Gur languages

The Gur languages, also known as Central Gur, belong to the Niger–Congo languages. There are about 70 languages belonging to this group. They are spoken in the Sahelian and savanna regions of West Africa, namely: in Burkina Faso, southern Mali, northeastern Ivory Coast, the northern halves of Ghana and Togo, northwestern Benin, and southwestern Niger. Additionally, a single Gur language, Baatonum, is spoken in the extreme northwest of Nigeria.

Gur
Central Gur
Geographic
distribution
Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Togo, Nigeria
Linguistic classificationNiger–Congo
Subdivisions
  • Northern
  • Southern
Glottologcent2243  (Gur + Waja–Jen)[1]
Gur languages.png

Typological featuresEdit

Like most Niger–Congo languages, the ancestor of Gur languages probably had a noun class system; many of today's languages have reduced this to a system of nominal genders or declensions or no longer have a class system.[2] A common property of Gur languages is the verbal aspect marking. Almost all Gur languages are tonal, with Koromfé being a notable exception. The tonal systems of Gur languages are rather divergent. Most Gur languages have been described as following the model of a two tone downstep system, but the languages of Oti-Volta branch and some others have three phonemic tones.

History of studyEdit

Koelle first mentions twelve Gur languages in his 1854 Polyglotta Africana, which represent ten languages in modern classification. Notably, he correctly identified these languages as being related to one another; his 'North-Eastern High Sudan' corresponds to Gur in modern classification.

The Gur family was previously called Voltaic following the French name (langues) Voltaïques (named after the Volta river). It was once considered to be more extensive than it is often regarded today, including the Senufo languages and a number of small language isolates. The membership of Senufo was rejected for example by Tony Naden.[3] Williamson and Blench[4] place Senufo as a separate branch of Atlantic–Congo and other non-Central Gur languages somewhat closer as separate branches of the Savannas languages. The closest relatives of Gur appear to be several branches of the obsolete Adamawa family.

ClassificationEdit

The regions on the map denote regional distribution of the Central Gur languages;

  1. Koromfé
  2. Oti–Volta languages
  3. Bwamu
  4. Grũsi (Gurunsi)
  5. Kirma–Lobi
  6. Dogoso–Khe
  7. Doghose–Gan

The tree-diagram below denotes the relations between these languages and their closest relatives:

Central Gur
 Northern Gur 

Oti–Volta (28 languages, including Mooré, Mamprusi, Dagbani, and Gurma)

Bwa (Bwamu, Bomu, Bobo-Wule)

Koromfe

 Southern Gur 

Grũsi (20 languages, including Kabiye)

Kirma–Tyurama (Cerma, Turka)

Lobi–Dyan (Lobi, Dyan)

Doghose–Gan (Dogosé, Kaansa, Khisa)

? Dogoso–Khe (Dogoso, Khe)

WajaKam

Leko–Nimbari

(possibly other putative Adamawa languages)

The position of Dogoso–Khe in Southern Gur is not clear; it is not closely related to other members of the branch.

Comparative vocabularyEdit

Sample basic vocabulary of Gur languages:

Note: In table cells with slashes, the singular form is given before the slash, while the plural form follows the slash.

