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Nigeria is one of the most densely populated country in Africa with approximately 196 million people in a million km2 area,[1] and is also the country with the largest population in Africa,[2] and is the country with the seventh largest population in the world.[3]

Approximately 50% of Nigerians are urban dwellers, with the rate of urbanization being estimated at 4.3%.[2] Nigeria is home to over 250 ethnic groups, with over 500 languages,[2] and the variety of customs, and traditions among them gives the country great cultural diversity. The three largest ethnic groups are the Hausa/Fulani 29% of the population; along with the Yoruba 21% and Igbo 19%.[2] The Efik, Ibibio, Annang, and Ijaw constitute other Southeastern populations. The Urhobo-Isoko, Edo and Itsekiri constitute Nigerian's Midwest with the Urhobo standing out as the majority[citation needed].

Most of the population is a young population, with 42.54% between the ages of 0-14. [2][4] There is also a very high dependency ratio of the country at 88.2 dependents per non-dependents.[2]

Three of the main religious groups are Muslim at 50%, Christian at 40% and other indigenous beliefs at 10%.[3] The predominantly Christian Igbo are found in the southeast[citation needed]. Roman Catholicism is the largest Christian denomination in Igboland, but Anglicanism is also strong, as are Pentecostal and other Evangelical denominations.

Persons of different ethnic backgrounds most commonly communicate in English, although knowledge of two or more Nigerian languages is widespread. Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba are the most widely used Nigerian languages. Nigerian Pidgin is used widely as an unofficial medium of communication especially in the Nigerian cities of Warri, Sapele, Ughelli, Benin and Port Harcourt[citation needed].

Contents

PopulationEdit

YearPop.±% p.a.
195230,403,305—    
196354,959,426+5.53%
199188,992,220+1.74%
2006140,431,790+3.09%
2011162,471,000+2.96%
2013174,507,539+3.64%
2015182,202,000+2.18%
2017191,836,000+2.61%
 
Total population
 
Demographics of Nigeria, data of FAO, year 2005; number of permanent inhabitants in thousands.

Nigeria's population has been increasing rapidly for at least the last 5 decades due to very high birth rates, quadrupling its population during this time. That type of growth rate is known as exponential. It is not growing at a linear rate. Growth was fastest in the 1980s, after child mortality had dropped rapidly, and has slowed slightly since then as the birth rate has declined slightly. According to the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects the total population was 185,989,640 in 2016, compared to only 37,860,000 in 1950. The proportion of children under the age of 15 in 2010 was 44.0%, 53.2% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 2.7% was 65 years or older. There is a large population momentum, with 3.2 percent growth rate leading to the projected population.[5][2][6]

The Nigerian government has said that it wants to help curb a rapid growth in population. They have offered free contraception over the past 10 years or so and they have even started taking steps to discourage people who are looking to have large families. The government is banking on smaller families as a way to secure financial salvation in the future. They are looking toward territories like Thailand (another country with large population growth issues) as a model for their current strategy.[7]

Abuja has not successfully implemented family planning programs to reduce and space births because of a lack of political will, government financing, and the availability and affordability of services and products, as well as a cultural preference for large families. Increased educational attainment, especially among women, and improvements in health care are needed to encourage and to better enable parents to opt for smaller families.[3]

The Nigeria's Chairman of National Population Commission, Eze Duruiheoma, delivering Nigeria’s statement in New York on Sustainable Cities, Human Mobility and International Migration in the 51st Session of Commission on Population and Development, said that “Nigeria remains the most populous in Africa, the seventh globally with an estimated population of over 198 million. The recent World Population Prospects predicts that by 2050, Nigeria will become the third most populated country in the world. Over the last 50 years, the Nigeria’s urban population has grown at an average annual growth rate of more than 6.5 per cent without commensurate increase in social amenities and infrastructure.” He also stated that the population “grew substantially from 17.3 in 1967 to 49.4 per cent in 2017.”[8]

Total population Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 37 860 000 41.7 55.3 3.0
1955 41 122 000 41.6 55.6 2.8
1960 45 212 000 41.6 55.6 2.8
1965 50 239 000 41.9 55.2 2.9
1970 56 132 000 42.6 54.6 2.8
1975 63 566 000 43.4 53.8 2.8
1980 73 698 000 44.0 53.2 2.8
1985 83 902 000 45.0 52.2 2.8
1990 95 617 000 44.9 52.3 2.9
1995 108 425 000 44.1 53.0 2.9
2000 122 877 000 43.5 53.7 2.8
2005 139 586 000 43.6 53.7 2.7
2010 159 708 000 44.0 53.2 2.7

