 2000. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  23. ^ a b "Africa | Eritrea broke law in border war". BBC News. 21 December 2005. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  24. ^ "Ethiopian leader Meles Zenawi dies – Africa". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  25. ^ "Ethiopian Invasion of Somalia". 14 August 2007. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
  26. ^ Online, Garowe (12 January 2011). "Somalia President, Parliament Speaker dispute over TFG term". Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
  27. ^ "Ethiopia Agrees to Back Somalia Military Operations, IGAD Says". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. 1 December 2011. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
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  29. ^ "Africa Group submission". Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  30. ^ "Meles Zenawi speech to Africa Partnership Forum". 3 September 2009. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  31. ^ "Ethiopia's Meles Ill, Misses AU Meetings". Voice of America. 16 July 2012. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  32. ^ a b Davison, William (16 July 2012). "Ethiopia Says Meles Is Ill Amid African Union Summit Absence". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  33. ^ "Ethiopian leader Meles Zenawi 'in hospital'". BBC News. 18 July 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  34. ^ a b c d e f Ethiopians mourn leader's death – Africa. Al Jazeera.
  35. ^ "Ethiopian PM Meles Zenawi dies after illness". BBC. 21 August 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  36. ^ Tadesse, Kirubel (21 August 2012). "Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi dead at 57". Yahoo News. Associated Press. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  37. ^ Power vacuum fears engulf Ethiopia – Africa. Al Jazeera.
  38. ^ "Thousands of Ethiopians attend Meles Zenawi burial", ''BBC News'' (2 September 2012).
  39. ^ Haile GebrSelassie on the Death of Meles Zenawi Archived 14 April 2013 at (21 August 2012).
  40. ^ a b c "Ethiopians mourn leader's death". Al Jazeera. 22 August 2012. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
  41. ^ "statement by the president-death of prime minister meles zenawi of ethiopia". 21 August 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012 – via National Archives.
  42. ^ "Full text of Lee's statement on death of Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi". Yonhap News. 2 September 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2012.
  43. ^ Gettleman, Jeffrey (21 August 2012). "Zenawi Exemplified Conflict Between American Interests and Ideals". The New York Times.
  44. ^ In Meles' death, as in life, a penchant for secrecy, control – Blog – Committee to Protect Journalists.
  45. ^ Ethiopian leader Meles Zenawi dies at 57. The Washington Post.
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  47. ^ "Honorary doctoral degree". 19 July 2002. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  48. ^ "Tigray" (PDF). House of Peoples' Representatives. Retrieved 9 October 2013. 6. Hon.W/ro Azeb Mesfin Haile[permanent dead link]
  49. ^ "Azeb Mesfin, MP and Widow of Meles Zenawi". Addis Fortune. Addis Ababa. 8 September 2013. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
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  51. ^ "Ethiopia's economy growing at record speed". The Economist. 5 December 2007. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
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External linksEdit

Political offices
Preceded by
Tesfaye Gebre Kidan
President of Ethiopia
Succeeded by
Negasso Gidada
Preceded by
Tamirat Layne
Prime Minister of Ethiopia
Succeeded by
Hailemariam Desalegn