Adamawa languages

The Adamawa /ædəˈmɑːwə/ languages are a putative family of 80–90 languages scattered across the Adamawa Plateau in central Africa, in Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, and Chad, spoken altogether by only one and a half million people (as of 1996). Joseph Greenberg classified them as one branch of the Adamawa–Ubangi family of Niger–Congo languages. They are among the least studied languages in Africa, and include many endangered languages; by far the largest is Mumuye, with 400,000 speakers. A couple of unclassified languages—notably Laal and Jalaa—are found along the fringes of the Adamawa area.

Adamawa
(defunct)
Geographic
distribution
eastern Nigeria, northern Cameroon, northwestern CAR, southern Chad
Linguistic classificationNiger–Congo
Subdivisions
Glottologadam1259

Geographically, the Adamawa languages lie near the location of the postulated Niger–Congo – Central Sudanic contact that may have given rise to the Atlantic–Congo family, and so may represent the central radiation of that family[citation needed].

ClassificationEdit

Joseph Greenberg postulated the Adamawa languages as a part of Adamawa–Ubangian (then called Adamawa–Eastern), and divided them into 14 numbered groups. Group G3, Daka (or Dakoid), is now known to be a branch of Benue–Congo. The relationships of the other branches has undergone considerable revision.

Greenberg (1963)Edit

Greenberg's 14 numbered Adamawa groups are:[1]

Number Group
G1 Tula–Waja
G2 Leko
G3 Daka
G4 Duru
G5 Mumuye–Yendang
G6 Mbum
G7 Bəna–Mboi (Yungur)
G8 Nyimwom (Kam)
G9 Bikwin–Jen
G10 Longuda
G11 Fali
G12 Nimbari
G13 Bua
G14 Kim

Boyd (1989)Edit

Boyd (1989) added the Day language and classified them as follows:[2]

He excluded the Fali languages (G11).

Güldemann (2018)Edit

Güldemann (2018) recognises 14 coherent Adamawa "genealogical units", but is agnostic about their positions within Niger-Congo.[3]

Kleinewillinghöfer (2019)Edit

Kleinewillinghöfer (2019), in the Adamawa Languages Project website, recognises the following 17 groups as Adamawa languages.[4]

Only the Tula-Waja, Longuda, Ɓəna-Mboi, Samba-Duru, and Bua groups have noun classes. The other groups only display vestiges of formerly active noun class systems.[21]

Blench (2012, 2020)Edit

Roger Blench (2012)[22] concludes that the Adamawa languages are a geographic grouping, not a language family, and breaks up its various branches in his proposed Savannas family. He places some of the western Adamawa languages closer to the Gur languages than to other Adamawa families. Fali is tentatively excluded from Savannas altogether. Blench (2020) retains a connection between Mumuye and Yendang, but breaks up Kleinewillinghöfer's Samba-Duru.

Unclassified Adamawa languagesEdit

The Oblo language of Cameroon has been included in several versions of the Adamawa group, but its position within it is unclear.[23]

It has been speculated that the unclassified Laal language of Chad may be Adamawa; the Jalaa language of Nigeria is probably not Adamawa, but shows heavy Adamawa influence. However, both are generally now considered to be language isolates.

Comparative vocabularyEdit

Sample basic vocabulary of Adamawa languages from Kleinewillinghöfer's Adamawa Languages Project website and various other sources:[24]

Note: In table cells with slashes, the singular form is given before the slash, while the plural form follows the slash.