Fertility and birthsEdit

Total Fertility Rate (TFR)(Wanted TFR) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[9][10][11][12][13]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1960 47 6.35
1965-66 45.9 6.44
1967-69 46.1 6.42
1970 46.3 6.47
1971-73 46.7 6.57
1975 47.2 6.71
1978-82 47 6.78
1978-80 47 6.76
1981-82 46.68 6.78
1983-86 45.67 6.7
1987-90 45.9 6.57
1990 44.2 6.49 (5.8) 34 5.033 (4.8) 40 6.326 (6.1)
1999 43.2 6.13 35.6 4.50 38.5 5.44
2003 42.8 6.04 (5.3) 36.3 4.9 (4.6) 44.5 6.1 (5.7)
2004-07 42.4 5.97
2008 41.8 5.9 (5.3) 36.8 4.7 (4.4) 42.5 6.3 (5.8)
2013 40,2 5.5 (4.8) 35 4.7 (4.1) 42 6.2 (5.3)
2014-15 39.5 5.57
2016 38.8 5.53
2017 36.9 5.07
Year TFR
1981-1982 6,8
1990 6,4
2003 6,0
2008 5,9
2013 5,7
2017 5,1
Variable TFR (Wanted TFR) (2003) TFR (Wanted TFR) (2008) TFR (Wanted TFR) (2013)
Nigeria 5.7 (5.3) 5.7 (5.3) 5.5 (4.8)
Urban 4.9 (4.6) 4.7 (4.4) 4.7 (4.1)
Rural 6.1 (5.7) 6.3 (5.8) 6.2 (5.3)
Region - North Central 5.7 5.4 5.3
Region - North East 7.0 7.2 6.3
Region - North West 6.7 7.3 6.7
Region - South East 4.1 4.8 4.7
Region - South South 4.6 4.7 4.3
Region - South West 4.1 4.5 4.6

Fertility data as of 2013 (DHS Program):[14]

State Total fertility rate Percentage of women age 15-49 currently pregnant Mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49
Abuja 8.5 8.3 4.7
Benue 5.2 13.0 6.8
Kogi 4.2 9.4 5.7
Kwara 5.1 7.2 5.2
Nasarawa 5.4 10.8 5.8
Niger 6.1 14.8 5.8
Plateau 5.4 11.2 5.6
Adamawa 5.8 15.6 6.7
Bauchi 8.1 16.9 8.4
Borno 4.7 12.7 5.2
Gombe 7.0 14.3 7.9
Taraba 6.0 10.6 7.1
Yobe 6.6 13.4 7.4
Jigawa 7.6 15.1 7.6
Kaduna 4.1 21.0 5.7
Kano 6.8 12.6 7.7
Katsina 7.4 17.3 8.4
Kebbi 6.7 16.9 8.2
Sokoto 7.0 14.1 7.3
Zamfara 8.4 17.0 8.7
Abia 4.2 7.3 5.0
Anambra 4.2 6.0 4.7
Ebonyi 5.3 9.1 7.1
Enugu 4.8 8.4 5.9
Imo 4.8 8.3 5.0
Akwa Ibom 3.9 5.3 5.4
Bayelsa 4.5 11.3 6.1
Cross River 5.4 9.1 5.5
Delta 4.1 10.6 5.6
Edo 4.4 6.3 5.7
Rivers 3.8 9.5 4.9
Ekiti 4.3 7.0 5.2
Lagos 4.1 7.2 4.3
Ogun 5.4 10.6 4.9
Ondo 5.2 9.1 5.2
Osun 4.1 6.8 4.3
Oyo 4.5 11.9 5.1

Source: Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS)[15]