Language (Village) eye ear nose tooth tongue mouth blood bone tree water eat name
Proto-Central Gur[5] *me (Oti-Volta, Gurunsi) *ye (Gurunsi, Kurumfe) *ñam, *ñim (Oti-Volta, Kurumfe) *ʔob, *ʔo *tɪ (Oti-Volta, Gurunsi) *ni, *ne; *nã (Oti-Volta, Gurunsi) *di *yɪɗ, *yɪd (Oti-Volta, Gurunsi)
Kirma[6] yifelle / yifiŋa tuŋu / tunni mɛlle / miẽŋa nyilaŋu / nyiene dyumelle / dyumiẽŋa nuŋu / nunni tammã kogwoŋu / kogonne tibiu / tibinni humma w yere
Tyurama[6] yisiri / yinya twõgo / tõnya meare / miaga nyirogu / nyiranya nambene / namblaga nogu / nõnya toama kukugogu / kukunya tibikugu / tibinyinya huma owu yiri / yiga
Proto-Gurunsi[7] *s₁l *di₂/e/o(l/n) *mi₁/e/o *de/u₂(l) *no₂/i₁ *ca *ti₂/e *le/a/o; *ni₂/a/o *di₁ *yi₂(l/d)
Lyélé[6] yir / yira zyẽ / zyã myél / myéla yéél / yéla médyolo / médyaalé nyi / nya gyal ku / kur kyoo / kyémé nẽẽ gyu yil / yila
Proto-Oti–Volta[8] *ni / *nun *tʊ *me *n / *n *lɪm / *lam; *z₂ɪ(?) *noː *z₁ɪm *kob; *kpab *yi / *tiː *ɲa *dɪ *yi / *yʊ
Gourmanchéma (Fada N'Gourma)[6] numbu / nuni/nini tubli / tuba miali / miana nyenli / nyena lambu / landi nyoabu / nyoane soama kpabli / kpaba tibu / tidi nyima di yeli / yela
Mossi [Moore][6] nifu / nini tubre / tuba nyõre / nyüya nyende / nyena zilemde / zilma nore / nwɛya zim kõbre / kõaba tiɣa / tise kom di yure / yuya
Dagaare [Dagara, Dagari][6] mimir / mimie tour / tubl nyoboɣr / nyobogɛ nyim / nyimɛ zel / zelɛ nwor / nɛ̃ kobr / kobɛ tiɛ / tir kõwõ/kwõõ di yur / ye
Proto-Eastern Oti–Volta[9] *nuan- *tuo- *wuan- *nin- *dian- *nua- *yia- *kuan- *tie- *nia- *di- *yi-
Bariba[10] nɔnu, nɔni so ~ soa, -su wɛ̃ru dondu yara, -nu nɔɔ (pl.?) yem kukuru dã̀ã̀ (pl.?) nim tēm̄ yísìrū
Natioro (Timba)[11] ɲǎːpéjá ɲàŋwà mṹnṹpwã́ ɲĩ́nã́ŋɟɛ̄ nɛ̃́mɛ̃́sáː pɛ́lːɛ̄ sjã́ːmĩ́ kàːkwà súmwà lwā àʔɔ́lɪ̄ ɲĩ́nã́
Natioro (Niansogoni)[11] ɲĩ́kúpjé jɪ̀pã̌ mṹnũ̀kũ̌ ɲínːáː lámːjáː nã́ tə́mǎ nã́ŋkwáː ʃjɛ̂ nṹmṹː ìwɔ́nːã́ ínːã́
Natioro (Faniagara)[11] ɲã́pʊ̀ːnã́ ífwã̀nã́ ʔṹnṹfã̀nã́ ĩ́ndáːnã̀ nĩ́ŋsáːnã̄ nã́ːnã̀ tímĩ́nĩ́ kʊ́kánã̄ síːkénã́ nĩ́mĩ́nĩ̀ ɛ̀wòlòjɛ́ ínã́ːnã̄
Moyobe[12] mɛnɪ́bɛ̀ / ɪ̀nɪ́bɛ̀ kùtù / àtù tíŋwáyí / áŋwáyí tìní, kùní / aní tìlénbí / àlénbí ńnɔ́ɔ̀ / ínɔ́ɔ̀ ményɛ́ / ányɛ́ kúkɔ́hɔ́ / ákɔ́hɔ́ kùléé / àléé mɪ́nɪ̀ li / lè tìnyírì / ànyírì
Kulango (Bouna)[13] piege / piewu tengu / tenu saŋa / sãum kaɣangbo / kaɣam delengbo / delemu nɔɔɣɔ / nuom tuɔm zukukpo / zukum diɛkɔ / diɛnu yɔkɔ yukɔ / yum
Tiefo[14] éjú ēnɑ̃́tō ēmɛ́ʔɛ́ kɔ̃́ʔɔ̃́ mʲɔ̃̄ ēnwɔ̃́ʔɔ̃́ ɟɑ̄lɑ̄, tɾɔ̃̄ kɑ̄ūʔù ʃɪ̃́ʔɪ́ éjɛ́
Viemo (Diosso)[15] gĩ́ːɾɔ̀ cũ̄ljɔ̀ mūmúɾō kɑ̃́ːdɔ̄ lɑ̃́ːtīɾɔ̄ ŋɑ̃́ kjíːmō fūfūɾɔ́ sóbò númōɔ nũ̄ɔ̃ índō
Viemo (Soumaguina)[15] ɟĩ́ɾɔ̄ tuĩ́jɔ̄ mūmṹɾɔ̄ kɑ̃̄ːnɔ̄ lɑ̃́tīɾɔ̄ ɲɑ̄ tíɛ̄mɔ̄ fúfūɾɔ̄ sóbɔ̀ númɔ̄ jṹnũ̄ɔ̃̄kɛ̀ ĩ́dɔ̄
Samo, Maka (Toma)[16] to ɲɛ̃ lɛwɔ mɑ̀ ɑ̀mɑ́mbíː
Samo, Matya (Kouy)[16] jɛrːɛ toro jiːni sɔ̃ːnɛ nɛnɛ mɪjɑ̀ jɛrɛ dɑ́ ɑnebɑ́rè
Samo, Maya (Bounou)[16] ɲoːnì; jɛrɛ toro ɲinijɛrɛ so leːnè mɑ̌ jɑre mu ɑfɑ́bjèrè
Téén, hinbiye / hinbu tenike / tenu mɩtɩyaka / mɩtɩyɔ kamaka / kaamʋ delenge / delemu nʋfɩya / nʋfɩyɔ tɔbɔ (pl) kpoloko / kpolowo dɩyaa / dɩwɔ ɔkɔ / ɔwɔ yɩraa / yɩrɔ
Toussian, South [Win][6] nyi / nyɛ nigi / ni mene / menenã nyin / nyinɛ nampar / namparnã ṽiãʔ-lɛ / ṽiɛ-nɛ̃ kəgbeke / kəgbal sesuo-lɛ / sesar-lɛ nyõ nyin
Toussian, North (Guéna-Kourignon)[6] nyi / nyɔ ni/nãn / ninã/nœnnã mle / mlənã nyen / nyennã nenpüœra via/ṽiã / wẽy tiõ/tõ kəble / kəblenâ sepwel / sepyi
Siamou [Sɛmɛ][6] nya/nyábí/nyábi tà-syẽ̀ / tàsyẽ̀ már nyèn / nyěn dɛ / dɛ́ kõ̀ / kẽ tṍ kpár / kpar timõ / timẽ di ỹi
Mambar[6] nyíí / nyíî nyuweŋ / nyuwɛyɛ munna / munnaʔa gã / gãʔa nyire / nyiree nyu / nyüyi ʃiʃi katyiɣe / katyiye ʃiɣe / ʃire loeʔoe di mbaɣe / mbɛyɛ
Senar (Kankalaba)[6] nyini / nyinyẽy nupaɣa / nupay funan / funãge gẽ/gan / gãgẽ nyini / nyirke nyuɣu / nyuy sisyẽkɛ kayige / katyiye tiɣe / tĩyi/tĩr Dogo di mɛɣɛ
Tenyer[6] yɛde/yade / yɛgyɛ/yagyɛ dyigi / dyii mənɛ / məligɛ nkan / nhagal nyinkan / nyẽhegal nye / nyey tuno kyilige / kyileri katyigi / katyir lɔgɔ di migɛ / mii