Classification Language Dialect eye ear nose tooth tongue mouth blood bone water tree eat name
Baa[25] Baa nu(ví) / rínù ǹtú / ríǹtú gyo̰ / rigyó̰ nyanwívì / rí- dyḛǹ(vì) nyààvì twèèn kukút mán kii / rikii gyâ zin
Bikwin-Jen[26] Proto-Jen (Proto-Bikwin-Jen) *núŋ *tswi *lúr(i) *le *ɗək; (*lyəN) *ɲwa *ɥe/*zwi *kub *kəb *mɛ/*mɨŋ *tə́ŋ *lɨn/*ɗwín
Bikwin-Jen[27] Burak (Ɓʊʊrak) núŋ twíi ? lúúri lée ɗá̰k nyúwaa, nywaa wɪ́ɪ́ kúb, kúp ? mɛ́ɛ́ ɗít / yéɗit tá̰ŋ lín̄
Bikwin-Jen Loo (Shʊŋɔ) Galdemaru ɛrɛ nuŋ twɪ́ɪ́ lúúrì lei ɗak nywa dùm kúp mɛ́ɛ́ ɗít táŋ nin
Bikwin-Jen Loo (Shʊŋɔ) Waamura ɛrɛ nuŋ twɪ́ɪ́ lúúrì lei ɗak nywa dùm kúp mɛ́ɛ́ káp táŋ nin
Bikwin-Jen Maɣdi (Tala) núŋ / yéénuŋ cwéé luuli léí ɗák nyuwaa ywee kób, kúób / yéé kób míshì káp / yéékáp taŋ lin
Bikwin-Jen Lee Mak Panya nuŋ dɔkswíì ɗuurə lei lén nuwaa lyüé kóp mui kya kap / yeekâp táŋ ɗín
Bikwin-Jen Lee Mak Zoo nuŋ (ɗɔ́k)shwìyè ɗuurə lei lén nuwa lyüé kúóp mwui kya kàp táŋ ɗin
Bikwin-Jen Kya̰k (Bambuka) núŋ ɗɔ́kswì ɗúr lɛ́ɛ́ ɗyím ŋwaà zwìì kəkəp mùŋ káp táŋ ɗwín
Bikwin-Jen Mɔɔ (Gomu) nə́ŋ ɗɔ́kfíì ɗúr lɛ́ɛ́ ɗyík ŋwaa zìì kúp mùŋ kwâm kaap taŋ ɗwín
Bikwin-Jen LeeLau (Munga, Munga Leelau) núŋ ɗɔkswî ɗurr, ndurr léí lyén ŋwaà zìì kukup; (kʊkʊp ?) munki kâp tâŋ ɗún
Bikwin-Jen[27] Dza (Jen) Kaigama nə́ŋ tshwötshwí bwaadjwí djìì lʌ̰́ nnwâ hywṵi, hywḭ kʊʊkʊ́, kʊkʊ́ mmə́ŋ kɐ́ɐ / ekʌ́(ʌ) táŋ, tháŋ djwuŋ
Bikwin-Jen Munga (Məngaŋ) Doso nəŋ cúcwì kádwì íì lyêm ŋwàà ehywü; (exwü) kúkwə̀ məŋ tsər kaa / lékaa tâŋ ɗyíìŋ
Bikwin-Jen Joole nə́ŋ / ee- tʃwü tʃwí nwá̰ dwí jì(ì) (calabash) lʌ́ ká̰ nw̰á̰ hṵ̈̀ḭ̀ kùkú mə́ŋ kʌ́ / èèkʌ́ táŋ dzuŋ
Bikwin-Jen Jòòle Joole Manga bwàà nù bwaa tywi bwàà dṵ̀ gigi láŋ kányua vi (?) kúkú míkyá nyááká / nyááká búbáí tà̰à̰ dumà
Tula-Waja[28] Wɪya, Waja, Wajan Kasa nuŋè twɪ́yaʊ boocu nwii bɛnɛ nɪyaʊ tumà kuu gundù sou dənè
Tula-Waja Waja Deeri, Wajan Dutse gɔn niŋi podou / podoru
Tula-Waja Kutule, Tula Wange kwalaŋɛ / kwalaŋi kətɛ́ɛ́lɛ̀ / kətɛ́ɛ́lɪ cʊʊn / cʊʊni kunuwaŋ / nǔǔm, tunuri ben / beni yii / yiini kʊtʊm kətiyaŋ / tətiini mwɛ̀ / mwɛti tíyaŋ / tííní cáú ~ ʃáú dən / dimbi
Tula-Waja Tula Baule nù / núl kə̀tɛ́ɛ́lɛ̀ / kə̀tɛ́ɛ́lɪ̀ sʊ́ʊ́n / sʊ́ʊ́nɪ́, sʊ́ŋə́n kə́núwáŋ / núúm, tə́núri been / bééni yí / yiiní kʌtùùm kətiyá námáŋ / tətiini náiyé mwɛ̀ kətíyá / tətííní saʊ; sa (mwàn) də́n / də́mbí