Fertility Rate by StateEdit

Variable TFR (2008) TFR (2011)* TFR (2013) TFR (2016)*
Nigeria 5.7 5.7 5.5 5.8
Urban 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.9
Rural 6.3 6.3 6.2 6.3
Region - North Central 5.4 4.9 5.3 5.3
Abuja (FCT) 4.0 3.8 4.5 4.6
Benue 5.9 4.9 5.2 4.8
Kogi 4.2 3.9 4.2 3.7
Kwara 4.5 5.1 5.1 4.4
Nasarawa 4.7 5.5 5.4 5.7
Niger 7.5 6.1 6.1 6.4
Plateau 5.3 4.5 5.4 5.6
Region - North East 7.2 6.7 6.3 6.4
Adamawa 6.8 5.6 5.8 5.5
Bauchi 8.1 8.6 8.1 6.8
Borno 7.1 6.7 4.7 6.1
Gombe 7.4 5.6 7.0 7.3
Taraba 5.9 5.3 6.0 5.5
Yobe 7.5 7.9 6.6 6.8
Region - North West 7.3 7.2 6.7 7.3
Jigawa 7.1 6.7 7.6 8.5
Kaduna 6.3 7.9 4.1 5.6
Kano 8.1 7.5 6.8 7.7
Katsina 7.2 8.2 7.4 7.5
Kebbi 6.0 7.0 6.7 7.7
Sokoto 8.7 5.2 7.0 7.3
Zamfara 7.5 6.5 8.4 7.3
Region - South East 4.8 5.1 4.7 4.6
Abia 4.4 5.2 4.2 5.1
Anambra 5.0 5.7 4.2 4.3
Ebonyi 5.6 6.1 5.3 5.2
Enugu 4.4 4.3 4.8 3.8
Imo 4.8 4.6 4.8 5.1
Region - South South 4.7 4.9 4.3 4.3
Akwa Ibom 4.0 4.0 3.9 4.5
Bayelsa 5.8 6.7 4.5 4.8
Cross River 5.4 5.8 5.4 4.4
Delta 4.5 5.3 4.1 5.2
Edo 5.3 5.3 4.4 3.8
Rivers 4.3 4.3 3.8 3.3
Region - South West 4.5 5.1 4.6 4.4
Ekiti 5.0 4.8 4.3 4.4
Lagos 4.0 4.7 4.1 4.0
Ogun 5.4 5.6 5.4 4.5
Ondo 4.9 3.9 5.2 4.5
Osun 4.0 4.9 4.1 4.7
Oyo 5.0 6.4 4.5 4.9

∗ MICS surveys

Contraceptive prevalenceEdit

Contraceptive prevalence, any methods (% of women ages 15-49)

Year 1982 1990 1994 1999 2003 2007 2008 2011 2012 2013 2016 2017
% of women ages 15-49 6.8 % 6.0 % 13.4 % 15.3 % 12.6 % 14.7 % 14.6 % 14.1 % 13.5 % 15.1 % 20.4 % 13.4 %

∗ UNICEFs State of the Worlds Children and Childinfo, United Nations Population Divisions World Contraceptive Use, household surveys including Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys.[16]

Population projectionsEdit

The total population in sub-Saharan Africa is projected to increase to almost one billion people, making it the most populated region outside of South-Central Asia.[17] According to the United Nations, the population of Nigeria will reach 411 million by 2050. Nigeria might then be the 3rd most populous country in the world. In 2100, the population of Nigeria may reach 794 million. While the overall population is expected to increase, the growth rate is estimated to decrease from 1.2 percent per year in 2010 to 0.4 percent per year in 2050.[17] The birth rate is also projected to decrease from 20.7 to 13.7, while the death rate is projected to increase from 8.5 in 2010 to 9.8 in 2050.[17] Life expectancy is all expected to increase from 67.0 years in 2010 to 75.2 years in 2050. By 2050 the percent of the population estimated to be living in urban areas is 69.6% compared to the 50.6% in 2010.[17]

Vital statisticsEdit

Registration of vital events is in Nigeria not complete. The Population Departement of the United Nations prepared the following estimates. [18]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950-1955 1 821 000 1 169 000 652 000 46.1 29.6 16.5 6.35 200.7
1955-1960 1 998 000 1 181 000 817 000 46.3 27.3 19.0 6.35 186.6
1960-1965 2 202 000 1 197 000 1 005 000 46.1 25.1 21.0 6.35 172.9
1965-1970 2 431 000 1 244 000 1 187 000 45.7 23.4 22.3 6.35 159.6
1970-1975 2 801 000 1 306 000 1 495 000 46.8 21.8 25.0 6.61 147.3
1975-1980 3 232 000 1 377 000 1 855 000 47.1 20.1 27.0 6.76 134.2
1980-1985 3 642 000 1 467 000 2 175 000 46.2 18.6 27.6 6.76 125.3
1985-1990 4 018 000 1 657 000 2 361 000 44.8 18.5 26.3 6.60 126.0
1990-1995 4 446 000 1 866 000 2 580 000 43.6 18.3 25.3 6.37 126.0
1995-2000 4 984 000 2 075 000 2 909 000 43.1 17.9 25.2 6.17 118.6
2000-2005 5 606 000 2 230 000 3 376 000 42.7 17.0 25.7 6.05 104.0
2005-2010 6 309 000 2 224 000 4 085 000 42.2 14.9 27.3 6.01 89.9
2010-2015 5.74
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Life expectancy at birthEdit

