The Cushitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. They are spoken primarily in the Horn of Africa, with minorities speaking Cushitic languages to the north in Egypt and Sudan, and to the south in Kenya and Tanzania. As of 2012, the Cushitic languages with over one million speakers were Oromo, Somali, Beja, Afar, Hadiyya, Kambaata, and Sidama.[1]

Egypt, Sudan, Horn of Africa, East Africa
Linguistic classificationAfro-Asiatic
  • Cushitic
ISO 639-2 / 5cus
Distribution of the Cushitic languages in Africa

Map of the Cushitic languages

Official status


The Cushitic languages with the greatest number of total speakers are Oromo (37 million),[2] Somali (22 million),[3] Beja (3.2 million),[4] Sidamo (3 million),[5] and Afar (2 million).[6]

Oromo serves as one of the official working languages of Ethiopia[7] and is also the working language of several of the states within the Ethiopian federal system including Oromia,[8] Harari and Dire Dawa regional states and of the Oromia Zone in the Amhara Region.[9]

Somali is the first of two official languages of Somalia and three official languages of the republic of Somaliland.[10][11] It also serves as a language of instruction in Djibouti,[12] and as the working language of the Somali Region in Ethiopia.[9]

Beja, Afar, Blin and Saho, the languages of the Cushitic branch of Afroasiatic that are spoken in Eritrea, are languages of instruction in the Eritrean elementary school curriculum.[13] The constitution of Eritrea also recognizes the equality of all natively spoken languages.[14] Additionally, Afar is a language of instruction in Djibouti,[12] as well as the working language of the Afar Region in Ethiopia.[9]

Origin and prehistory


Christopher Ehret argues for a unified Proto-Cushitic language in the Red Sea Hills as far back as the Early Holocene.[15] Based on onomastic evidence, the Medjay and the Blemmyes of northern Nubia are believed to have spoken Cushitic languages related to the modern Beja language.[16] Less certain are hypotheses which propose that Cushitic languages were spoken by the people of the C-Group culture in northern Nubia,[17] or the people of the Kerma culture in southern Nubia.[18]

Typological characteristics




Most Cushitic languages have a simple five-vowel system with phonemic length (/a a: e e: i i: o o: u u:/); a notable exception are the Agaw languages, which do not contrast vowel length, but have one or two additional central vowels.[19][20] The consonant inventory of many Cushitic languages includes glottalic consonants, e.g. in Oromo, which has the ejectives /pʼ tʃʼ kʼ/ and the implosive /ᶑ/.[21] Less common are pharyngeal consonants ʕ/, which appear e.g. in Somali or the Saho–Afar languages.[19][21]

Most Cushitic languages have a system of restrictive tone also known as ‘pitch accent’ in which tonal contours overlaid on the stressed syllable play a prominent role in morphology and syntax.[19][22]





Nouns are inflected for case and number. All nouns are further grouped into two gender categories, masculine gender and feminine gender. In many languages, gender is overtly marked directly on the noun (e.g. in Awngi, where all female nouns carry the suffix -a).[23]

The case system of many Cushitic languages is characterized by marked nominative alignment, which is typologically quite rare and predominantly found in languages of Africa.[24] In marked nominative languages, the noun appears in unmarked "absolutive" case when cited in isolation, or when used as predicative noun and as object of a transitive verb; on the other hand, it is explicitly marked for nominative case when it functions as subject in a transitive or intransitive sentence.[25][26]

Possession is usually expressed by genitive case marking of the possessor. South Cushitic—which has no case marking for subject and object—follows the opposite strategy: here, the possessed noun is marked for construct case, e.g. Iraqw afé-r mar'i "doors" (lit. "mouths of houses"), where afee "mouth" is marked for construct case.[27]

Most nouns are by default unmarked for number, but can be explicitly marked for singular ("singulative") and plural number. E.g. in Bilin, dəmmu "cat(s)" is number-neutral, from which singular dəmmura "a single cat" and plural dəmmut "several cats" can be formed. Plural formation is very diverse, and employs ablaut (i.e. changes of root vowels or consonants), suffixes and reduplication.[28][29]



Verbs are inflected for person/number and tense/aspect. Many languages also have a special form of the verb in negative clauses.[30]

