West Atlantic languages

  (Redirected from Atlantic languages)

The West Atlantic languages (or Atlantic languages[note 1]) of West Africa are a major subgroup of the Niger–Congo languages.

West Atlantic
Atlantic
(obsolete)
Geographic
distribution
Westernmost Africa
Linguistic classificationNiger–Congo
GlottologNone

The Atlantic languages are spoken along the Atlantic coast from Senegal to Liberia, though transhumant Fula speakers have spread eastward and are found in large numbers across the Sahel, from Senegal to Nigeria, Cameroon and Sudan. Wolof of Senegal and several of the Fula languages are the most populous Atlantic languages, with several million speakers each. Other significant members include Serer and the Jola dialect cluster of Senegal. Temne, a major language of Sierra Leone, was included in the Atlantic subgroup in earlier classifications, but in modern proposals, it is no longer grouped within Atlantic.

Most Atlantic languages exhibit consonant mutation and have noun-class systems similar to those of the distantly related Bantu languages. Some languages are tonal, while others such as Wolof have pitch-accent systems. The basic word order tends to be SVO.

Classification and scopeEdit

Traditional classificationEdit

The Atlantic family was first identified by Sigismund Koelle in 1854. In the early 20th century, Carl Meinhof claimed that Fula was a Hamitic language, but August von Klingenhaben and Joseph Greenberg's work conclusively established Fula's close relationship with Wolof and Serer. W. A. A. Wilson notes that the validity of the family as a whole rests on much weaker evidence, though it is clear that the languages are part of the Niger–Congo family, based on evidence such as a shared noun-class system. However, comparative work on Niger–Congo is in its infancy. Classifications of Niger–Congo, usually based on lexicostatistics, generally propose that the various Atlantic languages are rather divergent, but less so than Mande and other languages that lack noun classes.

David Sapir (1971) proposed a classification of Atlantic into three branches, a northern group, a southern group, and the divergent Bijago language of the Bissagos Islands off the coast of Guinea-Bissau:[1]

Sapir's classification is widely cited in handbooks on African linguistics (e.g. Bender 1989, Williamson & Blench 2000), and is also used in the Ethnologue (22nd ed., 2019).

Modern proposalsEdit

The unity of the Atlantic languages—as traditionally defined—has long been questioned, e.g. Dalby (1965), who argued for the Mel languages as a primary branch of Niger–Congo. At the current state of research, the wide concept of Atlantic (i.e. including the Southern languages) within the Niger–Congo family is no longer held up.[2]

Segerer (2010, 2016[3]) and Pozdniakov & Segerer (2017) propose a narrowed-down version of the Atlantic languages by excluding all languages of the southern branch, which they treat as four primary branches (viz. Sua, Limba, Gola, and the Mel languages) within the Niger–Congo family. The Bak languages are split from the northern languages as a coordinate subbranch within Atlantic (in the narrow sense). Bijago is assigned to the Bak languages.

Güldemann (2018) goes even further, and also treats Nalu amd MbulungishBaga Mboteni ("Rio Nunez") as unclassified first-order branches of Niger–Congo.[4]

Revised classification of the Atlantic languages (Vossen & Dimmendaal 2020:166[5], from Pozdniakov & Segerer[6]):

Atlantic
  • North
    • Wolof: Wolof, Lebu
    • Nyun-Buy
      • Nyun (Gunyaamolo, Gujaher, Gubëeher, etc.)
      • Buy (Kasanga, Kobiana)
    • Tenda-Jaad
      • Tenda: Basari, Tanda, Bedik, Bapen; Konyagi
      • Jaad: Biafada; Badiaranke
    • Fula-Sereer
      • Fula (Pular, Pulaar, Fulfulde, etc.)
      • Sereer
    • Cangin
      • Palor, Ndut
      • Noon, Laala, Saafi
    • Nalu
      • Nalu
      • Bage Fore
      • Baga Mboteni
  • Bak
    • Balant: Ganja, Kentohe, Fraase
    • Joola-Manjaku
      • Joola: Fogny, Banjal, Kasa, Kwaatay, Karon, Ejamat, Keeraak, etc.; Bayot ?
      • Manjaku
      • Bok, Cur, Bassarel
      • Pepel
      • Mankanya
    • Bijogo: Kamona, Kagbaaga, Kajoko