Life expectancy from 1950 to 2015 (UN World Population Prospects)[19]:

Period Life expectancy in
Years
1950–1955 33.81
1955–1960   35.80
1960–1965   38.13
1965–1970   39.97
1970–1975   42.03
1975–1980   44.29
1980–1985   46.02
1985–1990   45.95
1990–1995   45.87
1995–2000   46.00
2000–2005   46.94
2005–2010   49.75
2010–2015   51.88

Total and percent distribution of population by single year of age (Census 2006)Edit

[20]

 
Population pyramid of Nigeria in 2017
Age Population Percent
Total 140.431.790 100
0-4 22.594.967 16.09
0 3.004.421
1 4.766.927
2 4.874.939
3 4.823.910
4 5.124.770
5-9 20.005.380 14.25
5 4.578.252
6 4.239.954
7 3.641.713
8 4.274.377
9 3.271.084
10-14 16.135.950 11.49
10 4.782.673
11 2.103.323
12 3.690.772
13 2.731.481
14 2.827.701
15-19 14.899.419 10.61
15 4.000.138
16 2.646.846
17 2.387.754
18 3.777.608
19 2.087.073
20-24 13.435.079 9.57
20 5.825.512
21 1.692.905
22 2.372.385
23 1.878.601
24 1.665.676
25-29 12.211.426 8.70
25 4.950.958
26 1.685.645
27 1.891.707
28 2.348.975
29 1.334.141
30-34 9.467.538 6.74
30 5.538.220
31 807.082
32 1.561.540
33 817.720
34 742.976
35-39 7.331.755 5.22
35 3.538.869
36 894.320
37 878.533
38 1.255.414
39 764.619
40-44 6.456.470 4.60
40 4.156.871
41 486.496
42 918.443
43 536.525
44 358.135
45-49 4.591.293 3.27
45 2.359.627
46 517.645
47 503.723
48 746.592
49 463.706
50-54 4.249.219 3.03
50 2.862.363
51 290.004
52 534.394
53 281.811
54 280.647
55-59 2.066.247 1.47
55 967.161
56 320.949
57 251.622
58 324.990
59 201.525
60-64 2.450.286 1.74
60 1.791.258
61 150.477
62 245.662
63 140.134
64 122.755
65-69 1.151.048 0.82
65 645.459
66 102.029
67 138.709
68 171.016
69 93.835
70-74 1.264.937 0.95
70 1.002.176
71 76.808
72 130.975
73 65.660
74 54.978
75-79 579.838 0.41
75 336.831
76 62.741
77 53.839
78 84.521
79 41.906
80-84 760.053 0.54
80 586.064
81 43.174
82 65.942
83 31.895
84 32.978
85+ 715.225 0.51
Age group Population Male Female Percent
0-14 58.736.297 30.462.148 28.274.149 41.83
15-64 77.158.732 38.348.799 38.809.933 54.94
65+ 4.536.761 2.534.541 2.002.220 3.23
Number of children 0-14 Number of women 15-49 Proportion
58.736.297 34.961.107 1.68

Structure of the population (DHS 2013) (males 87 034, females 89 529 = 176 574):

Age Group Male (%) Female (%) Total (%)
0-4 17.4 16.7 17.1
5-9 16.8 15.9 16.3
10-14 12.7 11.9 12.3
15-19 8.6 9.0 8.8
20-24 6.7 7.8 7.2
25-29 6.6 8.3 7.4
30-34 5,9 6,2 6,1
35-39 5,2 5,4 5,3
40-44 4,3 4,0 4,2
45-49 3,9 3,7 3,8
50-54 2,6 3,3 2,9
55-59 2,5 2,3 2,4
60-64 2,3 2,0 2,1
65-69 1,5 1,2 1,3
70-74 1,3 1,0 1,2
75-79 0,7 0,5 0,6
80+ 1,0 0,8 0,9
Age group Male (%) Female (%) Total (%)
0-14 46.9 44.5 45.7
15-64 48.6 52.0 50.3
65+ 4.5 3.5 4.0