NumeralsEdit

Comparison of numerals in individual languages:[17]

Classification Language 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Bariba Baatonum (1) tía ìru ìta ǹnɛ nɔɔbù nɔɔbù ka tía > nɔɔbatía (ka = and) nɔɔbù ka ìru > nɔɔbaìru nɔɔbù ka ìta > nɔɔbaìta nɔɔbù ka ǹnɛ > nɔɔbaǹnɛ ɔkuru
Bariba Baatonum (2) tiā yìru ìta / yìta ǹnɛ nɔ̀ɔbù nɔ̀ɔbâ tiā (5 + 1) nɔ̀ɔbá yìru (5 + 2) nɔ̀ɔbâ yìta (5 + 3) nɔ̀ɔbâ ǹnɛ (5 + 4) wɔkuru
Central Gur, Northern, Bwamu Buamu dòũ̀ ɲuː tĩː náː hònú hèzĩ̀ː (5 + 1) hèɲuː (5 + 2) hètĩː (5 + 3) dènú pílú
Central Gur, Northern, Bwamu Cwi Bwamu dòòn ńɲūūn ńɔlĩ̄īn ńnáā hòó hòódwĩ̀ (5 + 1) hòòɲū (5 + 2) hɔ̀ɔ̀ˀlĩ̄ (5 + 3) dĩ̀í́ ˀɓúrúù
Central Gur, Northern, Bwamu Láá Láá Bwamu ńɲɔ ńtĩ ńnɛ́ hùanú hùezĩn (5 + 1) hòoɲu (5 + 2) hɔ̀ɔtĩ (5 + 3) dĩ̀iní píru
Central Gur, Northern, Kurumfe Koromfé -ndom / ɡadɔm ɪhĩĩ ɪtãã ɪnãã ɪnɔm ɪhʊrʊ ɪpɛ̃ɛ̃ ɪtɔɔ ɪfa
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Buli-Koma Buli -yéŋ / wà-ɲī bà-yɛ̀ bà-tà bà-nààsì bà-nù bà-yùèbì bà-yòpɔ̄āī nāāniŋ nèūk
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Buli-Koma Konni kààní àbɛ́lí / àlî àbátá / àtâ àbánìsà / ànísà àbánʊ̀ / ànʊ́ ńyúóbìŋ m̀pṍĩ̀ ǹníŋ̀ / àníì ŋ̀wɛ́ m̀bâŋ
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern Biali cə̄rə̄- / cə̄rə̄má (counting) dyā tāārī / tāārə̄ nààsī / nààrə̄ nùm hã̀dwàm pèléī nēī wáī pwíɡə̄
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern Ditammari (1) -béé, dèǹnì (counting) -dyá, dɛ́ɛ́, diání -tããtī -nàà -nùmmù -kūà -yīēkà -nì -wɛ̄ [tā]píítà
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern Ditammari (2) denni dɛɛni tâati / tâadi náà numu kuɔ nyiekɛ nni nwɛi tɛpiitɛ
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern Mbelime yɛ̃nde yēdē tāātē naasi nummu dūo doodɛ̄ ninyɛ̃̄ wɛ̄ī kɛ̄ piíkɛ
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern Waama yòn yɛ́ndí táárí náásì nùn k͡pàrùn bérén nɛ̃̀í wɛ̃̀í pííkà
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma Gurma yèndó -lié -tà -nà -mù -luòbà -lèlé -nìː -yìa píìɡà
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma Konkomba –bàa –lèe –tàa –nāa –nmúu –lúub –lílé –niín –wɛ́ɛ píìk
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma Mɛyɔ́pɛ (Sola) nni (-sɛ) -tɛ́ tɑɑni (-tɑɑni) nnɑ (-nɑ) nnupũ (-nupũ) kouulṹ (-kpuulũ) sɛ́ɛ́i (-sɛɛi) kɛpɑhɑ (-pɑhɑ), mɛtɛ́ ɑ́mɛ we kɛfi kɛlɛɛ́, mɛsɛ ɑ́mɛ we kɛfi kɛfi
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma Nateni (1) -cɔ̃̄, dèn, dènà (counting) -dɛ́ɛ́, dɛ́ń tã̄lī, tã̄di nàhĩ̀ nùm̀ kɔ̄lì, kɔ̀dì yēhì nīì wɔ́ì pítā
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma Nateni (2) màcɔ̃́ dɛ́ɛ́ tãdi nàhì nùm̀ kɔ̀dì yehì niì wɔ́ì píta
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma Ngangam (1) mikpìɛkm milíém ńta ńnàn ńŋùn ńlùòb ǹlòlé ǹnìín ǹwɛ píík
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma Ngangam (2) miba mile mita minan miŋun miluob milole miniin miwɛ piik
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Moba Bimoba yènn –lè –tà –ná –ŋmú –loòb –lòlé –niìn –yià
