Demographics of Nigeria

Nigeria is one of the most densely populated countries in Africa, with approximately 218.5 million people in an area of 923,768 km2 (356,669 sq mi),[1] and is also the country with the largest population in Africa[2][3][4][5] and the sixth largest population in the world.[6][7][8][9]

Demographics of Nigeria
Nigeria single age population pyramid 2020.png
Population pyramid of Nigeria in 2020
Population218,541,212 (2022 est.)
Growth rate2.53% (2022 est.)
Birth rate34.19 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Death rate8.7 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Life expectancy61.33 years
 • male59.51 years
 • female63.27 years (2022 est.)
Fertility rate4.62 children born/woman (2022 est.)
Infant mortality rate56.68 deaths/1,000 live births
Net migration rate-0.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Age structure
0–14 years41.7%
65 and over3.3%
Sex ratio
Total1.02 male(s)/female (2022 est.)
At birth1.06 male(s)/female
Under 151.04 male(s)/female
65 and over0.77 male(s)/female
Nationality
NationalityNigerian
Language
OfficialEnglish
Historical population of Nigeria

Approximately 50% of Nigerians are urban dwellers, with the rate of urbanization being estimated at 4.3%.[2] Nigeria is home to over 250 ethnic groups, with over 500 languages,[2] and the variety of customs, and traditions among them gives the country great cultural diversity. The three largest ethnic groups are the Hausa, 25% of the population; along with the Yoruba, 21%; and Igbo, 18%.[2][10][11][12] The Ijaw, Efik, Ibibio, Annang, and Ogoni constitute other Southern populations. The Tiv, Urhobo-Isoko, Edo and Itsekiri constitute Nigerian's Midwest.[13] Over 1 million people living in Nigeria (0.5% of its total population, or 1 in every 200 people living in Nigeria) are from a continent other than Africa. 800,000 people living in Nigeria are from India,[14] 100,000 people from the United States,[15] 75,000 people from Lebanon,[16] 60,000 people from China[17] and 16,000 people from the United Kingdom.[18]

Most of the population is a young population, with 42.54% between the ages of 0–14.[2][19] There is also a very high dependency ratio of the country at 88.2 dependants per 100 non-dependants.[2] Three of the main religious groups are Muslim estimated at 45%, Christian at 45% and other indigenous beliefs at 10%.[20] The predominantly Christian Igbo are found in the southeast.[21] Roman Catholicism is the largest Christian denomination in Igboland,[22][23][24][25] but Anglicanism is also strong, as are Pentecostal and other Evangelical denominations.

Persons of different ethnic backgrounds most commonly communicate in English, although knowledge of two or more Nigerian languages is widespread. Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba are the most widely used Nigerian languages. Nigerian Pidgin is used widely as an unofficial medium of communication especially in the Nigerian cities of Warri, Sapele, Ughelli, Benin and Port Harcourt.[26]

PopulationEdit

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
10007,000,000—    
150011,000,000+0.09%
190018,920,000+0.14%
195230,403,305+0.92%
196354,959,426+5.53%
199188,992,220+1.74%
2006140,431,790+3.09%
2011162,805,000+3.00%
2016185,960,000+2.70%
2021211,401,000+2.60%
2022218,541,212+3.38%
 
Total population by state
 
Demographics development according to the United Nations

Nigeria's population has been increasing rapidly for at least the last 5 decades due to very high birth rates, quadrupling its population during this time. Growth was fastest in the 1980s, after child mortality dropped rapidly, and has slowed slightly since then as the birth rate has declined marginally since its 1978 peak. According to the 2017 revision of the World Population Prospects the total population was 185,989,640 in 2016, compared to only 37,860,000 in 1950. The proportion of children under the age of 15 in 2010 was 44.0%, 53.2% were between 15 and 65 years of age, while 2.7% were 65 years or older. There is a large degree of population momentum, with 3.2 percent growth leading to the projected population.[27][2][28]

The federal government has not elected to implement the type of controversial family planning programs that have reduced population growth of other developing nations, a result of low political support for these programs and a cultural preference for large families as well as high levels of social instability. Rising educational levels and health care improvements may enable future parents to plan for smaller families.[20]

The former Nigeria's Chairman of National Population Commission, Eze Duruiheoma, delivering Nigeria's statement in New York on Sustainable Cities, Human Mobility and International Migration in the 51st Session of Commission on Population and Development, said that "Nigeria remains the most populous in Africa, the seventh globally with an estimated population of over 198 million. The World Population Prospects predicts that by 2050, Nigeria will become the third most populated country in the world. Over the last 50 years, Nigeria's urban population has grown at an average annual growth rate of more than 6.5% without commensurate increases in social amenities and infrastructure." He also stated that the population "grew substantially from 17.3% in 1967 to 49.4% in 2017."[29]