Tula-Waja Tula Yili (Yiri) nuù / nuuto kətɛ́ɛ́lɪ / kətɛ́ɛ́nɪ́ ʃʊ́ʊ́l / ʃʊ́ʊ́wɪ̀ kunuuŋ / nuum bííl / bííwí yii / yiiní kʊtʊʊ̀m kukúkó / tukútó mwɛ tiyaŋ / tiini caʊ̀; ca (mwân) diń / dimən
Tula-Waja Yebu, Awak núŋí bwaará suur ~ sʊʊr nuŋún beén nìí tuum kuukú mwê; mwɛ̀ tii sáb duń
Tula-Waja Baŋjiŋe, Bangwinji nuwe / nuwetini tuù / tuuní ʃóór, cóór nuǹ / nuǹtini bien / bienni ? nyii / nyiini bwiyalɛ̀ kúk / kútí mwɛ́m tu / tum câm dén
Tula-Waja Dadiya nuu / nuutin lɔɔ̀l jʊl núŋùn ben níyò / níyétìn tʊ́ʊ́m kuto mwḛ̂ tiyà / tiyàntin jáá dùń
Tula-Waja Maa, Kamo núŋé kúmó cóór nugun bén̄ nyiyé tʊ́ʊ́m kúúbú mwɛ́ nyáŋlá dágʊ́m (wúrgé) dìń
Tula-Waja Dijim, Cham Kindiyo kʌmɪ / kámtɛ suu; suwoŋ jʊ̀r, jʊ̀ʊ̀r nuŋun / nuŋtɛ́ lʌŋər / laŋtɛ́ nyʷii / nyʷiini dʊ̀gʊ́m kuk / kute híí riyaŋ / riitɛ jau dun / duntɛ̀
Tula-Waja Bwilim, Cham Mɔna nu / nute getuwaŋ / getuwai taanù / taantɔ́ʊ́ bemnù / bemtou nyii / nyiini gə̀mí záà
Tula-Waja Tso Suwabou nuŋ / nuntóú wɔɔnʊ́ / wɔɔntáú nyulóónù / nyulóóntù nunu / núntòù lameno / lamtʊ̀ nyii / nyiini dɔɔ̀m tsá / tseni láà / laátóú tsá / tsenì za dín / díntòù
Tula-Waja Tso Gusubo nùŋ / nùntù fə̀là / fə̀lààni dətəmòròù / tə̀tə̀mòtòù taanʊ̀ / taantú béémnó / béémtóú nyii / nyiini tsá / tseni la / latóú tsá / tsénì zaà dín / díntú
Tula-Waja Tso Barbou dʊ̀m tsá / tsáni yìbè / laátóú
isolate Jalaa[29] dyiríì / dyitə̂ buŋôŋ yamə-r / yamə-ta tənəm / tənemté̩ laŋe̩r / laŋté̩ bo̩o̩, bwo̩ / bo̩o̩-ní bwiirùm kùsì-gò̩ / -nìó gwìì-ràŋ, gwìì-ròŋ / -tè̩ mwê̩ hâl nuŋ kúlájí; kwáráŋ wò̩gə́n ?
Longuda[30] Cerii (Ceriŋ, Banjiram) nyʊ̰lá / nyʊ̰ʔá thʊ́lá / thwíyá dɔ́ŋkhá / dɔ́ŋthá gàràlá / gará dhilimkha / dhilimtha nyàkhá / nyàthá thùmá kwacalá / kwacáá mámá thíká / thímá dhà zííndé / zíné
Longuda Deele (Jessu) nyʊ̀ʊ̀là / nyʊ̀ʊ̀lʔà tʊ́là / twáʔà jɔ́ɔ́(ŋ)khà / jɔ́ɔ́(ŋ)thà galáwa / galáhà dhələ́mkhà nyàkà thʊ́mà; surmə̀ kukubə́lə̀ / kukubə́ʔə̀ mámà thikhà já, jáʔà jááunla / jááunʔà
Longuda Koola (Thaarʊ) nyʊ̰lá tʊ́lá / twáʔá zɔɔŋkha gàlàwá / gàlàhá dələmka nyalá / nyaʔá tʊmá tsakəbla / tsakəbʔa mama thíká zà ; zà nyoomò dəmla / dəmʔá
Longuda Wala Lunguda Guyuk nyuŋlá thʊ́wá / thwáá joonka garala / garaʔa / zilimkha nyakhá tumá, thuma kwaca, kwacalá mámá thíkhá zindè / zinè