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Moba Moba jènǹ ŋáńlé / ńlé ŋáńtāː / ńtāː ŋánnâ / nnâ ŋáńmû / ńmû ŋáńlɔ́ːb̀ / ńlɔ́ːb̀ ŋáńlílé / ńlílé ŋáńníːń / ńníːń ŋáńwáī / ńwáī píːɡ̀
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Moba Ntcham ǹ.-bá /-bɔ́, m̀-báá (enumerative) ǹ.-lí, ǹ-léé (enumerative) ǹ.-ta, ǹtàà (enumerative) ǹ.-nàà, ǹnàà (enumerative) ǹ.-ŋmòò, ŋ̀-ŋmòò (enumerative) ǹ.-lùù, ǹ-lùù (enumerative) ǹ.-lùlí, ǹlùlí (enumerative) ǹ.-nìì, ǹníí (enumerative) ǹ.-wá / -wɔ, ŋ̀wáá (enumerative) sààláá, sààláá (enumerative)
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Ntcham Akaselem m̀bá mbìlé ǹtà ǹnàà m̀ŋmɔ̀ ǹlòòbè ǹlòlé ǹɲìì ŋ̀wɛ̀ʔ pʷíʔ
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Nootre Notre yómbó njéntà ntáátí nnáásí nnú nyúapè npwɛ̀ nnii nwà / ŋwà píá
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest Farefare yénnó tã́ n náásí n núú n yòòbí n yòpɔ́í n níí n wɛ́í píá
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest Mòoré yé/yémbre yì /yìibú tã̀ /tã́abo náase yòobé yòpoé níi wɛ́ píiɡa
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest Safaliba àyàʔ àyîʔ àtâʔ ànáásí ànúú àyòòbí àyòpõ̀ĩ̂ ànɪ́ɪ̀ àwã̀ĩ̂ pẽ́ẽ́, pĩ́ẽ́
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest Wali bʊ́ŋjɪ̀ŋ ('one thing') / jíntì ('one) ájì ('two thing') / jéé átà / tàà ánááhì / nááhɪ̀ ánú / nùù ájʊ̀ɔ̀biɛ́ / jʊ̀ɔ̀bɛ́ ájúpúì / jʊ̀púi ánì / nìì áwɛ́ɪ́ / wáì píé / píé
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Birifor Malba Birifor bõ-ƴén (bomƴén) áyi ata ánãan ãnũun ayʊɔb ánũu-nɪ-áyi (5 + 2) ánũu-nɪ-ata (5 + 3) pié for bir pié
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Birifor Southern Birifor boyæn ayi ata anaar anuu ayʊɔb ayopoin aniin pie for bir pie
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Dagaari Northern Dagaara bõ-yen / bõe (thing-one) ayi ata anaar anũu ayʊɔb ayɔpõe (six-one) anĩi awaɪ / pi-waɪ pie
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Dagaari Southern Dagaare bòn yéní / yenti -yé / ye -tà / ta -nádɪ / nadɪ -nù / nu -yʊ̀ɔ́ / -yʊ̀ɔ́bʊ́ / yʊɔ -yʊ̀ɔ́pɔ̃́ɔ̃́ / pɔ̃ĩ -nìì / nii -wáì / waɪ píé
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast Dagbani (Dagomba) ndààm, yín-ó, yín-í -yí -tá -náhí -nú -yóbù -yòpóìn -níì -wéy píá
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast Hanga –yɪnnɪ / lʊ̀ŋ̀kʷɔ́ ʌ́yíʔ ʌ́tʰʌ́ʔ ʌ́nʌ́ːsɪ ʌ́nʊ́ ʌ́yóːbʊ̀ ʌ́yʌ́pʷòⁱ ʌ́níː ʌ́wáⁱ pʰíːʌ́
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast Kamara yínè áyi áta ánâsɛ ánú áyɔ̀wí áyɔ̀poi ánnî awàɛ píyá
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast Kantosi yéní a-yí a-tá a-násí a-nú a-yóbù a-yàpóì a-níì a-wài píá
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast Kusaal àɾàkṍʔ / àdàkṍʔ àjí àtá ànáasíʔ ànú àjɔ̀ɔbíʔ / àjɔ̀ɔbʊ́ʔ àjɔ́póéʔ áníi àwáíʔ píi
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast Mampruli yɪ́nní / ndààm (in counting) a-yí a-tá a-náásí a-nú a-yóóbù a-yòpɔ̃́ì / -yòpwè a-níì a-wã̀y pííyá