ReconstructionEdit

Proto-Atlantic lexical innovations reconstructed by Pozdniakov & Segerer (2017):[7]

Gloss Proto-Atlantic
‘star’ *kʷʊʈ
‘to fly’ *yiiʈ
‘to die’ *keʈ
‘to rot’ *pʊʈ
‘three’ *taʈ
‘eye’ *giʈ
‘liver’ *heɲ
‘feather’ *lung
‘hair’ *wal
‘baobab’ *bak ~ *ɓak
‘to see’ *jok (?)
‘tree trunk’ *dik
‘to give birth’ *was / *bas

Sample Atlantic cognate sets:[7]

Language ‘eye’ ‘liver’ ‘feather’ ‘hair’ ‘baobab’ ‘to see’ ‘tree trunk’ ‘to give birth’
Proto-Atlantic *giʈ *heɲ *lung *wal *b/ɓak *jok? *dik *w/bas
Tenda-Jaad *gəɬ *ceeɲ *dɔ̰̀ngw *mbal ɓak jeek? *bas
Fula-Sereer *git xeeɲ wiil ɓaak/ɓok jak lek- ɓas-il
Nyun-Buy *giɬ kɩɩɲ lung bɔk njug? leex/rien bɔs
Wolof -ət dung *-war jàkk wəs-in
Cangin *ʔəɬ *kɛɛɲ ɓaʔ/ɓɔh *dik ɓəs
Nalu cet bɛɛk yɛk dik/lik
Joola kiɬ hɩɩɲ *wal bak jʊk nʊk-an βɔs
Manjak *kiɬ *-ɩɲ lung *wɛl bak jʊk bas
Balant *kít/git hɩ́ɩ́ɲɛ̰̀ wul/hul ndíŋá/ndiik
Bijogo ŋɛ runk- wa joŋ nik-an -gbʸa

NumeralsEdit

Comparison of numerals in individual languages:[8]