Longuda Gwaanda (Nyuwar) nyṵnla zingala / zingaʔa jɔ̰ŋka nyile / nyiʔe dhilimka nyàkà / nyàthà sirme kwacala / kwacaʔa mama, dwaama waha̰ka / waha̰ma dháà dzaunla; dziiŋle
Longuda Gwaanda nyṵlà dzíngálá jónká nyúlə́ dhílímká súrmá, súrmé ? kwàcàlà / kwàcàà mámá, dwàmà wàhàkà dà; thà dzínlə́
Bena-Mboi[31] Ɓəna (Yungur) Dumne núú / nṵ́ṵ́sâ gwḛ́ḛ́ / gwḛ́ḛ́mé tímrá / címtá ɗə́fá / ɗə́mtá ɗəlmaarà / ɗəlmaatà ʔéé / ʔéémé kẃadmá tə́fá / tə́ptá mbraá ɓota / nbwece kə́fə́ ɗənda / ɗənta
Bena-Mboi Ɓəna (Yungur) Pirambe núú / nṵ́ṵ́śa gwe / gweme tímrá / tímtá ɗə́mbá / ɗə́mtá ɗəlmaarà / ɗəlmaatà ʔḛḛ / ʔéémé munma tə́fá / tə́ptá mbərá / mbəramsî ɓota / nɓétè kə́fə́ ɗənda / ɗənta
Bena-Mboi Voro Waltaandi núú / núúza gwḛ́ḛ́ / gwḛ́ḛ́mé tímrá / tímtá ɗə́mbá / ɗə́mtá ɗəlḿáará / ɗəlḿáatá ʔḛḛ / ʔḛ́ḛ́mé kẃadmá, mùnmà tə́fá / tə́ptá mbráá [muwa ?] ɓòtà / ŋbété kə́fə́ ɗə́ndá / ɗə́ntá
Bena-Mboi Voro Ɓéttandi kẃadmá tə́fá / tə́ptá mbra̰a̰ ɓòtà / ŋbété kə́fə́ ɗə́ndá / ɗə́ntá
Bena-Mboi Ɓəna (Laala) Bodei (Bodwai) nuú / nuujà gwḛḛ / gwḛḛmé timrá / timtá, timté ɗəmbá / ɗəmtá ɗə̀lmààrà / ɗə̀lmààtà nyḛ́ḛ́ / nyḛ́ḛ́mé bòblà / bòbjà təpa / təutá mbrá̰à̰ / mbráámjà ɓotá / ngwaaté jeè ɗíndá / ɗíntá
Bena-Mboi Ɓəna (Laala) Yang nuú / nùùzà gwɛ̰ɛ̰ / gwɛ̰ɛ̰mé tìmrá / tìmtí ɗimbá / ɗimtá ɗilmará / ɗilmaatá ḛ̀yḛ́ / ḛ̀yḛ̀mé mónmá təfá / tòùtá bərà̰à̰ ɓotá / ngwbaté kəwə́ díndá / díntá
Bena-Mboi Robma (Laala Roba) nuu / nuuwà gwee / gweemé tìmrá / tìmtí ɗimbá / ɗimtá dilmará / dilmatá ḛḛ́ / eḛ́msà monma təfá / təfáámse bura / buráámsà ɓotá / ngbaté sewò dinda / dinta
Bena-Mboi Mboi Gulungo ɗəmbó / ɗìmda aʔəhḛ matəma ngɔdɔ́ / angedé ndià / ndiidà
Bena-Mboi Mboi Livo núú / núúźa tṵṵ̀ / tṵṵzà ifiya / ifita dúmbó / dimtà lemiya / lemta ahʔhi / ʔhimza matəma tutto / acicé mbiya ngɔ́tɔ́ / ángété ʒé ndíà / ndiità
Bena-Mboi Mboi Haanda nuu / nuuzà tuŋ / atʃw̄i rifḛḛrà / rifḛḛtà dúmbó / dimtà leembərà / leemtà ahʔhḭ̀ / mbai hímzà mátə́má túftò / atʃúfè mbra ŋbótó / aŋbécè ndera / ndərtata
Bena-Mboi Kaan (Libo) sunu / (sunuḿa) twḭ / twiiḿa shimbə́r / shimbətəmá təmbər / təmbərmâ ɗəlaamíì / ɗəlaamííʔóó ʔii / ʔiim morúm təfəra / təfətəmá barə̀m mərə̂m / mərəməmá zə́ ndə̀r / ndərmá
Yendang[32] Bali tɛ́ sɛ́ síbí ŋwɛ́lɛ ɲɛ́ míɗɛnɛ́ kṹɓí mò[k] lím