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Yom-Nawdm Nawdm m̩̀hén m̩̀ɾéʔ m̩̀tâʔ m̩̀náː m̩̀nû m̩̀ɾòːndí m̩̀lèbléʔ m̩̀nìːndí m̩̀wɛ́ʔ kwíʔɾí
Central Gur, Northern, Oti-Volta, Yom-Nawdm Yom (Pila) nyə̌ŋ- / nyə̌rɣə- -li -ta -nɛ̀ɛ̀sə̀ -nù -lèèwə̀r -nùɣa -li ('five and two', ɣa > 'and') -li k͡pa fɛɣa (' two are not in ten ') nyə̌ŋ- /nyə̌rɣə- k͡pa fɛɣa fɛɣa
Central Gur, Southern, Dyan Dyan (1) bɛ̃̀ɡ / bɪ̀ɛlè yèɲɔ̃̀ yèthɛ̃̀sì yènàa dìemà mɔ̀lɔ̀dũ̀ (5 + 1) mɔ̀lɔ̀ɲɔ̃̀ (5 + 2) mɔ̀lɔ̀thɛ̃̀sì (5 + 3) nĩ́kpó-cí-bèrè (10 - 1) ? nĩ́kpó
Central Gur, Southern, Dyan Dyan (2) bɛ̃ɡ / bɪɛle yenyɔ̃ yethɛ̃si yenaa diema mɔlɔdũ (5 + 1) mɔlɔnyɔ̃ (5 + 2) mɔlɔthɛ̃si (5 + 3) nĩkpo-ci-bere (10 - 1) ? nĩkpo
Central Gur, Southern, Gan-Dogose Dogosé tìkpóʔ ìyɔ̰́ʔ ìsá̰a̰ʔ ìyḭ̀i̬ʔ ìwà̰aʔ mà̰ nḭ̀ póʔ (5 + 1) mà̰ nḭ̀ yɔ̰́ʔ (5 + 2) mà̰ nḭ̀ sá̰a̰ʔ (5 + 3) mà̰ nḭ̀ yḭ̀i̬ʔ(5 + 4) ɡbùnè
Central Gur, Southern, Gan-Dogose Kaansá (Kaansé) tʰik̩͡po ɛɲɔ̰ isãa ɛɲee ɛmwãa maʔnik͡po (5 + 1) maʔniyɔ̃ (5 + 2) maʔnisãaʔ (5 + 3) k͡ponko (10 - 1) ? k͡pooɡo
Central Gur, Southern, Gan-Dogose Khisa (Komono) ílèŋ ád͡ʒɔ̃̀ŋ átʰɔ̀ʔ ádàa ánɔ̃̀n nɔ̀k͡pòŋ (5 + 1) nɔ̀́d͡ʒɔ̃̀ŋ (5 + 2) nɔ́tʰɔ́ʔ (5 + 3) nɔ̀dáa (5 + 4) hʊ̀ k͡pélé / sínʊ̃y
Central Gur, Southern, Grusi Kassem (1) kàlʊ̀ ǹlè ǹtɔ̀ ǹnā ǹnū ǹdʊ̀n ǹpɛ̀ nānā nʊ̀ɡʊ̄ fúɡə́
Central Gur, Southern, Grusi Kasem (2) kàlʊ̀ ǹlè ǹtɔ̀ ǹnā ǹnū ǹdʊ̀n m̀pɛ̀ nānā nʊ̀ɡʊ̄ fúɡə́
Central Gur, Southern, Grusi Kasem (3) kàlʊ/ dìdʊǎ ǹlè / ǹlèi ǹtɔ̀ ǹnā ǹnū ǹdʊ̃̀ m̀pɛ̀ / m̀pwɛ̀ nānā nʊ̌ɡʊ /nǒɡo fúɡə
Central Gur, Southern, Grusi Lyélé èdù sə̀lyè sə̀tə̀ sə̀na sə̀nu ʃə̀ldù (5 + 1) ? ʃàlpyɛ̀ (5 + 2) ? lyɛlɛ nə̀bɔ́ ʃíyə́
Central Gur, Southern, Grusi Northern Nuni ùdù bìlə̀ bìtwàà bìna bìnu badù bàpà lɛlɛ nìbu fíɡə́
Central Gur, Southern, Grusi Southern Nuni nə̀dʊ̀ bə̀lə̀ bàtwà bànīān bònū bàrdʊ̀ bàrpɛ̀ nānā nʊ̀ɡʊ́ fúɡə́
Central Gur, Southern, Grusi Pana ténɡí ɲìí cɔ́ɔ̀ nàasí nṍn nõ̀mpí nõ̀ncó bàndá ɟèefó
Central Gur, Southern, Grusi, Eastern Bago-Kusuntu ŋʊrʊk͡pák͡pá bààlɛ̀ bàtòòro bànásá bàànʊ́ lèèjò lʊ̀ŋlè ɖìk͡pèèrè kàkààrè /ŋʊrʊk͡pák͡pá tá sàlá (10 -1) sàlá
Central Gur, Southern, Grusi, Eastern Bogoŋ (Cala / Chala) -re-, rʊ, -dʊ́ndʊlʊŋ -la -tooro -náárá -nʊ́ŋ lʊʊrʊ lɪkaarɛ jiŋináárá (4 + 4) ? saŋɡʊ́ ɡifí
Central Gur, Southern, Grusi, Eastern Delo daale ala atooro anaara anoŋ looro nyetooro (10 - 3) ? ɡyanaara (2 x 4) ? kadaale (10 - 1) ? kufu
Central Gur, Southern, Grusi, Eastern Kabiyé kʊ́yʊ́m nàálɛ̀ nàádozó nàã́zá kàɡ͡bã́nzì loɖò lʊ̀bɛ̀ lùtoozo nakʊ̀ híu / náánʊ́wá
Central Gur, Southern, Grusi, Eastern Lama (Lamba) kóɖə́m násə̂l nàsìsɨ̀ násə́násá násə́ná lə̀ɖə̀ naosanautɨsɨ (4 + 3) násə́nnásá (4 + 4) nàkò hʲú
Central Gur, Southern, Grusi, Eastern Lukpa kʊ̀lʊ̀m naalɛ̀ tòòsó naasá kàk͡pásɪ̀ náátòsò (2 x 3 ??) náátòsò m̀pɔ̀ɣɔ̀laɣá (6 + 1) pə́lé fɛ́jɪ́ (- 2) pɔ̀ɣɔ̀láɣáfɛ́jɪ́́ (- 1) náánʊ́á
Central Gur, Southern, Grusi, Eastern Tem (1) káɔ́ɖe sííɛ̀ tóózo nááza nʊ́ʊ́wa loɖo lʊbɛ lutoozo kéénííré fuú
Central Gur, Southern, Grusi, Eastern Tem (2) káɔ́ɖe sííɛ̀ tóózó náázá nʊ́ʊ́wa loɖo lʊbɛ lutoozo kéénííré fuú