Most Cushitic languages distinguish seven person/number categories: first, second, third person, singular and plural number, with a masculine/feminine gender distinction in third person singular. The most common conjugation type employs suffixes. Some languages also have a prefix conjugation: in Beja and the Saho–Afar languages, the prefix conjugation is still a productive part of the verb paradigm, whereas in most other languages, e.g. Somali, it is restricted to only a few verbs. It is generally assumed that historically, the suffix conjugation developed from the older prefix conjugation, by combining the verb stem with a suffixed auxiliary verb.[31] The following table gives an example for the suffix and prefix conjugations in affirmative present tense in Somali.[32]

"bring" "come"
singular keen-aa i-maadd-aa
plural keen-naa ni-maad-naa
singular keen-taa ti-maadd-aa
plural keen-taan ti-maadd-aan
singular masc. keen-aa yi-maadd-aa
fem. keen-taa ti-maadd-aa
plural keen-aan yi-maadd-aan



Basic word order is verb final, the most common order being subject–object–verb (SOV). The subject or object can also follow the verb to indicate focus.[33][34]





The phylum was first designated as Cushitic in 1858.[35] The Omotic languages, once included in Cushitic, have almost universally been removed. The most influential recent classification, Tosco (2003), has informed later approaches. It and two more recent classifications are as follows:



Tosco (2000, East Cushitic revised 2020)[36][37]

Appleyard (2012)[38]


Bender (2019)[39]


Geographic labels are given for comparison; Bender's labels are added in parentheses. Dahalo is made a primary branch, as also suggested by Kiessling and Mous (2003). Yaaku is not listed, being placed within Arboroid. Afar–Saho is removed from Lowland East Cushitic; since they are the most 'lowland' of the Cushitic languages, Bender calls the remnant 'core' East Cushitic.

These classifications have not been without contention. For example, it has been argued that Southern Cushitic belongs in the Eastern branch, with its divergence explained by contact with Hadza- and Sandawe-like languages. Hetzron (1980) and Fleming (post-1981) exclude Beja altogether, though this is rejected by other linguists. Some of the classifications that have been proposed over the years are summarized here:

Other subclassifications of Cushitic
Greenberg (1963)[40] Hetzron (1980)[41] Orel & Stolbova (1995) Ehret (2011)[42]
  • Cushitic
    • Northern Cushitic (Beja)
    • Central Cushitic
    • Eastern Cushitic
    • Western Cushitic (Omotic)
    • Southern Cushitic
  • Beja (not part of Cushitic)
  • Cushitic
    • Highland
      • Rift Valley (= Highland East Cushitic)
      • Agaw
    • Lowland
      • Saho–Afar
      • Southern
        • Omo-Tana
        • Oromoid
        • Dullay
        • Yaaku
        • Iraqw (i.e. Southern Cushitic)
  • Cushitic
    • Omotic
    • Beja
    • Agaw
    • Sidamic
      (i.e. Highland East Cushitic)
    • East Lowlands
    • Rift (Southern)
  • Cushitic
    • North Cushitic (Beja)
    • Agäw–East–South Cushitic
      • Agäw
      • East–South Cushitic
        • Eastern Cushitic
        • Southern Cushitic

For debate on the placement of the Cushitic branch within Afroasiatic, see Afroasiatic languages.



Beja constitutes the only member of the Northern Cushitic subgroup. As such, Beja contains a number of linguistic innovations that are unique to it, as is also the situation with the other subgroups of Cushitic (e.g. idiosyncratic features in Agaw or Central Cushitic).[43][44][45] Hetzron (1980) argues that Beja therefore may comprise an independent branch of the Afroasiatic family.[41] However, this suggestion has been rejected by most other scholars.[46] The characteristics of Beja that differ from those of other Cushitic languages are instead generally acknowledged as normal branch variation.[43]

Didier Morin (2001) assigned Beja to Lowland East Cushitic on the grounds that the language shared lexical and phonological features with the Afar and Saho idioms, and also because the languages were historically spoken in adjacent speech areas. However, among linguists specializing in the Cushitic languages, the standard classification of Beja as North Cushitic is accepted.[47]

Other divergent languages


There are also a few poorly-classified languages, including Yaaku, Dahalo, Aasax, Kw'adza, Boon, the Cushitic element of Mbugu (Ma'a) and Ongota. There is a wide range of opinions as to how the languages are interrelated.[48]