Yendang Kpasham núɛ̃́ wàswé ɲɛ́swɛ́ síbí ŋwɔ́le ɲɛ́ mídwíne kũ̀bi mɔk nə̌ŋ
Yendang Yoti dóo tóo sɔ́ɔ̃́ ʃúu wúlɛ̀ ɲâ dii kúnwí mii mòk níŋ
Yendang Yandang nɔk tòk ɲánsũ rùk lɛka ɲǎk le kún dĩ̀hĩ̀ mogí inaŋ
Mumuye[33] Proto-Mumuye *nu-ng, *nung; *gí-ǹg *co-V, *coo *su-ng, *sung *tná-li/-ri *ɗè-V/ng-ti *nyaa *kpa-V̀; *zing, *zi-ng *ka (redup.), *kak-V *mi-V, *mii, *min ? *la-V, *laa *caa *ríǹg, *rí-ǹg
Mumuye Mumuye (Zing) nung shoo sung tnári rèétè nyaa kpaà kaka mee laa shaa ríńg
Kam[34] Nyiŋɔm (Kam) Din Kamaajin ànùŋ àkàr àmə̀ràk àshàg / àshàgìyo àlímə́ní ŋwé àkùb mə̀ŋ káŋá bàl / bàl yo nìm; nəm níì (imp.)
Vere[35] Jango nɔ́ru / nɔ́ī tóŋ / tónnun míŋ; míŋ̄ / mínnùŋ núúrù / núúi mbéélu / mbéī ndáŋ̄ / ndántun kpa'arú / kpaˀatɛ́ rɛ́ndúkú / rɛ́ndɛ́ máŋ / mántúŋ rák / ratú rɛɛ kóp ríírú / rííté
Vere Jango (Southern) nɔ́ru / nɔ́(t)tí míŋ̄ / mínnùŋ núúrù / núúyì mbéélu / mbéétɛ́ ndáŋ̄ / ndántùŋ kpààˀru / kpàˀɛ rɛɛŋ
Vere Were nǒrrō tōn(g) mi(n)(g) nūī (pl.) bēlō dǎ(n)(g) pǎrū gaemām
Vere Batəm nɔr / nɔˀ tok / toˀ míˀ / miin núúr / núˀ mɛ́ɛ́l / mɛ́ˀté súˀ / sut kwaal / kwaaˀ niŋg / nin maam / máámə̀t teh / tɛt règùm; rɛ̀ká ríˀír / ríˀtɛ
Vere Momi nɔ̀r / nɔ̀ˀ tɔ̀k / tɔ̀ˀˀ mii / miin nùùr / nùùˀ meel / meeli suu / suut kpààl / kpaai nènk / nèn máàm / máŋ̀bət tè / tèt règùm; rɛ̀ká; rèèká ríír / rííti
Vere Vɔkba nɔr / nɔˀti tok / torum nik (?) núˀ mɛ́l súˀ kòàl néŋ / néŋti mám tɛˀ / tɛtə regɨm ríí
Vere Wɔmmu nɔ́r / núɔ́ tór / tóó (tʋ́r) míí / mííne nuurə̀/ núútə́ míɛ́le / mɛ́ɛ́té ~ míɛ́té dóbʒɩ̀ / dówwi kwaalə / kwaasə nɛ́ŋkə / nɛ́nté máám tɛ́ɛ́ / tɛ́tə rɛgum kwɔ́ú níìr / nííté
Vere Nissim nɔ́ɔ́l / núɔ́ tóól / tɔ́ɔ́tə́ míí / mííne núúlə / núúté mɛɛ́lə / mɛɛ́té dóbzə/ dóbpe kpaalə / kpaate neŋke / neŋte máám , máám bonúm àm tɛ́ɛ́ / tɛ́tə lem kúɔ́; lekə níllə / níttə́
Vere Eilim nɔ́l / nɔ́ɔ́ tól / tóó míí / míímtə̀ núúl / núúté mɛɛ́l / mɛɛ́té dám / damderei kpaal / kpaatə mám̀ tɛ́ɛ̄ lem kúɔ́; lekə líllə / níttə́
Vere Kobom nɔ́rì / nɔ́ɔ́ tókù / tóó mí / míímītī núúrì / nuute mɛ́ɛ́ni / mɛ́té dám / dámtíréí mɛɛm nɛ́ŋkù / nɛ́ŋté tɛ́ / tɛ́ti réí; rékɔ́ rííri / rííté
Vere Vɔmnəm nɔr / nɔɔ tukò / tuŋbərəm míì / míìm nuurò / nuute mɛɛlò / mɛɛte súú / sútò kwaalò / kwaasò nɛ́ŋkò / nɛŋté maàm tɛɛ / tɛɛtə rɛm; rɛkò niirò / niite