Central Gur, Southern, Grusi, Western Chakali dɪ́ɡɪ́máná / dɪ́ɡɪ́máŋá álìɛ̀ átʊ̀rʊ̀ / átʊ̀lì / á-tòrò ànáásì āɲɔ̃̄ állʊ̀rʊ̀ / állʊ̀lʊ̀ àlʊpɛ̀ / lʊ́pɛ̀ ŋmɛ́ŋtɛ́l dɪ́ɡɪ́tūū (10 - 1) ?
Central Gur, Southern, Grusi, Western Deg (Degha) beŋk͡paŋ / k͡pee (for counting only) anɛ / nɛɛ atoro / tooro anaarɛ / naarɛ anue / nue anʊmɛl / nʊmɛl (5 + 1) anʊanɛ / nʊanɛ (5 + 2) anʊatoro / nʊatoto (5 + 3) anʊanaarɛ / nʊanaarɛ (5 + 4) fi
Central Gur, Southern, Grusi, Western Paasaal (Passale) kɪ́dɪ́ɡɪ́ / dííŋ bàlìyà / lìyà bòtò / tóó bànāā / náá bɔ̀nɔ̀ŋ / nɔ́ɔ́ŋ bàdʊ̀ / dʊ́ʊ́ bàpɛ̀ / pɛ́ɛ́ kyórí / kyórí níbí / níbí fí / fí
Central Gur, Southern, Grusi, Western Phuie (Puguli) déò / dùdúmí ʔɛ̃́ɛ̃́ ʔárʊ̀ ànɛ̃́ / ànɛ́ŋ ? ànɔ̃́ / ànɔ́ŋ ? ànṍ déò (5 + 1) ànṍ ʔɛ̃́ɛ̃́ (5 + 2) ànɔ̃́ ʔárʊ̀ (5 + 3) ànóŋ ànɛ̃́ / fí dùdúmí tʰõ̀
Central Gur, Southern, Grusi, Western Western Sisaala bàlá / dɪ̀ɛ́n bɛ́llɛ́ / lɛ́ bàtòró / tòró bànáá / náá bɔ̀mmʊ̀ɔ́ / mʊ̀ɔ́ bóldó / dó bálpɛ́ / pɛ́ tʃòrí nɛ̀mɛ́ fíí
Central Gur, Southern, Grusi, Western Sisaala Tumulung kʊ̀bàlá / dɪ̀áŋ bàlɪ̀á / lɪ̀a bàtórí / tórí bànɛ́sɛ́ / nɛ̀sɛ́ bànɔ́ŋ / nɔ́ŋ bàlídú / dú bàlɪ̀pɛ́ / pɛ́ tʃòrí nìbí fíí
Central Gur, Southern, Grusi, Western Sissala balá bɛllɛ botoro baná bɔmmʊ́ɔ́ balɡo balpɛ córí nɛ́mɛ́
Central Gur, Southern, Grusi, Western Tampulma diiɡɛ alɛɛwa atoora anaasi anyuún anɔɔrà anɔpɛ ŋmɛnaasa diɡtó
Central Gur, Southern, Grusi, Western Vagla k͡páŋ / k͡péé (when counting) ànɛ̀ɛ̀ àhòrò ànáázʊ̀ ànúè ànʊ́mbɛl (bɛl a certain one ) àníídàànɛ̀ɛ̀ ámàntánnààzí / ŋmàntánnààzí kábɛl (ka to remain )
Central Gur, Southern, Grusi, Western Winyé (Kõ) ndo nyɪ̃ɛ ntɔɔ nná nwɔ̃́ nɡo npiɛ npɔɔ nlɛbɪ fʊ̃́
Central Gur, Southern, Kirma-Tyurama Cerma (Kirma) ǹdéiŋ ǹhã́ĩ ǹsíɛi ǹnáà ǹdîì níedìeí (5 + 1) níehã́ĩ (5 + 2) níisìɛí (5 + 3) nénnáà (5 + 4) cĩ́ŋcíelùó
Central Gur, Southern, Kirma-Tyurama Turka dẽẽná hãl siɛl n̩nə̃̀ n̩di nã́ndèin (5 + 1) nə̃́rə̃́hã̀l (5 + 2) nə̃́rə̃́siɛ̀l (5 + 3) dɛ̃̀ɛ̃̀sə́ (10 -1) ? nṹɔ̃́sɔ̃̀
Kulango Kulango (1) ta bíla sããbe na tʊrɔtãtã (5 + 1) tʊrɔfriɲuu (5 + 2) tʊrɔfrisãã (5 + 3) tʊrɔfrina (5 + 4) nuun
Kulango Kulango (2) táà bílà sã̀ã̀bí nã́ tɔ́ tɔ́rɔ́tàà (5 + 1) tɔ́rɔ́fíríɲũ̀ (5 + 2) tɔ́rɔ́fírísã̀ã̀ (5 + 3) tɔ́rɔ́fírínã́ (5 + 4) nṹnũ̀
Kulango Bouna Kulango taà, tãã̀ bɪlà, nyʊʊ̀ sãã̀ naʔ tɔ̀rɔ̀ fɪn taà, tɔrɔ fɪ(rɪ) nyʊʊ̀ (5 + 1) tɔ̀rɔ̀ fɪn bɪla (5 + 2) tɔ̀rɔ̀ fɪn sãã̀ (5 + 3) tɔ̀rɔ̀ fɪn na (5 + 4) nuùnu, nûnu, tɔtɔ bɪla, tɔtɔ nyʊʊ̀
Lobi Lobi bìɛ̀l yɛnyɔ yentʰer yɛnã́ yɛmɔɪ màadõ makonyɔ (5 + 2) makõtʰer (5 + 3) nyʊ̌ɔr bìr pʰéro (10 - 1) nyʊ̌ɔr
Senufo, Karaboro Eastern Karaboro (1) nɔ̀ni ʃyɔ̃̀ / ʃiɲ̀ tã̀ã̀ tíʃyàr /díʃyàr /ríʃyàr bwà / bwɔ̀ kwaɲ̀ kwa-sĩ̀ĩ̀ (litː "a second six") kwa-tã̀ã̀ (litː " a third six") kwa-ríʃyàr (litː "fourth six") sĩʃye
Senufo, Karaboro Eastern Karaboro (2) nɔ̀nī syã̀ŋ tã̀ã tésyàr / résyàr bwà kwāy kwásĩ̀ĩ kwátã̀à kwàrésyàr sẽ̄nsyē
Senufo, Karaboro Western Karaboro nɔ̀ni ʃin taàr tɪhyɛɛ̀r bwɔ̀ k(ʋ)lɔ̀n klɔʃìn kwɔtàar̀ wɔ̀dèfèr / wɔ̀def(ə)r ? síncíl