Total population Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 37 860 000 41.7 55.3 3.0
1955 41 122 000 41.6 55.6 2.8
1960 45 212 000 41.6 55.6 2.8
1965 50 239 000 41.9 55.2 2.9
1970 56 132 000 42.6 54.6 2.8
1975 63 566 000 43.4 53.8 2.8
1980 73 698 000 44.0 53.2 2.8
1985 83 902 000 45.0 52.2 2.8
1990 95 617 000 44.9 52.3 2.9
1995 108 425 000 44.1 53.0 2.9
2000 122 877 000 43.5 53.7 2.8
2005 139 586 000 43.6 53.7 2.7
2010 159 708 000 44.0 53.2 2.7

Population by Sex and Age Group (Census 2006) [30]

Age Population Percent
Total 140.431.790 100
0–4 22.594.967 16.09
5–9 20.005.380 14.25
10–14 16.135.950 11.49
15–19 14.899.419 10.61
20–24 13.435.079 9.57
25–29 12.211.426 8.70
30–34 9.467.538 6.74
35–39 7.331.755 5.22
40–44 6.456.470 4.60
45–49 4.591.293 3.27
50–54 4.249.219 3.03
55–59 2.066.247 1.47
60–64 2.450.286 1.74
65–69 1.151.048 0.82
70–74 1.264.937 0.95
75–79 579.838 0.41
80–84 760.053 0.54
85+ 715.225 0.51
Age Group Total Male Female %
0–14 58 736 297 30 462 148 28 274 149 41.83
15–64 77 158 732 38 348 799 38 809 933 54.94
65+ 4 536 761 2 534 541 2 002 220 3.23

Population by Age Group (Estimates 1.VII.2016) [31]

Age Population Percent
Total 193 392 517 100
0–4 31 116 156 16.09
5–9 27 549 964 14.25
10–14 22 221 265 11.49
15–19 20 518 404 10.61
20–24 18 501 820 9.57
25–29 16 816 694 8.70
30–34 13 038 009 6.74
35–39 10 096 763 5.22
40–44 8 891 384 4.60
45–49 6 322 797 3.27
50–54 5 851 717 3.03
55–59 2 845 486 1.47
60–64 3 374 357 1.74
65–69 1 585 140 0.82
70–74 1 832 402 0.95
75–79 798 511 0.41
80–84 1 046 690 0.54
85+ 984 956 0.51
0–14 80 887 385 41.83
15–64 107 242 389 55.45
65+ 5 262 743 2.72

Fertility and birthsEdit

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted TFR) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[32][33][34][35][36]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1960 47 6.35
1965–66 45.9 6.44
1967–69 46.1 6.42
1970 46.3 6.47
1971–73 46.7 6.57
1975 47.2 6.71
1978–82 47 6.78
1978–80 47 6.76
1981–82 46.68 6.78
1983–86 45.67 6.7
1987–90 45.9 6.57
1990 44.2 6.49 (5.8) 34 5.033 (4.8) 40 6.326 (6.1)
1999 43.2 6.13 35.6 4.50 38.5 5.44
2003 42.8 6.04 (5.3) 36.3 4.9 (4.6) 44.5 6.1 (5.7)
2004–07 42.4 5.97
2008 41.8 5.9 (5.3) 36.8 4.7 (4.4) 42.5 6.3 (5.8)
2013 40,2 5.5 (4.8) 35 4.7 (4.1) 42 6.2 (5.3)
2014–15 39.5 5.57
2015–18[37] 38 5.3 34 4.5 42 5.9
2021[38] 4.6
Year TFR
1981–1982 6.8
1990 6.4
2003 6.0
2008 5.9
2013 5.7
2015–18 5.3
2021 4.6
Variable TFR (Wanted TFR) (2003) TFR (Wanted TFR) (2008) TFR (Wanted TFR) (2013) TFR (Wanted TFR) (2015–18)
Nigeria 5.7 (5.3) 5.7 (5.3) 5.5 (4.8) 5.3 (4.8)
Urban 4.9 (4.6) 4.7 (4.4) 4.7 (4.1) 4.5 (4.0)
Rural 6.1 (5.7) 6.3 (5.8) 6.2 (5.3) 5.9 (5.4)
Region – North Central 5.7 5.4 5.3 5.0 (4.7)
Region – North East 7.0 7.2 6.3 6.1 (5.6)
Region – North West 6.7 7.3 6.7 6.6 (5.9)
Region – South East 4.1 4.8 4.7 4.7 (4.3)
Region – South South 4.6 4.7 4.3 4.0 (3.6)
Region – South West 4.1 4.5 4.6 3.9 (3.5)