Vere Damtəm nuɔ̀l / nuɔ̀rɛ tɔ́l / tɔrɛ, tɔɔtɛ míl / mííté núl / núúte mɛl / mɛɛte dám / damtər kpaal / kpaaʃe lyɛngə̀ / lɛŋsyɛ tii / tiitə̀ nʌ́l / nʌʌtə́
Vere Gəunəm-Yar (Gə-Yarəm) nual / nuare cul / curie, tuure míəl / mííré núúl / núúré míál / mɛ́re dám / dámdə́ kpàal/ kpààsə̀də̀ nyáŋsə́l / nyáŋsé, nyáŋgə mám lau / lasə lìní kúə́; lìə̀- kúə́ lə́l / lérə
Vere Gə-Lim nual / nuarie túl / túríé míil / mííré nuul / nuurie mɛ́rl / mɛ́ɛ́rɛ̄ dám / dámdə́ kpaal / kpaarie nyángə́ mám láú / lásə́ lìní; lìə̀- kúʌ́ lʌl / lʌʌrie
Gəmnəm[36] Beiya nol / nootə tol / tootə mííl / míítə núŋlə̄ / núŋ mɛ́ɛ́l / mɛ́ɛ́tə nok / noŋtə meem / meemtə néngə, nɛ́ngə / néŋzə, nɛ́ŋzə má:m / máámtə̄ téé / teete liiná ; lìì kɔ́p nííl / níítə
Gəmnəm Gindoo nɔl tol míl nɨŋ́ lə mɛ́l nɔk mem nɨŋ́ ə / nɨŋ́ gə mám teˀ/ tetə níl
Gəmnəm Riitime nɔ́lé / nɔ́ˀɔ́ tólé / tóˀó mííle / mííˀe lúŋle / lúŋe méle / méˀē nogúsa / nóŋté mēēmē léngo / léŋē máámē / mámte téˀé / tété lii kóóp lə́lē / lə́ˀə
Gəmme Gəmme nólé / nóˀɛ́ tólé / tóˀó míhˀle / míhˀie níŋlē / níŋē méhˀle / méhyē yòlé / yòé míímé níngē / níŋmē memˀe téˀé / teˀnē lee lená nímlē / nímē
Gəmme Baanma nɔla / nɔˀɔ toga, toˀga / toˀma míhla / míˀi níŋla / níŋa mɛ́hla / mɛˀɛ yòla / yòˀo miima / miimda nɨŋ́ ga / nɨ́ŋma mema / memda teˀɛ/ teˀna lee lená nɨḿ la / nɨḿ a
Doyayo Doyayo lɔ¹lɛ¹ ~ yɔ̰¹lɛ¹ tɔ̰n¹ɛ¹ mḭḭl²; gɔ̰ɔ̰s²ɛ³ nuŋ⁴go² mɛlɛ³² ya̰a̰¹yɔ¹ ga̰a̰⁴mɛ² lɛ̰ŋ³ko² ~ lɛ̰ŋ²ko³ mɛ¹mɛ³ tɛ̰ɛ̰¹yɔ¹ le², lek¹yɔ¹ nuŋ²
Fali[37] Proto-Fali *nisu (pl.) *tuuyV; *tuuCV *unɨ *rɛɛŋgu *ndʒĩĩmV *kopfti *sɔɔ- *rii- *ĩn- (v.)
Mbum[38] Proto-Lakka *nún *sú-k *cɔN-k *sˣɛl/ŋ *rím *nɟá-k *sˣɛ́-m *hū-t/-k *kpə̀(-k) *mbì *lʳak *rìn
Kim[39] Goundo ndʊɾʊ huba vw̃ãl ɲu̯aɾ ɗɛl tʃʊm kal mam ura dʒam jɛmi
Kim Besmé ndua hoɾo vũãl hĩjɪm ɗelɛm wu tʃɔm kaːl mam ura dʒʊ̝m dĩː
Kim Kim Kosop ndʷaɾa togor vɔ̝̃r kĩj̃ar ɗɛl wak ̚ sɔma kal mam ʔwaɾa za dĩːl
Day[40] Day nɔ́n sɔ́g mbúr ngìì lélì/lélè/lèè nām dém bō̰ ʔém mīɲ -rì, lāà jōō
Bua[41] Proto-Bua *diil; *ʔiil *to(l)(-) *fo̰/ḛl/ɲ(-) ? *nii(-); *ɲ- ? *l₁el(-) *mu/i *s₂e/um(-) / *s₂ḛr- *te/o(l/g-) *l₂i/um(-); *me/on- ? *l₁e; *tu(y) *l₂iil
isolate[42] Laal mɨla / mɨní sɨ̀gál / sɨ̀gɨ́y pən / - yàmál / yèmí mal / mə̀lí yəwəl / - suna / - kòːg / kuagmi miàdál / miàr ~ miariɲ su / sùgá kaw / kɨw; ɲag / ɲɨg; guru / guru; cíd / cíd meːl / -