Senufo, Kpalaga Palaka Senoufo niŋɡ͡be sɔinŋ taanri = tããri ? jijilɛi = d͡ʒid͡ʒilɛi ? kanɡuruɡo kuɡɔlɔŋ kuɡɔlɔŋ sɔinŋ (5 + 2) kuɡɔlɔŋ taanri (5 + 3) kuɡɔlɔŋ d͡ʒid͡ʒilɛi (5 + 4) kɔ́jɛ
Senufo, Nafaanra Nafaanra Senoufo núnu çíín táárɛ̀ ɟíɟírɛ̀ kúnɔ kɔ́ɔ̀nánù (5 + 1) kɔ́ɔ̀náçíín (5 + 2) kɔ́ɔ̀nátárè (5 + 3) kɔ́ɔ̀náɟirɛ (5 + 4) kɛ́
Senufo, Senari Cebaara Senoufo nìbín sīin tāanri sīcɛ̄rɛ̄ kāɡūnɔ̀ kɔ̀rɔ́nī (5 + 1) kɔ̀rɔ́sīin (5 + 2) kɔ̀rɔ́tāanrì (5 + 3) k͡pǎjɛ̄rɛ̄ (5 + 4) kɛ́ɛ
Senufo, Suppire-Mamara Mamara Senoufo (Minyanka) niɡĩ̀ / niɡĩ (second set from SIL) ʃɔ̃̀ɔ̃̀ / ʃũ̀ũ̀ tããrè / tããri ʃiʃyɛ̀ɛrɛ̀ / ʃiʃɛɛrɛ kaɡuru / kaɡuro ɡ͡baara / ɡ͡baara ɡ͡baa-ʃɔ̃̀ɔ̃̀ / ɡ͡baaraʃũũ (5 + 2) ʃɔ̃̀ɔ̃̀lake / ʃũ̀ũ̀lakɛ (2 to 10) niɡĩ̀fɔ̀kɛ / niɡĩlakɛ (1 to 10) kɛ / kɛ
Senufo, Suppire-Mamara Shempire Senoufo (1) ninɡin ʃuunni taanri sicɛɛrɛ kaɡuru ɡ͡baani ɡ͡baʃuuni (5 + 2) ɡ͡bataanri (5 + 3) ɡ͡baɛɛrɛ (5 + 4)
Senufo, Suppire-Mamara Shempire Senoufo (2) nanbin ʃuunni taanri sicɛɛrɛ kaɡro ɡ͡baani ɡ͡baʃuuni (5 + 2) ɡ͡bataanri (5 + 3) ɡ͡baɛɛrɛ (5 + 4)
Senufo, Suppire-Mamara Sìcìté Senoufo nìkĩ̀ sɔ̃̀ɔ̃̀nì / sũ̀ũ̀nì tã̀ã̀rì sìcɛ̀ɛ̀rì kānkūrò ɡ͡bāārù ɡ͡bārsɔ̃̀ɔ̃̀nì ɡ͡bārtã̀ã̀rì / kāzɛ̄ɛm̀bē ɡ͡bārsìcɛ̀ɛ̀rì / nìkĩ̀ndáʔá (10 - 1) kɛ̄
Senufo, Suppire-Mamara Supyire Senoufo nìŋkìn ʃùùnnì tàànrè sìcyɛ̀ɛ̀rè kaŋkuro (< 'fist ') baa-nì (5 + 1) baa-ʃùùnnì (5 + 2) baa-tàànrè (5 + 3) baa-sìcyɛ̀ɛ̀rè (5 + 4) kɛ̄
Senufo, Tagwana-Djimini Djimini Senoufo nuŋɡ͡ba ʃyɛn tããri tid͡ʒɛrɛ kaŋɡuruɡo kɔɡɔlɔni kɔlɔʃyɛn (5 + 2) kɔlɔtããri (5 + 3) kɔlɔd͡ʒɛrɛ (5 + 4)
Senufo, Tagwana-Djimini Nyarafolo Senoufo nīɡbe sīin tāanri sīcɛri kōɡunɔ̀ kɔ̀línī (5 + 1) kɔ̀lisīin (5 + 2) kàtāanrì (5 + 3) kàcɛ̄rì (5 + 4) kíɛ̀
Senufo, Tagwana-Djimini Tagwana Senoufo nuɡ͡be syẽ tãri tityere koɡunu nõli nasyẽ (5 + 2) natãri (5 + 3) natyere (5 + 4) kẽ / k͡prò
Teen Téén (Lorhon) tanɪ nyoor saanr na tɔtanɪ (litː five one) tɔnyoor (litː five two) tɔsaanr (litː five three) tanbalˈpɔrwɔ (litː one less than ten) ˈpɔrwɔ
Tiefo Tiéfo (1) ʔe diɛ̃ni (attributive use ː dɛ̃̀) ɟɔ̃ sã́ ʔuʔɔ̃́ / ŋɔɔ (variant of Noumoudara) kã̀ kã̀-dĩ (5 + 1) kã-ɟɔ̃ (5 + 2) kã-sá (5 + 3) kã-ʔuɔ̃́ (5 + 4) támúwá / kɛ̃
Tiefo Tiéfo (2) dɛ̃̀ / ʔë diɛ̃̀ni jɔ̃ sã́ ʔuʔɔ̃́ kã̀ kã̀-dĩ (5 + 1) kã̀-jɔ̃ (5 + 2) kã̀-sá (5 + 3) kã̀-ʔuɔ̃ (5 + 4) tamʷúá / támú
Tusia Northern Toussian (1) nāɣ, nāɣ, nāɣ nīnì tɔ̄nɔ̀ jã᷇ klò kùnũ᷇ kālèj kɔ̀tɔ̃̂ kàjã̂ bwɔ̀
Tusia Northern Toussian (2) nṍṍkə̀ nĩ́ŋnõ̀ tṍṍnõ̀ ĩ́jã̂ klʊ̂ kv̀v̀nə̃̀ŋ (5 + 1) kvììnĩ̀ (5 + 2) k͡pwɛ̀ɛ̀tṍ (5 + 3) k͡pààrĩ̀jã́ (5 + 4) sàbwɔ̀
Tusia Southern Toussian núkú nínɔ́ tɔ̃́nɔ́ ńyã́h kwlɔ kénúkò (5 + 1) kwǎrninɔ (5 + 2) kwǎrtɔ̃́nɔ (5 + 3) kwǎryã́h (5 + 4) ɡbãm
Viemo Viemo (Vigye) dũde [dʷũⁿde] niinĩ [niːnĩ] sãsĩ [sãsĩ] jumĩ [d͡ʒʷumĩ] kuɛɡe [kwɛɣe] kõnũrã [kõnũɾã] kõnĩse [kõnĩse] jumĩjɔ niinĩ [d͡ʒʷumĩd͡ʒɔ niːnĩ] 4 x 2 ? kwɔmĩdĩ fɛrɛyɔ [k͡pʷɔmĩⁿdĩ fɛɾɛjɔ] -1? kwɔmũ [k͡pʷɔmũ]
Wara-Natioro Wara púwò tĩ́ náású sùsú sírìpò súrũ̌tó / sínĩ̀tó sĩ̂tĩ́ (+ 3?) sĩ̂náású (+ 4 ?) kã̀ã̀sá