Classification Language 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Senegambian, Serer Sereer-Sine (1) leŋ ƭik tadik nahik ƥetik ɓetaa fo leŋ (5 + 1) ɓetaa ƭak (5 + 2) ɓetaa tadak (5 + 3) ɓetaa nahak (5 + 4) xarɓaxaay
Senegambian, Serer Serer-Sine (2) leŋ ɗik tadik nahik ɓedik ɓetuː fa leŋ (5 + 1) ɓetuː ɗik (5 + 2) ɓetuː tadik (5 + 3) ɓetuː nahik (5 + 4) xarɓaxay
Senegambian, Fula-Wolof Wolof bɛn: ɲaːr ɲɛtː ɲɛnt dʒuroːm dʒuroːm bɛn: (5 + 1) dʒuroːm ɲaːr (5 + 2) dʒuroːm ɲɛtː (5 + 3) dʒuroːm ɲɛnt (5 + 4) fukː
Senegambian, Fula-Wolof CE Niger Fulfulde ɡɔ́ʔɔ̀ ɗíɗi tátì náì ɟóè ɟóé ɡɔ̀l (5 + 1) ɟóé ɗìɗi (5 + 2) ɟóé tátì (5 + 3) ɟóé náì (5 + 4) sáppò
Senegambian, Fula-Wolof Western Niger Fulfulde ɡoʔo ɗiɗi tati naj d͡ʒoj d͡ʒeeɡom (5 + 1) d͡ʒeɗɗi (5 + 2) d͡ʒeetati (5 + 3) d͡ʒeenaj (5 + 4) sappo
Senegambian, Fula-Wolof Adamawa Fulfulde ɡoʔo ɗiɗi tati naj d͡ʒowi d͡ʒoweːɡo (5 + 1) d͡ʒoweːɗiɗi (5 + 2) d͡ʒoweːtati (5 + 3) d͡ʒoweːnaj (5 + 4) sappo
Senegambian, Fula-Wolof Fulfulde Maasina ɡoʔo ɗiɗi tati naj d͡ʒoj d͡ʒeːɡom (5 + 1) d͡ʒeɗ:i (5 + 2) d͡ʒet:i (5 + 3) d͡ʒeːnaj (5 + 4) sap:o
Senegambian, Fula-Wolof Pular ɡooto / ɡoo ɗiɗi tati naj d͡ʒowi d͡ʒeeɡo (5 + 1) d͡ʒeeɗiɗi (5 + 2) d͡ʒeetati (5 + 3) d͡ʒeenaj (5 + 4) sappo
Senegambian, Fula-Wolof Pulaar ɡoo ɗiɗi tati naj d͡ʒoj d͡ʒeeɡom (5 + 1) d͡ʒeeɗiɗi (5 + 2) d͡ʒeetati (5 + 3) d͡ʒeenaj (5 + 4) sappo
Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Banyun Baïnounk Gubëeher -nduk -na:k -lal: -rendek cilax (lit: hand) cilax aŋɡa -nduk cilax aŋɡa -na:k cilax aŋɡa -lal: cilax aŋɡa -rɛndɛk ha:lax (litː feet)
Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Banyun Gunyaamolo Banyun (1) uŋɡonduk hanakk halall harɛnɛk hɐməkila hɐməkila iŋɡi uŋɡonduk hɐməkila iŋɡi hanakk hɐməkila iŋɡi halall hɐməkila iŋɡi harɛnɛk haala (litː hands)
Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Banyun Gunyaamolo Banyun (2) -duk -nak -lall -rɛnɛk -məkila -məkila iŋɡi -duk (5 + 1) -məkila iŋɡi -nak (5 + 2) -məkila iŋɡi -lall (5 + 3) -məkila iŋɡi -rɛnɛk (5 + 4) ha-lah (litː hands)
Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Nun Kasanga (Cassanga) -tɛɛna -naandiid -taar -sannaʔ jurooɡ jurooɡ -tɛɛna (5 + 1) jurooɡ -naandiid (5 + 2) ɡasansanna (cf. 'four') jurooɡ -sannaʔ (5 + 4) ŋaarooɡ (litː 'fives')
Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Nun Kobiana -tee(na) -naŋ -teeh -sannaŋ jurooɡ jurooɡ -tee(na) (5 + 1) jurooɡ -tee(na) + ? (5 + 1 + x) sannaŋ sannaŋ (4 + 4) sannaŋ sannaŋ + ? (4 + 4 + x) ntaajã
Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda Badyara painɛ / pakkã maae mat͡ʃaw manne kobəda kobəda ŋka-inɛ (5 + 1) kobəda ŋka maae (5 + 2) kobəda ŋka mat͡ʃaw (5 + 3) kobəda ŋka manne (5 + 4) pappo
Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda Oniyan (Bassari) imɐt ɓəki ɓətɐs ɓənɐx ɓəɲɟɔ ɓəɲɟɔŋɡimɐt (5 + 1) ɓəɲɟɔŋɡəɓəki (5 + 2) ɓəɲɟɔŋɡəɓətɐs (5 + 3) ɓəɲɟɔŋɡəɓənɐx (5 + 4) ɛpəxw
Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda Biafada (1) nəmma bihe biɟo bini ɡəbəda mpaaɟi mpaaɟi ŋɡa ɲi (6 + ɲi) wase leberebo bapo
Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda Biafada (2) -nnəmma -ke -jo -nnihi ɡəbəda mpaaji mpaaji nyi (6 + nyi) wose liberebo ba-ppo
Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda Budik (Tenda) riye, diye, iye xi, ki sas, tas maxala, maxana co(nje) co nɡə iye (5 + 1) co nɡə xi (5 + 2) co nɡə sas (5 + 3) co nɡə maxala (5 + 4) ipox
Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda Wamey (Konyagi) rjɐmpɔ wɐhi wɐrɐr wɐr̃ɐh mbəɗ mbəɗ ɡə rjɐw̃ (5 + 1) mbəɗ ɡə wɐhi (5 + 2) mbəɗ ɡə wɐrɐr (5 + 3) mbəɗ ɡə wɐnɐh (5 + 4) pəhw
Bijago Bijago (Bijogo) nɔɔd n-som ɲ-ɲɔɔkɔ ya-aɡɛnɛk n-deɔkɔ (n-deɔkɔ) na nɔɔd (5 + 1) (n-deɔkɔ) ni n-som (5 + 2) (n-deɔkɔ) ni ɲ-ɲɔɔkɔ (5 + 3) (n-deɔkɔ) na ya-aɡɛnɛk (5 + 4) n-ruakɔ
Bak, Balant-Ganja Balanta-Ganja -woda -sibi -aabí -tahla -jíif faaj faajinɡooda (6 + 1) ? taataala (2 x 4) ? -jíntahla (5 + 4) ? -jímmin
Bak, Balant-Ganja Balanta-Kentohe fho:dn / ho:dn ksibm khobm ktahli t͡ʃɪf (litː hand) t͡ʃɪf kə fhdon (5 + 1) t͡ʃɪf kə ksibm (5 + 2) t͡ʃɪf kə khobm (5 + 3) t͡ʃɪf kə ktalhi (5 + 4) t͡ʃɪːfmɛn (litː whole hands)
Bak, Jola, Bayot Bayot ɛndon tɪɡˑɡa fɜzɪ iβɛɪ oɾɔ (litː 'one hand') oɾɔ-nenˑdon ('one hand plus one') oɾɔ-niɾɪɡˑɡa ('one hand plus two') oɾɔ-nifɛzɪ ('one hand plus three') oɾɔ-niβɛɪ ('one hand plus four') ɡʊtˑtɪɛ ('two hands' )
