Samo language (Burkina)

Samo (Sane, San, Sa) is a dialect cluster of Niger-Congo languages spoken in Burkina Faso.

Samo
Sane
RegionBurkina Faso
Native speakers
(230,000 cited 1995–1999)[1]
Niger–Congo
  • Mande
    • Eastern Mande
      • Bissa–Busa
        • Samo–Busa
          • Samo
Language codes
ISO 639-3Variously:
stj – Matya Samo
sym – Maya Samo
sbd – Southern Samo
Glottologmand1437
Languages of Burkina Faso.png
Majority areas of Samo speakers, in grey, on a map of Burkina Faso

VarietiesEdit

Intelligibility between Samo varieties is low. The following have been coded as separate languages:[2]

DemographicsEdit

Samo dialect populations and locations:[4]

Dialect Region Population (1985) Population (2001[5])
Maka Southern, surrounding Toma 61,883 84,996
Matya Northwest, to the west and north of Tougan (excluding Toéni area) 33,675 46,252
Matya Far Northwest (Toéni region) 9,942 13,655
Maya Northeast, surrounding Kiembara and Bangassogo 38,393 52,732
all Total 143,893 197,635

List of Samo villages organised by department and dialect:[4]

Dialect Province Department Villages
Maka Mouhoun Tchériba Bissandérou, Orobié, Youbou
Maka Nayala Gassan Dieré, Djimbara, Gassan, Labara, Laré, Moara, Téri
Maka Nayala Gossina Bosson, Boun, Gossina, Kalabo, Koayo, Le Koun, Madamao, Massako, Naboro, Nianonkoré, Nypon, Sui, Tandou, Tarba, Zebassé
Maka Nayala Kougny Goin, Gougnan, Gouri, Kamba, Kibiri, Kougny, Niaré, Nimina, Sébéré, Tiouma
Maka Nayala Toma Goa, Goussi, Koin, Kola, Konti, Niemé, Nyon, Pankélé, Samba, Sawa, Sien, Siepa, To, Toma, Yayo, Zouma
Maka Nayala Yaba Biba, Bo, Bounou, Kéra, Kisson, La, Loguin, Sapala, Saran, Siena, Tiema, Tosson, Yaba
Matya Sourou Di Benkadi, Poura
Matya Sourou Kassoum Bangassi, Bao, Bassam, Bonro, Diele, Doussoula, Fialla, Fian, Fianra, Kankani, Kassoum, Koularé, Kourani, Mara-Grand, Mara-Petit, Ourkoum, P’Nare, Peni, Sorona, Soumara Boumba, Soumarani, Tianra, Tiao, Tombila, Toungourou, Wawara
Matya Sourou Lanfiéra Guiedougou, Lanfiéra
Matya Sourou Tougan Da, Dimboro, Diouroum, Dissi, Gonou, Gosson, Kassan, Kawara, Kouy, Nassan, Tougan, Tourgare, Zinzin
Matya? Sourou Toéni Dagale, Domoni, Dounkou, Gome, Gon, Gorguéré, Kware-Manguel, Kware-Toksel, Louta, Toéni
Maya Sourou Gomboro Ganagoulo, Gomboro, Konga, Sia
Maya Sourou Kiembara Bangassogo, Gan, Goueré, Gouyalle, Kiembara, Ouelle
Maya Sourou Lankoué Lankoué Samo, Rassouli, Tourouba
Maya Sourou Toéni Sanan, Sanga, Semé
Maya Sourou Tougan Bonou, Bouare, Boussoum, Daka, Guimou, Niankore, Touare, Yéguéré

Sample vocabularyEdit

Sample basic vocabulary of Samo dialects:[4]

Village Dialect eye ear nose tooth tongue mouth blood bone water tree eat
Toma Maka to ɲɛ̃ lɛwɔ mɑ̀ ɑ̀mɑ́mbíː
Kouy Matya jɛrːɛ toro jiːni sɔ̃ːnɛ nɛnɛ mɪjɑ̀ jɛrɛ dɑ́ ɑnebɑ́rè
Kassoum Matya ɲɑ́n toro ɲú sɔ̃n nɛnɛ mɪjɑ̀ jɛr dɑ́ ɑ̀nèbɛrɛ
Toéni Matya toro nɛn li mɑ̌ː jidɑ̀ mɑːbɛ̀rɛ̀
Bounou Maya ɲoːnì; jɛrɛ toro ɲinijɛrɛ so leːnè mɑ̌ jɑre mu ɑfɑ́bjèrè
Kiembara Maya ɲɛ́nɛ̀nɛ̀ tɔrɔ ɲìní so lɛ́lɑ̀ːnɑ̀ lɛ́ mɑ̌ː jɛ̀rɛ̀ mṹ dɑ́ ɑ̀gɑ̀bɛ̀rɛ̀
Bangassogo Maya jere toro jindì so lelene le ɲɑ̀mɑ wɛrɛ jídɑ ɑbɑ́brì
Lankoué Maya jɛrɛ toro sinde sɔ̀ lemìnì jõ̀mɑ wɛrɛ jidɑ̀ ɑbɑbɛ̀rɛ̀

Writing SystemEdit

Southern Samo alphabet[6]
a b c d e ɛ ə f i k kp l m n ŋ o ɔ p r s t u w y
Maya Samo alphabet [7]
a b c d e ɛ f g h i ɩ j k l
m n ɲ o ɔ p r s t u ʋ w y z

Notes and referencesEdit

  1. ^ Matya Samo at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
    Maya Samo at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
    Southern Samo at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ "Burkina Faso". Ethnologue, 22nd edition. Retrieved 2019-09-25.
  3. ^ The Seenku a.k.a. Sembla language is also called 'Southern Samo'.
  4. ^ a b c Berthelette, John (2002). Survey report on the San (Samo) language. SIL Electronic Survey Reports 2002-005. (PDF)
  5. ^ Estimate, with 2.68% annual increase
  6. ^ "Dictionnaire San du sud » Alphabet".
  7. ^ ANTBA2001.