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Central Gur". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ Manessy (1968/71), Naden (1989)
  3. ^ Naden, Tony. 1989:143
  4. ^ Williamson and Blench. 2000:18,25-6
  5. ^ Manessy, Gabriel. 1979. Contribution à la Classification Généalogique des Langues Voltaïques. (Langues et Civilisations à Tradition Orale, 37.) Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Prost, André. 1964. Contribution à l'étude des langues voltaiques. (Memoires de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire, 70.) Dakar: Institut Français d’Afrique Noire (IFAN).
  7. ^ Manessy, Gabriel. 1969. Les Langues Gurunsi: Essai d'application de la méthode comparative à un groupe de langues Voltaïques. (Bibliothèque de la SELAF, 12, 13.) Paris: SELAF.
  8. ^ Manessy, Gabriel. 1975. Les Langues Oti-Volta. (Langues et Civilisations a Tradition Orale, 15.) Paris: SELAF.
  9. ^ Sambiéni, Coffi. 2005. Le Proto-Oti-Volta-Oriental: Essai d'application de la méthode historique comparative. (Gur Monographs, 6.) Köln: Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.
  10. ^ Welmers, William E. 1952. Notes on Bariba. Language 28:82-103.
  11. ^ a b c Sawadogo, Tasséré. 2002. Rapport d'enquête sur le natioro. SIL Electronic Survey Reports (SILESR), 2003-005. SIL International.
  12. ^ Rongier, Jacques. 1996. Aperçu sur le mɔyɔbɛ. Cahiers voltaïques / Gur papers 1: 115-145.
  13. ^ Prost, André. 1974. Description sommaire du koulango (dialecte du Bouna, Côte d'Ivoire). Annales de l'Université d'Abidjan, série H: linguistique 7. 21-74.
  14. ^ Berthelette, Carol; Berthelette, John. 2002. Sociolinguistic survey report for the Tiéfo language. SIL Electronic Survey Reports 2002-006. PDF.
  15. ^ a b Berthelette, John. 2002. Sociolinguistic survey report for the Vigué (Viemo) language. SIL Electronic Survey Reports 2002-009. PDF,
  16. ^ a b c Berthelette, John (2002). Survey report on the San (Samo) language. SIL Electronic Survey Reports 2002-005. (PDF)
  17. ^ Chan, Eugene (2019). "The Niger-Congo Language Phylum". Numeral Systems of the World's Languages.
  • Manessy, Gabriel (1968/71) 'Langues voltaïques sans classes' in Actes du huitième congres international de linguistique africaine. [Congress was 1968, proceedings published 1971] Abidjan, Université d'Abidjan, 335–346.
  • Naden, Anthony J. (1989) 'Gur', in Bendor-Samuel, John & Hartell, Rhonda L. (eds) The Niger–Congo languages. A classification and description of Africa's largest language family. Lanham, New York, London: University Press of America, 140–168.
  • Roncador, Manfred von; Miehe, Gudrun (1998) Les langues gur (voltaïques). Bibliographie commentée et inventaire des appelations des langues. Köln: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.
  • Williamson, Kay & Blench, Roger (2000) 'Niger–Congo', in Heine, Bernd & Nurse, Derek (eds.) African languages: an introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 11—42.

External linksEdit