Fertility data as of 2013 (DHS Program):[39]

State Total fertility rate Percentage of women age 15–49 currently pregnant Mean number of children ever born to women age 40–49
Abuja 3.8 8.3 4.7
Benue 5.2 13.0 6.8
Kogi 4.2 9.4 5.7
Kwara 5.1 7.2 5.2
Nasarawa 5.4 10.8 5.8
Niger 6.1 14.8 5.8
Plateau 5.4 11.2 5.6
Adamawa 5.8 15.6 6.7
Bauchi 8.1 16.9 8.4
Borno 4.7 12.7 5.2
Gombe 7.0 14.3 7.9
Taraba 6.0 10.6 7.1
Yobe 6.6 13.4 7.4
Jigawa 7.6 15.1 7.6
Kaduna 4.1 21.0 5.7
Kano 6.8 12.6 7.7
Katsina 7.4 17.3 8.4
Kebbi 6.7 16.9 8.2
Sokoto 7.0 14.1 7.3
Zamfara 8.4 17.0 8.7
Abia 4.2 7.3 5.0
Anambra 4.2 6.0 4.7
Ebonyi 5.3 9.1 7.1
Enugu 4.8 8.4 5.9
Imo 4.8 8.3 5.0
Akwa Ibom 3.9 5.3 5.4
Bayelsa 4.5 11.3 6.1
Cross River 5.4 9.1 5.5
Delta 4.1 10.6 5.6
Edo 4.4 6.3 5.7
Rivers 3.8 9.5 4.9
Ekiti 4.3 7.0 5.2
Lagos 4.1 7.2 4.3
Ogun 5.4 10.6 4.9
Ondo 5.2 9.1 5.2
Osun 4.1 6.8 4.3
Oyo 4.5 11.9 5.1

Source: Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS)[40]

Fertility rate by stateEdit

Variable TFR (2008) TFR (2011)* TFR (2013) TFR (2016)* TFR (2018) TFR (2021)*
Nigeria 5.7 5.7 5.5 5.8 5.3 4.6
Urban 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.9 4.5
Rural 6.3 6.3 6.2 6.3 5.9
Region – North Central 5.4 4.9 5.3 5.3 5.0
Abuja (FCT) 4.0 3.8 4.5 4.6 4.3 3.2
Benue 5.9 4.9 5.2 4.8 4.5 4.3
Kogi 4.2 3.9 4.2 3.7 4.8 3.3
Kwara 4.5 5.1 5.1 4.4 5.2 3.7
Nasarawa 4.7 5.5 5.4 5.7 5.3 4.5
Niger 7.5 6.1 6.1 6.4 5.8 4.6
Plateau 5.3 4.5 5.4 5.6 4.7 4.4
Region – North East 7.2 6.7 6.3 6.4 6.1
Adamawa 6.8 5.6 5.8 5.5 6.1 4.2
Bauchi 8.1 8.6 8.1 6.8 7.2 6.5
Borno 7.1 6.7 4.7 6.1 5.2 5.9
Gombe 7.4 5.6 7.0 7.3 6.6 5.3
Taraba 5.9 5.3 6.0 5.5 5.4 4.9
Yobe 7.5 7.9 6.6 6.8 5.9 6.1
Region – North West 7.3 7.2 6.7 7.3 6.6
Jigawa 7.1 6.7 7.6 8.5 7.1 7.6
Kaduna 6.3 7.9 4.1 5.6 5.9 5.7
Kano 8.1 7.5 6.8 7.7 6.5 6.4
Katsina 7.2 8.2 7.4 7.5 7.3 7.4
Kebbi 6.0 7.0 6.7 7.7 6.5 6.6
Sokoto 8.7 5.2 7.0 7.3 7.0 5.2
Zamfara 7.5 6.5 8.4 7.3 6.4 5.3
Region – South East 4.8 5.1 4.7 4.6 4.7
Abia 4.4 5.2 4.2 5.1 4.9 4.1
Anambra 5.0 5.7 4.2 4.3 4.7 3.0
Ebonyi 5.6 6.1 5.3 5.2 5.4 3.7
Enugu 4.4 4.3 4.8 3.8 4.1 3.4
Imo 4.8 4.6 4.8 5.1 4.5 3.6
Region – South South 4.7 4.9 4.3 4.3 4.0
Akwa Ibom 4.0 4.0 3.9 4.5 3.6 3.6
Bayelsa 5.8 6.7 4.5 4.8 4.4 4.2
Cross River 5.4 5.8 5.4 4.4 3.7 3.1
Delta 4.5 5.3 4.1 5.2 4.4 4.0
Edo 5.3 5.3 4.4 3.8 4.8 3.2
Rivers 4.3 4.3 3.8 3.3 3.9 3.1
Region – South West 4.5 5.1 4.6 4.4 3.9
Ekiti 5.0 4.8 4.3 4.4 4.6 3.9
Lagos 4.0 4.7 4.1 4.0 3.4 3.2
Ogun 5.4 5.6 5.4 4.5 3.8 4.8
Ondo 4.9 3.9 5.2 4.5 4.1 3.6
Osun 4.0 4.9 4.1 4.7 3.8 3.5
Oyo 5.0 6.4 4.5 4.9 4.5 3.7