The positions of the Dullay languages and of Yaaku are uncertain. They have traditionally been assigned to an East Cushitic subbranch along with Highland (Sidamic) and Lowland East Cushitic. However, Hayward thinks that East Cushitic may not be a valid node and that its constituents should be considered separately when attempting to work out the internal relationships of Cushitic.[48] Bender (2020) suggests Yaaku to be a divergent member of the Arboroid group.[49]

The Afroasiatic identity of Ongota has also been broadly questioned, as is its position within Afroasiatic among those who accept it, because of the "mixed" appearance of the language and a paucity of research and data. Harold C. Fleming (2006) proposes that Ongota is a separate branch of Afroasiatic.[50] Bonny Sands (2009) thinks the most convincing proposal is by Savà and Tosco (2003), namely that Ongota is an East Cushitic language with a Nilo-Saharan substratum. In other words, it would appear that the Ongota people once spoke a Nilo-Saharan language but then shifted to speaking a Cushitic language while retaining some characteristics of their earlier Nilo-Saharan language.[51][52]

Hetzron (1980)[53] and Ehret (1995) have suggested that the South Cushitic languages (Rift languages) are a part of Lowland East Cushitic, the only one of the six groups with much internal diversity.



Cushitic was formerly seen as also including most or all of the Omotic languages. An early view by Enrico Cerulli proposed a "Sidama" subgroup comprising most of the Omotic languages and the Sidamic group of Highland East Cushitic. Mario Martino Moreno in 1940 divided Cerulli's Sidama, uniting the Sidamic proper and the Lowland Cushitic languages as East Cushitic, the remainder as West Cushitic or ta/ne Cushitic. The Aroid languages were not considered Cushitic by either scholar (thought by Cerulli to be instead Nilotic); they were added to West Cushitic by Joseph Greenberg in 1963. Further work in the 1960s soon led to the putative West Cushitic being seen as typologically divergent and renamed as "Omotic".[54]

Today the inclusion of Omotic as a part of Cushitic has been abandoned. Omotic is most often seen as an independent branch of Afroasiatic, primarily due to the work of Harold C. Fleming (1974) and Lionel Bender (1975); some linguists like Paul Newman (1980) challenge Omotic's classification within the Afroasiatic family itself.

Extinct languages


A number of extinct populations have been proposed to have spoken Afroasiatic languages of the Cushitic branch. Marianne Bechhaus-Gerst (2000) proposed that the peoples of the Kerma Culture – which inhabited the Nile Valley in present-day Sudan immediately before the arrival of the first Nubian speakers – spoke Cushitic languages.[18] She argues that the Nilo-Saharan Nobiin language today contains a number of key pastoralism related loanwords that are of proto-Highland East Cushitic origin, including the terms for sheep/goatskin, hen/cock, livestock enclosure, butter and milk. However, more recent linguistic research indicates that the people of the Kerma culture (who were based in southern Nubia) instead spoke Nilo-Saharan languages of the Eastern Sudanic branch, and that the peoples of the C-Group culture to their north (in northern Nubia) and other groups in northern Nubia (such as the Medjay and Blemmyes) spoke Cushitic languages with the latter being related to the modern Beja language.[55][56][17][57] The linguistic affinity of the ancient A-Group culture of northern Nubia—the predecessor of the C-Group culture—is unknown, but Rilly (2019) suggests that it is unlikely to have spoken a language of the Northern East Sudanic branch of Nilo-Saharan, and may have spoken a Cushitic language, another Afro-Asiatic language, or a language belonging to another (non-Northern East Sudanic) branch of the Nilo-Saharan family.[58] Rilly also criticizes proposals (by Behrens and Bechaus-Gerst) of significant early Afro-Asiatic influence on Nobiin, and considers evidence of substratal influence on Nobiin from an earlier now extinct Eastern Sudanic language to be stronger.[56][55][59][17]

Julien Cooper (2017) states that in antiquity, Cushitic languages were spoken in Lower Nubia (the northernmost part of modern-day Sudan).[60] He also states that Eastern Sudanic-speaking populations from southern and west Nubia gradually replaced the earlier Cushitic-speaking populations of this region.[61]

In Handbook of Ancient Nubia, Claude Rilly (2019) states that Cushitic languages once dominated Lower Nubia along with the Ancient Egyptian language.[62] He mentions historical records of the Blemmyes, a Cushitic-speaking tribe which controlled Lower Nubia and some cities in Upper Egypt.[63][64] He mentions the linguistic relationship between the modern Beja language and the ancient Blemmyan language, and that the Blemmyes can be regarded as a particular tribe of the Medjay.[65]