NumeralsEdit

Comparison of numerals in individual languages:

Classification Language 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Kam Kam bīmbīnī / bĩ̄ jīrāɡ tʃàr ǹdār ŋ̀wūn dʒùb (lit: six) dʒùbjī̄rāɡ (lit: six-two) sár ɲǐzā bò°
Kwa Kwa (Baa) (1) nùnkò nɨ̀nk͡péː nùmwāːn nɨ̀nàːtˢ nɨ̀núː nɨ̀nwén nɨ̀nkũ̀ (5+1) nɨ̀nwâːk͡péː (5+2) nùnfwa᷆ːfwātˢ nùnkwótˢ lá nùnkò (10-1) nùnkwótˢ
Kwa Kwa (Baa) (2) nə́ nkú nə́ ɡbéè nə mwáàn nə̀ nàt nə núú nə nwíya kũ̀, nə nwíyá nùkũ̀ (5+1) nə nwíyá ɡbéè (5+ 2) fɔ̀fɔ̀t nukút lánùkù (10 - 1) nukút
Waja-Jen, Longuda Longuda (1) laatwɛ̀ nààkwɛ̃́ nààtsə́r nèénnyìr nàànyɔ́ tsààtə̀n ínéényìr inààtsə́r (4 + 3 ?) nyíítìn énàànyɔ́ ínéényìr (5 + 4 ?) koo; kù (Zabe)
Waja-Jen, Longuda Longuda (2) naakhal naaashir naakwáí naanyìr nàànyó nakhínàkwáí nyinakwáí nyíthìn nyinannyó nɔ̂m
Waja-Jen, Yungur, Libo Kaan (Libo) wunú rɑ̀ɑ̀p tɑɑrə́n kuurún wɔɔnɔ́n woné wunu woné rɑɑp woné tɑɑrə́n woné kuurún kutún
Yungur Dumne, Dirma,Waltahdi, Sukt`u (ẞénā ) Finni F`itti tahkin kuurún wɔɔnɔ́n minn`dike bu`uttu kunk`urun woné kuurún buh
Waja-Jen, Jen Burak kwín ráb ɡ͡bunuŋ net nóob naaʃín nááre nátát ninit ʃóób
Waja-Jen, Jen Jenjo (Dza) tsɨnɡ bwənɡ / bwayunɡ bwatə bwanyə bwahmə hwĩtsɨnɡ (5+ 1) hwĩyunɡ (5+ 2) hwĩtə (5+ 3) hwĩnyə (5+ 4) bwahywə
Waja-Jen, Waja, Awak Awak (1) díːn yɔ́rɔ́b kunúŋ náː fwáːd yidíkúún (kúún) yidibírr (bírr) naríb tuːrkúb kɔ́b
Waja-Jen, Waja, Awak Awak (2) díːn yɔ́rɔ́b kunúŋ náː fwáːd kúún / yidíkúún bírr / yidibírr naríb tuːrkúb kɔ́b
Waja-Jen, Waja, Cham-Mona Dijim-Bwilim kwan su̠ bwanbí ɡwár nu̠ nukún nyibi naru̠ wurwin kwu̠
Waja-Jen, Waja, Dadiya Dadiya wiǹ yo tal nal nu nukuǹ ni̠bi̠l nááli̠b tí̠lku̠b ku̠b
Waja-Jen, Waja, Tula Bangunji (Bangwinji) (1) wìn yóp, yɔ́b táát náát núŋ núkùn nibir, nibeet naarùb teet kpóp, kwáb
Waja-Jen, Waja, Tula Bangunji (Bangwinji) (2) win yob taar naar nuŋ nukɡun niber naarub teer kwab
Waja-Jen, Waja, Tula Tula (Kɨtule) wìːn júrau jítːà jáːnà júnù júrùkùn jídìbìn nárɨ̀bú túrkùbú kúb
Waja-Jen, Waja, Tula Waja (nyan wɩyáʋ̀) ɡɛɛn rɔɔp kunoŋ nɩɩ nuwo nokono nibíyo wunii tɔɔrɔ kwáp
Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Dii Dii (Duru) dáɡá idú tããnɔ́ ndaddʉ́ (2 x 2) ? nɔ́nɔ́ ɡúú ɡúndɛm ('ndɛm' means odd member) kaʔandaddʉ́ (2 x 4) kɛ́ɡdáɡá (' one finger is left ') wãnɓóʔ
Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Dii Dugun dáɡá irú tããnó ndaró (2 x 2) ? sáá ɡúú ɡútamme kaʔandadró (2 x 4) kɛ́ɡdáɡá (' one finger is left ') bōʔ
Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Dii Duupa (Papé) dáŋɡá ittó tããtó nattó sáá ɡúú ɡútambe kaʔandaró (2 x 4) /naarúpa kɛ́rdáŋɡá (' one finger is left ') bòʔ
Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Kutin Peere (Kutin) də́ə iro tããro naro núuno nóndə́ə də́msàrà dàaɡò (from Hausa ?) ɡĩ̀ĩdə́ə (' one finger is left ' ?) fób
Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Vere-Dowayo, Dowayo Doyayo ɡbúnú éérɛ́ taarɛ násɔ noonɛ́ nɔ̀ɔnɡbúnú (5 + 1) nɔ̀ɔnéérɛ́ (5 + 2) nɔ̀ɔntaarɛ (5 + 3) / ɡẽẽse nɔ̀ɔnnásɔ (5 + 4) / nàanzâ kooblɛ
Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Vere-Dowayo, Vere-Gimme, Gimme Gimme (Gəmme) (1) wɔɔna ítìɡè taaɡè náàɡè nɔɔnɨ̀ɡe nɔnɡe nɔʔitiɡè dàɡwà nɨ́ŋsɨ́nè kób
Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Vere-Dowayo, Vere-Gimme, Gimme Gimme (Kampara) (2) wɔɔna idtiɡè taaɡè náàɡè nɔɔnɨ̀ɡè nɔnɡè nɔʔidtiɡè dāɡwà (probably from Hausa) nɨ́ŋ̀sɨ́nè kób
Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Vere-Dowayo, Vere-Gimme, Vere Gə́mnə́m (1) mani tɛk taarək náárə́k nɔɔnɔ̀k nɔɔ waŋɡə náárə́k àp tāārə̀k (4 + 3 ?) náárə́k àp náárə́k (4 + 4 ?) náárə́k àp nɔɔnɔ̀k (4 + 5 ?) kóp
Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Vere-Dowayo, Vere-Gimme, Vere Vɔmnəm (2) màn ètên tāán nānnò ɡbà náárò ɡbāāsə̀ mâl ɡbāāsə̀ ètên ɡbāāsə̀ táān ɡbāāsə̀ nānnà kòmnā
Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Vere-Dowayo, Vere-Gimme, Vere Mom Jango muzoz ɪ̀ttə́z tàáz náz ɡbanáá bámbə́z ɡbánsá sàmsaara píttámúzo (10 - 1 ?) kòmna
Leko-Nimbari, Duru, Voko-Dowayo, Voko Longto (Voko) wə́ŋ̄ŋá sittó tããbó nabbó nɔ̃ɔ̃mó sáámɛ sã́rã́ŋŋá nàànuśudɛ̂; nàándɛ dɛ́ɛ́ɡínnaaɡɔ́ lɛǹnaaɡbɔ̀ŋ́; lɛnnaaḿ, lɛnaań
Leko-Nimbari, Leko Kolbila (Zurá) níiá innú toonú nɛɛrəb núnnub núŋɡɔ́ɔs núŋ innú (5 + 2) núŋ toonú (5 + 3) núŋ nɛɛrəb (5 + 4) kôb
Leko-Nimbari, Leko Samba Leko nɨ́ŋa iirà toorà naarà núúnà nɔ̂ŋɡɔ̂s nɨ̂ŋsinà dàɡwà daanɨ̂ŋne (' one is left ') kóp
Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Mumuye Mumuye ɡbétè ziti taːti dɛ̃̀ːtì mǎːni máŋɡbétè (5+ 1) mánziti (5+ 2) mántaːti (5+ 3) mándɛ̃̀ːtì (5+ 4) kopi
Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Yandang Bali (Maya) ɓini iye taat naat nɔng niɓini (5+ 1) niaiye (5+ 2) nitaat (5+ 3) ninaat (5+ 4) kop
Leko-Nimbari, Mumuye-Yandang, Yandang Nyesam (Kpasham) ɓíní ʔíè tátˢ nātˢ nɔ̃́ŋ nāɓíní (5+ 1) nāk͡píē (5+ 2) nātáts (5+ 3) nānāts (5+ 4) kópʰ
Fali South Fali k͡pòlò cúk /tʃʊ́k tàːn náːn / nʌ́ːn kɛ̃rɛ̃w yìɾá ɟɔ̀ɾɔ́s nàn nán kʌ̀ntɛ́ŋ / ŋɡʌskum ɾá
Mbum-Day, Bua Niellim ɓúdū ndīdí tērí ɲɛ̄ní lùní táːr lòŋɡɔ̄ twāːɲɛ̄ní dòsó < Bagirmi dokome
Mbum-Day, Bua Tunya (Tunia) sèlì àrī àtā ànā àlōnī nānò lúlú kɔ̀ntā̰ àtī kùtù
Mbum-Day, Bua Zan Gula sa:dʊŋ ɾisːi toːɾi naːsɪ tɛ bɛ sa:dʊŋ (5 + 1) tɛ bɛ ɾisːi (5 + 2) tɛ bɛ toːɾi (5 + 3) tɛ bɛ naːsɪ (5 + 4) filoːle
Mbum-Day, Day Day (Buna dialect) nɡɔ̄ŋ́ dīí ndà sɛ̄rì sɛ̄rì mòn bīyām tà (probably 'four three') pārārā bór sōŋ rə́ nɡɔ̄ŋ́ ('lacking one') mò̰
Mbum-Day, Kim Besme mōndā / mbírāŋ tʃírí hā̰sī ndày ndìyārá mānɡùl ɗīyārā ndāsì nòmīnā wàl
Mbum-Day, Kim Kim ɗú ndà nūwḛ̄y mènènɡāl ɓēálā / ɓēálār tīmāl / wázìzí (10 - 2) làmāɗō / wázìɗú (10 - 1) wòl
Mbum-Day, Mbum, Southern Mbum mbìyə̀w sérè sāy nìŋ ndībī zèy zīndɔ́kɔ̀ sāy (10 - 3) zīndɔ́kɔ̀ sérè (10 - 2) zīndɔ́kɔ̀ mbìyə̀w (10 - 1) bōó
Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Tupuri-Mambai Mambay bóm ɓàtì bìsáʕ bìnã̀ʕ bìzépḛ́ bìɡírò tàrnã́ɡà fwàrnã́ɡà / wàr séʕnã́ fàɡ͡bàʕŋ ɓàtì sêʕbóm / wàr séʕnã́ fàɡ͡bàʕŋ bóm zóɗôm / séʕnã́ kíríb
Mbum-Day, Mbum, Northern, Tupuri-Mambai Tupari bɔ̈ɔ̄ŋ / böŋɛ̄ (full form) ɓɔ̀ɡë sùwàʔä nàa dūwēe hïiráʔä rënām nènmàʔä kàawàʔä hùwàlë
Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Karang Karang mbéw séɗè sāy nìŋ ndīɓī tɔ́tɔ́klɔ́ tòŋ ndɔ́k sāy [remains (in) hands 3] tòŋ ndɔ́k séɗè [remains (in) hands 2] tòŋ ndɔ́k mbéw[remains (in hands 1] bǒh
Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Karang Nzakambay mbíew sère sày nìŋ ndiɓi zèe zì ndɔ́kɔ sày (10 - 3) zì ndɔ́kɔ sère (10 - 2) zì ndɔ́kɔ mbíew (10 - 1) ɓoo
Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Koh Koh (Kuo) mbí̧à̧w / mbí̧ẁ síɗè sāy nìŋ ndēɓē yíè /íyè tò nɔ́ sāy (10 - 3) tò nɔ́ síɗè (10 - 2) tò nɔ́ mbí̧à̧w (10 - 1) dùɔ

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  3. ^ Güldemann, Tom (2018). "Historical linguistics and genealogical language classification in Africa". In Güldemann, Tom (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of Africa. The World of Linguistics series. 11. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 58–444. doi:10.1515/9783110421668-002. ISBN 978-3-11-042606-9.
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External linksEdit