∗ MICS surveys

Contraceptive prevalenceEdit

Contraceptive prevalence, any methods (% of women ages 15–49)

Year 1982 1990 1994 1999 2003 2007 2008 2011 2012 2013 2016 2017
% of women ages 15–49 6.8% 6.0 % 13.4 % 15.3 % 12.6 % 14.7 % 14.6 % 14.1 % 13.5 % 15.1 % 20.4 % 13.4 %

UNICEFs State of the Worlds Children and Child info, United Nations Population Divisions World Contraceptive Use, household surveys including Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys.[41]

Population projectionsEdit

The total population in sub-Saharan Africa is projected to increase to almost one billion people, making it the most populated region outside of South-Central Asia.[42] According to the United Nations, the population of Nigeria will reach 411 million by 2050. Nigeria might then be the 3rd most populous country in the world. In 2100, the population of Nigeria may reach 794 million.[43] While the overall population is expected to increase, the growth rate is estimated to decrease from 1.2 percent per year in 2010 to 0.4 percent per year in 2050.[42] The birth rate is also projected to decrease from 20.7 to 13.7, while the death rate is projected to increase from 8.5 in 2010 to 9.8 in 2050.[42] Life expectancy is expected to increase from 67.0 years in 2010 to 75.2 years in 2050. By 2050, 69.6% of the population is estimated to be living in urban areas compared to 50.6% in 2010.[42]

Vital statisticsEdit

Registration of vital events in Nigeria is not complete. The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates (UN World Population Prospects 2022).[44]