Additionally, historiolinguistics indicate that the makers of the Savanna Pastoral Neolithic (Stone Bowl Culture) in the Great Lakes area likely spoke South Cushitic languages.[66]

Christopher Ehret (1998) proposed on the basis of loanwords that South Cushitic languages (called "Tale" and "Bisha" by Ehret) were spoken in an area closer to Lake Victoria than are found today.[67][68]

Also, historically, the Southern Nilotic languages have undergone extensive contact with a "missing" branch of East Cushitic that Heine (1979) refers to as Baz.[69][70]



Christopher Ehret proposed a reconstruction of Proto-Cushitic in 1987, but did not base this on individual branch reconstructions.[71] Grover Hudson (1989) has done some preliminary work on Highland East Cushitic,[72] David Appleyard (2006) has proposed a reconstruction of Proto-Agaw,[73] and Roland Kießling and Maarten Mous (2003) have jointly proposed a reconstruction of West Rift Southern Cushitic.[74] No reconstruction has been published for Lowland East Cushitic, though Paul D. Black wrote his (unpublished) dissertation on the topic in 1974.[75] Hans-Jürgen Sasse (1979) proposed a reconstruction of the consonants of Proto-East Cushitic.[76] No comparative work has yet brought these branch reconstructions together.

Comparative vocabulary


Basic vocabulary


Sample basic vocabulary of Cushitic languages from Vossen & Dimmendaal (2020:318) (with PSC denoting Proto-Southern Cushitic):[77]

Branch Northern Southern Eastern Central
Gloss Beja[78] Iraqw[79][80] Oromo[81] Somali[82] Awŋi[83] Kemantney[84]
'foot' ragad/lagad yaaee miila/luka lug lɨkw lɨkw
'tooth' kwire siħinoo ilkee ilig ɨrkwí ɨrkw
'hair' hami/d.ifi seʔeengw dabbasaa timo ʧiʧifí ʃibka
'heart' gin'a muuná onnee wadne ɨʃew lɨbäka
'house' gau/'anda doʔ mana guri/min ŋɨn nɨŋ
'wood' hindi ɬupi mukha qori/alwaax kani kana
'meat' ʃa/dof fuʔnaay foon so'/hilib ɨʃʃi sɨya
'water' yam maʔay biʃan biyo/maayo aɣu axw
'door' ɖefa/yaf piindo balbala irrid/albaab lɨmʧi/sank bäla
'grass' siyam/ʃuʃ gitsoo ʧ'itaa caws sigwi ʃanka
'black' hadal/hadod boo gurraʧʧa madow ʧárkí ʃämäna
'red' adal/adar daaʕaat diimaa cas/guduud dɨmmí säraɣ
'road' darab loohi karaa/godaana jid/waddo dad gorwa
'mountain' reba tɬooma tuullu buur kán dɨba
'spear' fena/gwiʃ'a *laabala (PSC) waraana waran werém ʃämärgina
'stick' (n) 'amis/'adi *ħada ulee/dullaa ul gɨmb kɨnbɨ
'fire' n'e ʔaɬa ibidda dab leg wɨzɨŋ
'donkey' mek daqwaay haare dameer dɨɣwarí dɨɣora
'cat' bissa/kaffa maytsí adure bisad/dummad anguʧʧa damiya
'dog' yas/mani seeaay seere eey gɨséŋ gɨzɨŋ
'cow' ʃ'a/yiwe ɬee sa'a sac ɨllwa käma
'lion' hada diraangw lenʧ'a libaax wuʤi gämäna
'hyena' galaba/karai *bahaa (PSC) waraabo waraabe ɨɣwí wäya
'sister' kwa ħoʔoo obboleeytii walaalo/abbaayo séná ʃän
'brother' san nana obboleessa walaal/abboowe sén zän
'mother' de aayi haaɗa hooyo ʧwá gäna
'father' baba taata aabba aabbe tablí aba
'sit' s'a/ʈaʈam iwiit taa'uu fadhiiso ɨnʤikw- täkosɨm-
'sleep' diw/nari guuʔ rafuu hurud ɣur\y- gänʤ-
'eat' tam/'am aag ɲaaʧʧu cun ɣw- xw-
'drink' gw'a/ʃifi wah ɗugaaiti cab zɨq- ʤax-
'kill' dir gaas aʤʤeesuu dil kw- kw-
'speak' hadid/kwinh ʔooʔ dubbattu hadal dibs- gämär-
'thin' 'iyai/bilil *ʔiiraw (PSC) hap'ii caato ɨnʧu k'ät'än-
'fat' dah/l'a *du/*iya (PSC) furdaa shilis/buuran morí wäfär-
'small' dis/dabali *niinaw (PSC) t'innoo yar ʧɨlí ʃigwey
'big' win/ragaga *dir (PSC) guddaa/dagaaga weyn dɨngulí fɨraq