Bak, Jola, Bayot Senegal Bayot ɛndon ɪɾɪɡːə i'feɟi ɪ'βɛj ɔɾɔ (litː 'one hand') ɔɾɔ nɪ 'ɛndon ('one hand plus one') ɔɾɔ nɪ 'ɪɾiɡːə ('one hand plus two') ɔɾɔ nɪ i'feɟi ('one hand plus three') ɔɾɔ nɪ ɪ'βɛj ('one hand plus four') ʊ'sɛβɔkɔ ('two hands' )
Bak, Jola, Jola Proper Bandial jɐnʊɾ suːβɐ si'fʰəʝi sɪ'bɐɣɪɾ fʊ'tɔx fʊ'tɔx nɪ 'jɐnʊɾ (5 + 1) fʊ'tɔx nɪ 'suːβɐ (5 + 2) fʊ'tɔx nɪ si'fʰəʝi (5 + 3) fʊ'tɔx nɪ sɪ'bɐɣɪɾ (5 + 4) ɣʊ'ɲɛn (litː hands)
Bak, Jola, Jola Proper Gusilay janɷr ɷ = ʊ suuβa sifːəɟi sɪbːaɣɪr fɷtɔx fɷtɔx nɪ janɷr (5 + 1) fɷtɔx nɪ suuβa (5 + 2) fɷtɔx nɪ sifːəɟi (5 + 3) fɷtɔx nɪ sɪbːaɣɪr (5 + 4) ɡɷɲɛn (litː hands)
Bak, Jola, Jola Proper Jola-Fonyi (Dyola) (1) jəkon siɡaba sifeeɡiir sibaakiir futɔk futɔk di jəkon (5 + 1) futɔk di siɡaba (5 + 2) futɔk di sifeeɡiir (5 + 3) futɔk di sibaakiir (5 + 4) uɲɛn
Bak, Jola, Jola Proper Jola-Fonyi (Dyola) (2) jəkon siɡaba sifeeɡiir sibaakiir futɔk futɔk di jəkon (5 + 1) futɔk di siɡaba (5 + 2) futɔk di sifeeɡiir (5 + 3) futɔk di sibaakiir (5 + 4) uɲɛn
Bak, Jola, Jola Proper Jola-Kaasa jɐnɔ sil̥uβə si'həːɟi sɪ'bɐkɪː hʊ'tɔk hʊ'tɔk lɪ 'jɐnɔ (5 + 1) hʊ'tɔk lɪ 'sil̥uβə (5 + 2) hʊ'tɔk lɪ si'həːɟi (5 + 3) hʊ'tɔk lɪ sɪ'bɐkɪː (5 + 4) kʊ'ŋɛn (litː hands)
Bak, Jola, Jola Proper Karon yɔːnɔːl susupək sihəːciːl sɪpɐːkɪːl ɪsɐk ɪsɐk nɪ yɔːnɔːl (5 + 1) ɪsɐk nɪŋ susupək (5 + 2) ɪsɐk nɪŋ sihəːciːl (5 + 3) ɪsɐk nɪŋ sɪpɐːkɪːl (5 + 4) ŋɐːsʊwɐn susupək
Bak, Jola, Jola Proper Kwatay (Kwaataay) hifeeneŋ kúsuba kíhaaji kibaakir hutok hutok ni hifeeneŋ (5 + 1) hutok nu kúsuba (5 + 2) hutok ni kíhaaji (5 + 3) hutok ni kibaakir (5 + 4) sumoŋu
Bak, Manjaku-Papel Mankanya ulolɛ̂n ŋɨ́tɛp ŋɨ̀wàdʒɛ̀nt ŋɨbakɨr kaɲɛn padʒɨ nawuloŋ bakɾɛ̂ŋ kaɲɛ́ŋkalɔŋ iɲɛ̂n (litː hands)
Bak, Manjaku-Papel Papel o-loŋ ŋ-puɡus ŋ-ɟenʂ ŋ-uakr k-ɲene paaɟ ɟand bakari k-ɲeŋ k-loŋ (< 10 - 1 ?) o-diseɲene
Cangin Laalaa (Lehar) wi̘ːno̘ː kɐnɐk kɐːhɐj niːkiːs jə̘tu̘ːs jitnɛːnɔː (5 + 1) jitnɐkɐnɐk (5 + 2) jitnɐkɐːhɐj (5 + 3) jitnɐniːkiːs (5 + 4) dɐːŋkɛh
Cangin Ndut yinë [jinə] ana [ʔana] éeyë [ʔéeyə] iniil [ʔiniːl] iip [ʔiːp] pëenë [ˈpəːnə] (5 + 1) paana [ˈpaːna] (5 + 2) peeye [ˈpeːjɛ] (5 + 3) payniil [ˈpainiːl] (5 + 4) sabboo [ˈsabɔː]
Cangin Noon ˈwiːnɔ: / ˈwitnɔː ˈkanak ˈkaːhaj ˈnɪkɪːs ˈjətu̘ːs jɪtˈnɪːnɔː (5 + 1) jɪtnaˈkanak (5 + 2) jɪtnaˈkaːhaj (5 + 3) jɪtnaˈnɪkɪːs (5 + 4) ˈdaːŋkah