Period Population

per year

Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR*
1950 36 836 000 1 697 000 1 010 000   687 000 45.6 27.1 18.5 6.42 184.0
1951 37 543 000   1 731 000   1 028 000   702 000 45.7 27.1 18.5 6.42 183.2
1952 38 263 000   1 760 000   1 044 000   716 000 45.6 27.0 18.5 6.39 181.6
1953 38 986 000   1 797 000   1 056 000   741 000 45.7 26.8 18.8 6.40 180.4
1954 39 710 000   1 831 000   1 074 000   757 000 45.7 26.8 18.9 6.40 179.0
1955 40 455 000   1 869 000   1 088 000   781 000 45.7 26.6 19.1 6.40 177.9
1956 41 223 000   1 909 000   1 109 000   800 000 45.8 26.6 19.2 6.41 176.9
1957 42 010 000   1 948 000   1 124 000   824 000 45.9 26.5 19.4 6.40 176.0
1958 42 817 000   1 988 000   1 145 000   843 000 46.0 26.5 19.5 6.39 175.1
1959 43 613 000   2 026 000   1 159 000   866 000 46.0 26.3 19.7 6.38 173.8
1960 44 476 000   2 072 000   1 179 000   893 000 46.1 26.2 19.9 6.36 172.4
1961 45 381 000   2 120 000   1 192 000   928 000 46.2 26.0 20.2 6.35 171.0
1962 46 330 000   2 174 000   1 214 000   960 000 46.4 25.9 20.5 6.36 169.6
1963 47 314 000   2 220 000   1 224 000   996 000 46.4 25.6 20.8 6.35 167.2
1964 48 332 000   2 270 000   1 242 000   1 028 000 46.5 25.4 21.0 6.36 165.9
1965 49 381 000   2 320 000   1 258 000   1 061 000 46.5 25.2 21.3 6.37 165.0
1966 50 471 000   2 373 000   1 281 000   1 092 000 46.5 25.1 21.4 6.39 164.2
1967 51 570 000   2 424 000   1 365 000   1 059 000 46.5 26.2 20.3 6.40 165.8
1968 52 643 000   2 478 000   1 349 000   1 129 000 46.6 25.4 21.2 6.42 163.6
1969 53 577 000   2 533 000   1 367 000   1 166 000 46.6 25.2 21.4 6.44 162.6
1970 54 945 000   2 595 000   1 353 000   1 241 000 46.7 24.3 22.3 6.47 160.7
1971 56 194 000   2 671 000   1 348 000   1 323 000 47.0 23.7 23.3 6.53 156.9
1972 57 481 000   2 741 000   1 343 000   1 398 000 47.1 23.1 24.0 6.58 153.0
1973 58 866 000   2 819 000   1 341 000   1 479 000 47.3 22.5 24.8 6.63 149.0
1974 60 344 000   2 922 000   1 340 000   1 583 000 47.8 21.9 25.9 6.70 144.9
1975 61 971 000   3 021 000   1 336 000   1 684 000 48.1 21.3 26.8 6.77 141.0
1976 63 731 000   3 106 000   1 324 000   1 781 000 48.1 20.5 27.6 6.81 137.2
1977 65 585 000   3 203 000   1 323 000   1 880 000 48.1 19.9 28.2 6.86 133.8
1978 67 594 000   3 308 000   1 340 000   1 968 000 48.2 19.5 28.7 6.92 130.7
1979 69 673 000   3 385 000   1 367 000   2 017 000 47.9 19.3 28.5 6.89 128.1
1980 71 828 000   3 460 000   1 397 000   2 063 000 47.5 19.2 28.3 6.85 126.1
1981 74 075 000   3 537 000   1 426 000   2 111 000 47.1 19.0 28.1 6.82 124.4
1982 76 276 000   3 613 000   1 462 000   2 151 000 46.7 18.9 27.8 6.80 123.5
1983 78 500 000   3 704 000   1 494 000   2 210 000 46.5 18.8 27.8 6.78 123.1
1984 80 203 000   3 726 000   1 524 000   2 202 000 45.8 18.7 27.1 6.70 123.2
1985 82 472 000   3 777 000   1 571 000   2 206 000 45.2 18.8 26.4 6.62 123.5
1986 84 698 000   3 824 000   1 624 000   2 200 000 44.6 18.9 25.6 6.56 123.9
1987 86 910 000   3 884 000   1 656 000   2 228 000 44.1 18.8 25.3 6.50 124.3
1988 89 178 000   3 963 000   1 689 000   2 274 000 43.9 18.7 25.2 6.50 124.6
1989 91 525 000   4 080 000   1 723 000   2 357 000 44.0 18.6 25.4 6.49 124.6
1990 93 963 000   4 168 000   1 773 000   2 395 000 43.8 18.6 25.2 6.46 124.5
1991 96 465 000   4 266 000   1 839 000   2 428 000 43.7 18.8 24.9 6.43 124.4
1992 98 906 000   4 373 000   1 884 000   2 489 000 43.7 18.8 24.9 6.39 123.9
1993 101 458 000   4 495 000   1 922 000   2 573 000 43.7 18.7 25.0 6.35 123.4
1994 104 092 000   4 619 000   1 989 000   2 629 000 43.8 18.9 24.9 6.32 122.6
1995 106 820 000   4 732 000   2 040 000   2 692 000 43.7 18.9 24.9 6.27 121.6
1996 109 555 000   4 828 000   2 081 000   2 747 000 43.5 18.8 24.8 6.22 120.3
1997 112 357 000   4 910 000   2 108 000   2 801 000 43.2 18.5 24.6 6.14 118.4
1998 115 225 000   5 002 000   2 134 000   2 868 000 42.9 18.3 24.6 6.07 116.2
1999 118 156 000   5 177 000   2 138 000   3 039 000 43.2 17.9 25.4 6.08 113.7
2000 121 235 000   5 345 000   2 146 000   3 199 000 43.5 17.5 26.0 6.12 110.9
2001 124 468 000   5 496 000   2 165 000   3 331 000 43.6 17.2 26.4 6.14 108.1
2002 127 837 000   5 645 000   2 192 000   3 453 000 43.6 16.9 26.6 6.14 105.2
2003 131 329 000   5 779 000   2 202 000   3 577 000 43.4 16.5 26.9 6.12 102.3
2004 134 910 000   5 902 000   2 225 000   3 676 000 43.2 16.3 26.9 6.09 99.5
2005 138 603 000   6 054 000   2 232 000   3 822 000 43.1 15.9 27.2 6.07 96.6
2006 142 378 000   6 191 000   2 247 000   3 945 000 42.9 15.6 27.3 6.08 94.0
2007 146 281 000   6 337 000   2 273 000   4 064 000 42.7 15.3 27.4 6.08 91.7
2008 150 307 000   6 506 000   2 311 000   4 195 000 42.7 15.2 27.5 6.08 89.6
2009 154 458 000   6 645 000   2 321 000   4 323 000 42.4 14.8 27.6 6.04 87.8
2010 158 733 000   6 776 000   2 355 000   4 421 000 42.1 14.6 27.5 5.98 86.4
2011 163 173 000   6 916 000   2 372 000   4 544 000 41.8 14.3 27.5 5.92 85.1
2012 167 755 000   7 014 000   2 414 000   4 600 000 41.2 14.2 27.0 5.83 84.0
2013 172 397 000   7 095 000   2 447 000   4 648 000 40.6 14.0 26.6 5.74 83.1
2014 177 055 000   7 189 000   2 493 000   4 697 000 40.1 13.9 26.2 5.66 82.4
2015 181 703 000   7 273 000   2 541 000   4 732 000 39.5 13.8 25.7 5.62 81.6
2016 186 289 000   7 384 000   2 574 000   4 810 000 39.1 13.6 25.5 5.58 80.6
2017 191 045 000   7 487 000   2 600 000   4 887 000 38.7 13.4 25.3 5.52 79.4
2018 195 947 000   7 590 000   2 627 000   4 963 000 38.2 13.2 25.0 5.45 77.9
2019 200 828 000   7 698 000   2 642 000   5 056 000 37.8 13.0 24.9 5.38 76.3
2020 205 781 000   7 806 000   2 708 000   5 098 000 37.5 13.0 24.5 5.31 74.7
2021 210 874 000   7 923 000   2 793 000   5 131 000 37.1 13.1 24.0 5.24 73.0
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Life expectancy at birthEdit