Other demographic statisticsEdit

The following demographic statistics of Nigeria are from the World Population Review.[7]

  • One birth every 4 seconds
  • One death every 14 seconds
  • Net gain of one person every 6 seconds
  • One net migrant every 9 minutes

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[3]

Ethnic groups of Nigeria [21]
Ethnic groups percent
Hausa and Fulani
29%
Yoruba
21%
Igbo
18%
Ijaw
10%
Kanuri
4%
Ibibio
3.5%
Tiv
2.5%

Population:
190,632,261 (July 2018 est.)
178.5 million (2014 est.) [22]
174,507,539 (July 2013 est.)

Population distribution
Nigeria is the Africa's most populous country. Significant population clusters are scattered throughout the country, with the highest density areas being in the south and southwest.

Age structure:
0-14 years: 42.5% (male 41,506,288/female 39,595,720)
15-24 years: 19.6% (male 19,094,899/female 18,289,513)
25-54 years: 30.7% (male 30,066,196/female 28,537,846)
55-64 years: 3.9% (male 3,699,947/female 3,870,080)
65 years and over: 3% (male 2,825,134/female 3,146,638) (2017 est.)

0-14 years: 43.8% (male 39,127,615/female 37,334,281)
15-24 years: 19.3% (male 17,201,067/female 16,451,357)
25-54 years: 30.1% (male 25,842,967/female 26,699,432)
55-64 years: 3.8% (male 3,016,896/female 3,603,048)
65 years and over: 3% (male 2,390,154/female 2,840,722) (2013 est.)

Median age:
total: 18.4 years. Country comparison to the world: 212th
male: 18.3 years
female: 18.5 years (2017 est.)

total: 17.9 years
male: 17.4 years
female: 18.4 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
2.43% (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 24th

2.54% (2013 est.)

Total fertility rate:
5.07 children born/woman (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 13th

Birth rate:
36.9 births/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 13th

38.78 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)

Death rate:
12.4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)

13.2 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:
20.3 years. Note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
20.4% (2016)

Net migration rate:
-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 106th

-0.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)

Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 88.2
youth dependency ratio: 83
potential support ratio: 19.4 (2015 est.)

Urbanization:
urban population: 50.3% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 4.2% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

Life expectancy at birth
total population: 51.56 years
male: 51.58 years
female: 51.55 years (2000 est.)

total population: 46.94 years
male: 46.16 years
female: 47.76 years (2009 est.)

total population: 52.05 years
male: 48.95 years
female: 55.33 years (2012 est.)
male: 52 years
female: 53 years (2014 est.) [22]

HIV/AIDS
adult prevalence rate
3.1% (2007 est.)
3.6% (2009 est.)

people living with HIV/AIDS
2.6 million (2007 est.)
3.3 million (2009 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 9 years
male: 9 years
female: 8 years (2011)

Literacy:
definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 59.6%
male: 69.2%
female: 49.7% (2015 est.)


Total population: 78.6%
Male: 84.35%
Female: 72.65% (2010 est.)[23]

EmigrationEdit

Today millions of ethnic Nigerians live abroad, the largest communities can be found in the United Kingdom (500,000-3,000,000)[24] and the United States (600,000-1,000,000 Nigerians), other countries that followed closely are South Africa, Gambia, and Canada respectively. There are also large groups in Ireland , Portugal and many other countries.[25] .Inspiration for emigration is based heavily on socio-economical issues such as warfare, insecurity, economical instability and civil unrest. Between 1400-1900, of 1.4 million of 2 million emigrants were slaves sent to the Americas. This is due to the fact that the land now known as Nigeria was a central point for 4 slave trades during the 19th century. Though bondage represented a great deal, an estimated 30,000 Nigerian inhabitants would relocate to Kano City and Gambia to take advantage of financial opportunities afforded by fertile land and available natural resources. What's more, the presence of gold mines and rail lines along the Gold Coast, present-day Ghana, attracted an estimated 6,500 Nigerian citizens to attain financial gain and opportunity. The population of Nigerians in Ghana rose to roughly 149,000 before the 1969 alien expulsion order would displace nearly the entire population to surrounding countries.[26]