Comparison of numerals in individual Cushitic languages:[85]

Classification Language 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
North Beja (Bedawi) ɡaːl ˈmale mheːj ˈfaɖiɡ eːj (lit: 'hand') aˈsaɡwir (5 + 1) asaːˈrama (5 + 2) asiˈmheːj (5 + 3) aʃˈʃaɖiɡ (5 + 4) ˈtamin
Central Bilin (Bilen) laxw / la ləŋa səxwa sədʒa ʔankwa wəlta ləŋəta səxwəta səssa ʃɨka
Central, Eastern Xamtanga lə́w líŋa ʃáqwa síza ákwa wálta láŋta / lánta sə́wta sʼájtʃʼa sʼɨ́kʼa
Central, Southern Awngi ɨ́mpɨ́l / láɢú láŋa ʃúɢa sedza áŋkwa wɨ́lta láŋéta sóɢéta sésta tsɨ́kka
Central, Western Kimant (Qimant) laɣa / la liŋa siɣwa sədʒa ankwa wəlta ləŋəta səɣwəta səssa ʃɨka
East, Highland Alaaba matú lamú sasú ʃɔːlú ʔɔntú lehú lamalá hizzeːtú hɔnsú tɔnnsú
East, Highland Burji mitʃːa lama fadia foola umutta lia lamala hiditta wonfa tanna
East, Highland Gedeo mitte lame sase ʃoole onde dʒaane torbaane saddeeta sallane tomme
East, Highland Hadiyya mato lamo saso sooro onto loho lamara sadeento honso tommo
East, Highland Kambaata máto lámo sáso ʃóolo ónto lého lamála hezzéeto hónso tordúma
East, Highland Libido mato lamo saso sooro ʔonto leho lamara sadeento honso tommo
East, Highland Sidamo (Sidaama) mite lame sase ʃoole onte lee lamala sette honse tonne
East, Dullay Gawwada tóʔon lákke ízzaħ sálaħ xúpin tappi táʔan sétten kóllan ħúɗɗan
East, Dullay Tsamai (Ts'amakko) doːkːo laːkːi zeːħ salaħ χobin tabːen taħːan sezːen ɡolːan kuŋko
East, Konsoid Bussa (Harso-Bobase) tóʔo lakki, lam(m)e,
salaħ xúpin cappi caħħan sásse /sésse kollan húddʼan
East, Konsoid Dirasha (Gidole) ʃakka(ha) (fem.) /
ʃokko(ha) (masc.)
lakki halpatta afur hen lehi tappa lakkuʃeti tsinqoota hunda
East, Konsoid Konso takka lakki sessa afur ken lehi tappa sette saɡal kuɗan
East, Oromo Orma tokkō lamā sadi afurī ʃanī dʒa torbā saddeetī saɡalī kuɗenī
East, Oromo West Central Oromo tokko lama sadii afur ʃani dʒaha torba saddet saɡal kuɗan
East, Saho-Afar Afar enèki / inìki nammàya sidòħu /
ferèyi /
konòyu /
leħèyi /
malħiini baħaàra saɡaàla tàbana
East, Saho-Afar Saho inik lam:a adoħ afar ko:n liħ malħin baħar saɡal taman
East, Rendille-Boni Boni kóów, hál-ó (masc.) /
hás-só (fem)
lába síddéh áfar ʃan líh toddóu siyyéèd saaɡal tammán
East, Rendille-Boni Rendille kôːw /
ko:kalɖay (isolated form)
lámːa sɛ́jːaħ áfːar t͡ʃán líħ tɛːbá sijːɛ̂ːt saːɡáːl tomón
East, Somali Garre (Karre) kow lamma siddeh afar ʃan liʔ toddobe siyeed saɡaal tommon
East, Somali Somali ków labá sáddeħ áfar ʃán liħ toddobá siddèed saɡaal toban
East, Somali Tunni (Af-Tunni) ków lámma síddiʔ áfar ʃán líʔ toddóbo siyéed saɡáal tómon
East, Arboroid Arbore tokkó (masc.) /
takká (fem.), ˈtaˈka
laamá, ˈlaːma sezzé, ˈsɛːze ʔafúr, ʔaˈfur tʃénn, t͡ʃɛn dʒih, ˈd͡ʒi tuzba, ˈtuːzba suyé, suˈjɛ saaɡalɗ,
East, Arboroid Bayso (Baiso) koo (masc.)
too (fem.)
lɑ́ɑmɑ sédi ɑ́fɑr ken le todobɑ́ siddéd sɑ́ɑɡɑɑl tómon
East, Arboroid Daasanach tɪ̀ɡɪ̀ɗɪ̀ (adj.) /
tàqàt͡ʃ ̚ (ord.)/ ʔɛ̀ɾ (ord.)
nàːmə̀ sɛ̀d̪ɛ̀ ʔàfʊ̀ɾ t͡ʃɛ̀n lɪ̀h t̪ɪ̀ːjə̀ síɪ̀t̚ sàːl t̪òmòn
East, Arboroid El Molo t'óko / t'áka l'ááma séépe áfur kên, cên yíi tíípa, s'ápa fúe s'áákal t'ómon
South or East Dahalo vattúkwe (masc.) /
vattékwe (fem.)
líima kʼaba saʕála dáwàtte,
possibly ← 'hand'
sita < Swahili saba < Swahili nane kenda / tis(i)a kumi
South Alagwa (Wasi) wák ndʒad tam tsʼiɡaħ kooʔan laħooʔ faanqʼw dakat ɡwelen mibi
South Burunge leyiŋ / leẽ t͡ʃʼada tami t͡ʃʼiɡaħa koːʔani laħaʔu faɴqʼu daɡati ɡweleli mili
South Gorowa (Gorwaa) wak tsʼar tám tsʼiyáħ kooʔán laħóoʔ fâanqʼw dakáat ɡwaléel / ɡweléel mibaanɡw
South Iraqw wák tsár tám tsíyáħ kooán laħoóʔ faaɴw dakaát ɡwaleél mibaaɴw