 
Life expectancy development in Nigeria

Life expectancy from 1950 to 2015 (UN World Population Prospects):[45]

Period Life expectancy in
Years
1950–1955 33.81
1955–1960   35.80
1960–1965   38.13
1965–1970   39.97
1970–1975   42.03
1975–1980   44.29
1980–1985   46.02
1985–1990   45.95
1990–1995   45.87
1995–2000   46.00
2000–2005   46.94
2005–2010   49.75
2010–2015   51.88

Other demographic statisticsEdit

The following demographic statistics of Nigeria in 2022 are from the World Population Review.[46]

  • One birth every 4 seconds
  • One death every 13 seconds
  • One net migrant every 9 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 6 seconds

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[20]

PopulationEdit

218,541,212 (2022 est.)
203,452,505 (July 2018 est.)
178.5 million (2014 est.)[47]
174,507,539 (July 2013 est.)

ReligionsEdit

Muslim 45.5%, Roman Catholic 10.6%, other Christian 41.3%, other .6% (2018 est.)

Age structureEdit

 
Population pyramid of Nigeria in 2020
0-14 years: 41.7% (male 45,571,738/female 43,674,769)
15-24 years: 20.27% (male 22,022,660/female 21,358,753)
25-54 years: 30.6% (male 32,808,913/female 32,686,474)
55-64 years: 4.13% (male 4,327,847/female 4,514,264)
65 years and over: 3.3% (male 3,329,083/female 3,733,801) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 42.45% (male 44,087,799 /female 42,278,742)
15-24 years: 19.81% (male 20,452,045 /female 19,861,371)
25-54 years: 30.44% (male 31,031,253 /female 30,893,168)
55-64 years: 4.04% (male 4,017,658 /female 4,197,739)
65 years and over: 3.26% (male 3,138,206 /female 3,494,524) (2018 est.)
0–14 years: 42.5% (male 41,506,288/female 39,595,720)
15–24 years: 19.6% (male 19,094,899/female 18,289,513)
25–54 years: 30.7% (male 30,066,196/female 28,537,846)
55–64 years: 3.9% (male 3,699,947/female 3,870,080)
65 years and over: 3% (male 2,825,134/female 3,146,638) (2017 est.)
0–14 years: 43.8% (male 39,127,615/female 37,334,281)
15–24 years: 19.3% (male 17,201,067/female 16,451,357)
25–54 years: 30.1% (male 25,842,967/female 26,699,432)
55–64 years: 3.8% (male 3,016,896/female 3,603,048)
65 years and over: 3% (male 2,390,154/female 2,840,722) (2013 est.)

Birth rateEdit

34.19 births/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 18th
35.2 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 20th
36.9 births/1,000 population (2017 est.)
38.78 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)

Death rateEdit

8.7 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 70th
9.6 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 46th
12.4 deaths/1,000 population (2017 est.)
13.2 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)

Total fertility rateEdit

4.62 children born/woman (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 16th
4.85 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 16th
5.07 children born/woman (2017 est.)

Population growth rateEdit

2.53% (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 22nd
2.54% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 21st
2.43% (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 24th
2.54% (2013 est.)

Median ageEdit

total: 18.6 years. Country comparison to the world: 207th
male: 18.4 years
female: 18.9 years (2020 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birthEdit

20.4 years (2018 est.)
note: median age at first birth among women 25-49
20.3 years
Note: median age at first birth among women 25–29 (2013 est.)