ReligionEdit

Nigeria is nearly equally divided between Christianity and Islam. The majority of Nigerian Muslims are Sunni and are concentrated in the northern, central and south-western zones of the country, while Christians dominate in some central states (especially Plateau and Benue states), and the south-east and south-south regions. Other religions practiced in Nigeria include African Traditional Religion, Hinduism, Bahai, Judaism, The Grail Message, and the Reformed Ogboni Fraternity[27]

According to a 2009 Pew survey, 45% of Nigeria's population were Muslims.[28] A later Pew study in 2011 calculated that Christians now formed 56.8% of the population in Nigeria, while Muslims comprised 41.1%.[29][30] Adherents of other religions make up 1.4% of the population.[31]

The shift of population balance between Muslims and Christians is a result of northern and southern Nigeria being in different stages of demographic transition. The Muslim-dominated north is in an earlier stage of the demographic transition with much higher fertility rates than the south, whose split Christian/Muslim population is further along in the transition, and whose fertility rates are declining. Decreasing fertility can be linked to more access to education, use of contraceptives, and differing beliefs regarding family planning.[5]

The 1999 introduction of Sharia Law in 12 northern Nigerian states led to massive violence and unrest and caused an ethnic and religious rift between Sharia and Non-Sharia states, a divide that has deepened with time.[5]

CrimeEdit

Nigeria is home to a substantial network of organized crime, active especially in drug trafficking. Nigerian criminal groups are heavily involved in drug trafficking, shipping heroin from Asian countries to Europe and America; and cocaine from South America to Europe and South Africa.[32] The various Nigerian Confraternities or "campus cults" are active in both organized crime and in political violence as well as providing a network of corruption within Nigeria. As confraternities have extensive connections with political and military figures, they offer excellent alumni networking opportunities. The Supreme Vikings Confraternity, for example, boasts that twelve members of the Rivers State House of Assembly are cult members.[33] On lower levels of society, there are the "area boys", these are organized gangs mostly active in Lagos who specialize in mugging and small-scale drug dealing. According to official statistics, gang violence in Lagos resulted in 273 civilians and 84 policemen killed in the period of August 2000 to May 2001.[34]

"the result of factors such as endemic local corruption, which facilitates illicit trafficking; the Biafra civil war, which contributed to a proliferation of firearms; the oil boom of the 1970s, which led to the embezzlement of public funds; and the economic crisis of the 1980s, which was accompanied by a rise in robberies. The expansion of the Nigerian diaspora and organized crime went hand in hand. Global migration boosted prostitution, drug trafficking and fraud, the three main activities of Nigerian syndicates. The smuggling of Nigerian sex workers became a whole industry that now extends from Switzerland to France and Italy (where black prostitutes are called “fireflies”), and has even reached the prudish kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from which 1,000 women are said to be deported every month by the authorities."[35]

The high crime rate among Nigerian migrants also leads to stereotyping Nigerians as criminals; thus, in Cameroon, Nigerian migrants are perceived collectively by the inhabitants of Cameroon as likely to be oil smugglers or dealers in stolen cars. In the Netherlands, the debate on Nigerian crime reached an intensity described as a "moral panic" by one scholar.[36][37] In Switzerland, the crime rate of Nigerian young males was reported as 620% that of Swiss males in same age group (2009 data), the second highest crime rate of any nationality, just below that of Angolan nationals (at 630%).[38]

Nigeria is also pervaded by political corruption. It is ranked 136 out of 168 countries in Transparency International's 2015 Corruption Perceptions Index.[39]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Akinyemi,, Akanni Ibukun. "Demographic dynamics and development in Nigeria". African Population Studies. 27: 239–248 – via ProQuest.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2018-04-10.
  3. ^ a b c d Nigeria: People, CIA World Factbook, 2017
  4. ^ Lysonski, Steven (2013). "Nigeria in transition: acculturation to global consumer culture". Journal of Consumer Marketing. 30 (6): 493–508. doi:10.1108/JCM-07-2013-0626 – via emeraldinsight.
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Dyson, T. (2010). Population and Development: The Demographic Transition. London, UNITED KINGDOM: Zed Books. Retrieved from http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/cudenver/detail.action?docID=619255

Omoju, O. E., & Abraham, T. W. (2014). Youth bulge and demographic dividend in Nigeria. Etude de La Population Africaine; Johannesburg, 27(2), 352–360. https://dx.doi.org.aurarialibrary.idm.oclc.org/10.11564/27-2-480

Reed, H. E., & Mberu, B. U. (2014). Capitalizing on Nigeria’s demographic dividend: reaping the benefits and diminishing the burdens. Etude de La

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