See also



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  3. ^ Eberhard, David M.; Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D., eds. (2021). "Somali". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (Twenty-fourth ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
  4. ^ "Bedawiyet". Ethnologue. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
  5. ^ "Sidamo". Ethnologue. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
  6. ^ "Afar". Ethnologue. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
  7. ^ Shaban, Abdurahman. "One to five: Ethiopia gets four new federal working languages". Africa News. Archived from the original on 15 December 2020. Retrieved 12 April 2021.
  8. ^ "Ethiopia". The World Factbook (2024 ed.). Central Intelligence Agency. 6 June 2022. (Archived 2022 edition.)
  9. ^ a b c "Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia" (PDF). Government of Ethiopia. pp. 2 & 16. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 June 2015. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
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  11. ^ "The Constitution of the Somali Republic (as amended up to October 12, 1990)" (PDF). Government of Somalia. p. 2. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017. "The Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic" (PDF). Government of Somalia. p. 5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  12. ^ a b "Journal Officiel de la République de Djibouti – Loi n°96/AN/00/4èmeL portant Orientation du Système Educatif Djiboutien" (PDF). Government of Djibouti. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
  13. ^ Graziano Savà; Mauro Tosco (January 2008). ""Ex Uno Plura": the uneasy road of Ethiopian languages toward standardization". International Journal of the Sociology of Language. 2008 (191): 117. doi:10.1515/ijsl.2008.026. S2CID 145500609. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  14. ^ "The Constitution of Eritrea" (PDF). Government of Eritrea. p. 524. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 December 2017. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
  15. ^ Stevens, Chris J.; Nixon, Sam; Murray, Mary Anne; Fuller, Dorian Q. (July 2016). Archaeology of African Plant Use. Routledge. p. 239. ISBN 978-1-315-43400-1.
  16. ^ Rilly (2019), pp. 132–133.
  17. ^ a b c Cooper (2017).
  18. ^ a b Bechhaus-Gerst (2000), p. 453.
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Further reading