Contraceptive prevalence rateEdit

16.6% (2018)
13.4% (2016/17)

Net migration rateEdit

-0.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 113rd
-0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 106th
-0.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)

Dependency ratiosEdit

total dependency ratio: 88.2
youth dependency ratio: 83
potential support ratio: 19.4 (2015 est.)

UrbanizationEdit

urban population: 53.5% of total population (2022)
rate of urbanization: 3.92% annual rate of change (2020-25 est.)
urban population: 50.3% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 4.2% annual rate of change (2015–20 est.)

Life expectancy at birthEdit

total population: 61.33 years. Country comparison to the world: 217th
male: 59.51 years

.female: 63.27 years (2022 est.)

total population: 59.3 years (2018 est.)
male: 57.5 years (2018 est.)
female: 61.1 years (2018 est.)
total population: 52.05 years
male: 48.95 years
female: 55.33 years (2012 est.)
total population: 46.94 years
male: 46.16 years
female: 47.76 years (2009 est.)
total population: 51.56 years
male: 51.58 years
female: 51.55 years (2000 est.)

Major infectious diseasesEdit

degree of risk: very high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, and yellow fever
water contact diseases: leptospirosis and schistosomiasis
animal contact diseases: rabies
respiratory diseases: meningococcal meningitis
aerosolized dust or soil contact diseases: Lassa fever

note 1: on 30 September 2021, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a Travel Health Notice for a Yellow Fever outbreak in Nigeria; a large, ongoing outbreak of yellow fever in Nigeria began in September 2017; the outbreak is now spread throughout the country with the Nigerian Ministry of Health reporting cases of the disease in multiple states (Bauchi, Benue, Delta, Ebonyi, and Enugu); the CDC recommends travelers going to Nigeria should receive vaccination against yellow fever at least 10 days before travel and should take steps to prevent mosquito bites while there; those never vaccinated against yellow fever should avoid travel to Nigeria during the outbreak

note 2: widespread ongoing transmission of a respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is occurring throughout Nigeria; as of 6 June 2022, Nigeria has reported a total of 256,148 cases of COVID-19 or 124.3 cumulative cases of COVID-19 per 100,000 population with a total of 3,148 cumulative deaths or a rate of 1.5 cumulative death per 100,000 population; as of 22 May 2022, 12.97% of the population has received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine note 3: on 21 March 2022, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a Travel Alert for polio in Africa; Nigeria is currently considered a high risk to travelers for circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV); vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) is a strain of the weakened poliovirus that was initially included in oral polio vaccine (OPV) and that has changed over time and behaves more like the wild or naturally occurring virus; this means it can be spread more easily to people who are unvaccinated against polio and who come in contact with the stool or respiratory secretions, such as from a sneeze, of an “infected” person who received oral polio vaccine; the CDC recommends that before any international travel, anyone unvaccinated, incompletely vaccinated, or with an unknown polio vaccination status should complete the routine polio vaccine series; before travel to any high-risk destination, CDC recommends that adults who previously completed the full, routine polio vaccine series receive a single, lifetime booster dose of polio vaccine

Ethnic groupsEdit

Ethnic groups of Nigeria (2018 est.)[48]
Ethnic groups percent
Hausa
25.0%
Yoruba
21.0%
Igbo
18.0%
Fulani
6.0%
Ibibio
3.5%
Tiv
2.4%
Kanuri
2.4%
Ijaw
1.8%
Other
19.9%

HIV/AIDSEdit

adult prevalence rate 2.8% (2017 est.)

people living with HIV/AIDS
2.6 million (2007 est.)
3.3 million (2009 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)Edit

total: 9 years
male: 9 years
female: 8 years (2011)

LiteracyEdit

definition: age 15 and over can read and write

total population: 62%
male: 71.3%
female: 52.7% (2018)
total population: 67.6%
male: 71.2%
female: 53.7% (2015 est.)
Total population: 78.6%
Male: 84.35%
Female: 72.65% (2010 est.)[49]

Unemployment, youth ages 15–24Edit

total: 18.3%
male: 18.4%
female: 18.2% (2019 est.) NA

Population distributionEdit

Nigeria is Africa's most populous country. Significant population clusters are scattered throughout the country, with the highest density areas being in the south and southwest.

EmigrationEdit

Today millions of ethnic Nigerians live abroad, the largest communities can be found in the United Kingdom (500,000–3,000,000)[50] and the United States (600,000–1,000,000 Nigerians), other countries that followed closely are South Africa, Gambia, and Canada respectively. There are between 90,000 and 100,000 Nigerians in Brazil, many of them living illegally without proper documentation. Additionally, there were around 100,000 Nigerians living in China in 2012, mostly in the city of Guangzhou, but have since declined to about 10,000 due to strict immigration enforcement by Chinese officials as many of them were known for engaging in illegal activities. There are also large groups in Ireland, Portugal and many other countries.[51] Inspiration for emigration is based heavily on socio-economical issues such as warfare, insecurity, economical instability and civil unrest.

Between 1400 and 1900, of 1.4 million of 2 million emigrants were slaves sent to the Americas. This is due to the fact that the land now known as Nigeria was a central point for 4 slave trades during the 19th century. Though bondage represented a great deal, an estimated 30,000 Nigerian inhabitants would relocate to Kano City and Gambia to take advantage of financial opportunities afforded by fertile land and available natural resources. What's more, the presence of gold mines and rail lines along the Gold Coast, present-day Ghana, attracted an estimated 6,500 Nigerian citizens to attain financial gain and opportunity. The population of Nigerians in Ghana rose to roughly 149,000 before the 1969 alien expulsion order would displace nearly the entire population to surrounding countries.[52]

ReligionEdit

Nigeria is nearly equally divided between Islam and Christianity. The majority of Nigerian Muslims are Sunni and mostly live in the northern, central and south-western states of the country, while Christians dominate in some central states (especially Plateau and Benue states), and the south-east and south-south regions. Other religions practiced in Nigeria include African Traditional Religion, Hinduism, Baháʼí Faith, Judaism, The Grail Movement, and the Reformed Ògbóni Fraternity, one of the traditional socio-religious institutions of the Yorùbá people and their Òrìṣà religion known as Ẹ̀sìn Òrìṣà Ìbílẹ̀ in the Yorùbá language.[53]

According to a 2009 Pew survey, 50.4% of Nigeria's population were Muslims.[54] A later Pew study in 2011 calculated that Christians now formed 50.8% of the population.[55][56] Adherents of other religions 1% make up of the population.[57]

The shift of population balance between Muslims and Christians is a result of northern and southern Nigeria being in different stages of demographic transition. The Muslim-dominated north is in an earlier stage of the demographic transition with much higher fertility rates than the south, whose split Christian/Muslim population is further along in the transition, and whose fertility rates are declining. Decreasing fertility can be linked to more access to education, use of contraceptives, and differing beliefs regarding family planning.[27]

The 1999 introduction of Sharia Law in twelve northern Nigerian states led to massive violence and unrest and caused an ethnic and religious rift between Sharia and Non-Sharia states, a divide that has deepened with time.[27]

CrimeEdit

Nigeria is home to a substantial network of organized crime, active especially in drug trafficking. Nigerian criminal groups are heavily involved in drug trafficking, shipping heroin from Asian countries to Europe and America; and cocaine from South America to Europe and South Africa.[58] The various Nigerian Confraternities or "campus cults" are active in both organized crime and in political violence as well as providing a network of corruption within Nigeria. As confraternities have extensive connections with political and military figures, they offer excellent alumni networking opportunities. The Supreme Vikings Confraternity, for example, boasts that twelve members of the Rivers State House of Assembly are cult members.[59] On lower levels of society, there are the "area boys", these are organized gangs mostly active in Lagos who specialize in mugging and small-scale drug dealing. According to official statistics, gang violence in Lagos resulted in 273 civilians and 84 policemen killed in the period of August 2000 to May 2001.[60]

"The result of factors such as endemic local corruption, which facilitates illicit trafficking; the Biafra civil war, which contributed to a proliferation of firearms; the oil boom of the 1970s, which led to the embezzlement of public funds; and the economic crisis of the 1980s, which was accompanied by a rise in robberies. The expansion of the Nigerian diaspora and organized crime went hand in hand. Global migration boosted prostitution, drug trafficking and fraud, the three main activities of Nigerian syndicates. The smuggling of Nigerian sex workers became a whole industry that now extends from Switzerland to France and Italy (where black prostitutes are called "fireflies"), and has even reached the Prudish Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from which 1,000 women are said to be deported every month by the authorities."[61]

The high crime rate among Nigerian migrants also leads to stereotyping Nigerians as criminals; thus, in Cameroon, Nigerian migrants are perceived collectively by the inhabitants of Cameroon as likely to be oil smugglers or dealers in stolen cars. In the Netherlands, the debate on Nigerian crime reached an intensity described as a "moral panic" by one scholar.[62][63] In Switzerland, the crime rate of Nigerian young males was reported as 620% that of Swiss males in same age group (2009 data), the second highest crime rate of any nationality, just below that of Angolan nationals (at 630%).[64]

Nigeria is also pervaded by political corruption. It is ranked 136 out of 168 countries in Transparency International's 2015 Corruption Perceptions Index.[65]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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Additional sourcesEdit