Cangin Palor (Falor) yino ana eye iniil iip poyno (5 + 1) paana (5 + 2) peeye (5 + 3) payniil (5 + 4) saɓo
Cangin Saafi-Saafi (Safen) ˈjiːnɔ ˈkanak̚ ˈkaːhay ˈniːkis jaːtus (< 'hand jaːh') ˌjiːs na ˈjiːno (5 + 1) ˌjiːs na ˈkanak̚ (5 + 2) ˌjiːs na ˈkaːhay (5 + 3) ˌjiːs na ˈniːkis (5 + 4) ˈndaŋkiaːh
Mbulungish-Nalu Mbulungish (Baga-Foré) kiben ʃidi / tʃidi ʃitɛt / tʃitɛt ʃinɛŋ / tʃinɛŋ susɑ sɑkben (5 + 1) sɑkdi (5 + 2) sɑktɛt (5 + 3) sɑknɛŋ (5 + 4) ɛtɛlɛ
Mbulungish-Nalu Nalu (1) deːndɪk bilɛ paːt biːnaːŋ teːduŋ teːduŋ ti ndeːndɪk (5 + 1) teːduŋ ti bilɛ (5 + 2) teːduŋ ti paːt (5 + 3) teːduŋ ti biːnaːŋ (5 + 4) tɛːblɛ ~ tɛbɪlɛ
Mbulungish-Nalu Nalu (2) deendek bilɛ paat biinaaŋ teedoŋ teedoŋ ti mdeendek (5 + 1) teedoŋ ti bilɛ (5 + 2) teedoŋ ti paat (5 + 3) teedoŋ ti biinaaŋ (5 + 4) tɛɛblɛ
Limba West-Central Limba hantʰe kaaye kataati kanaŋ kasɔhi kasɔŋ hantʰe (5 + 1) kasɔŋ kaaye (5 + 2) kasɔŋ kataati (5 + 3) kasɔŋ kanaŋ (5 + 4) kɔɔhi
Limba East Limba hantʰe kale katati kanaŋ kasɔhi kasɔŋ hantʰe (5 + 1) kasɔŋ kale (5 + 2) kasɔŋ katati (5 + 3) kasɔŋ kanaŋ (5 + 4) kɔhi
Sua Mansoanka (Sua) sɔn cen b-rar b-nan sɔŋɡun sɔŋɡun də sɔnsɔn (5 + 1) sɔŋɡun də mcen (5 + 2) sɔŋɡun də mbrar (5 + 3) sɔŋɡun də mnan (5 + 4) tɛŋi
Mel, Bullom-Kissi Bullom So(Mani) nìmbúl nìncə́ŋ nìnrá nìŋnyɔ́l / -nyɔ́l nìmán mɛ̀m-búl (5 + 1) mɛ̀ncə́ŋ (5 + 2) mɛ̀nrá (5 + 3) mɛ̀nnyɔ́l (5 + 4) wàm
Mel, Bullom-Kissi Sherbro bul tɪŋ hyo̠l o̠ = French au in aube' mɛn mɛn-buk (5 + 1) mɛn-tɪŋ (5 + 2) mɛn-ra (5 + 3) mɛn-hyo̠l (5 + 4) wāŋ
Mel, Bullom-Kissi Southern Kissi pìlɛ̀ɛ́ mùúŋ ŋɡàá hìɔ́ɔ́lú ŋùɛ̀ɛ́nú ŋǒmpûm (5 + 1) ŋǒmɛ́ú (5 + 2) ŋǒmáá (5 + 3) ŋǒmàhìɔ́ɔ́lú (5 + 4) tɔ́
Mel, Gola Gola ɡuùŋ tìyèe taai tiinàŋ nɔ̀ɔ̀nɔ̀ŋ nɔ̀ɔ̀nɔ̀ŋ diè ɡuùŋ (5 + 1) nɔ̀ɔ̀nɔ̀ŋ leè tìyèe (5 + 2) nɔ̀ɔ̀nɔ̀ŋ leè taai (5 + 3) nɔ̀ɔ̀nɔ̀ŋ leè tiinàŋ (5 + 4) zììyà
Mel, Temne, Baga Baga Mandori piin marəm masaas maaŋkəlɛɛŋ kəcaamət kəcaamtr tiin (5 + 1) kəcaamtr marəm (5 + 2) kəcaamtr masaas (5 + 3) kəcaamtr maaŋkəlɛɛŋ (5 + 4) ocoo
Mel, Temne, Baga Baga Sitemu pin mɛrɨŋ maːs / mãs maŋkɨlɛ kɨt͡ʃamɨt t͡ʃamɨtin (5 + 1) t͡ʃamɨmɛrɨŋ (5 + 2) t͡ʃamɨmaːs (5 + 3) t͡ʃamɨmaŋkɨlɛ (5 + 4) wɨt͡ʃɔ
Mel, Temne, Baga Landoma tɛ̀n mʌ̀rəŋ mʌ̀sas mànkᵊlɛ kəcàmət kəcʌ̀ntin (5 + 1) kəcʌ̀ntᵊ mʌ̀rəŋ (5 + 2) kəcʌ̀ntᵊ̀ mʌ̀sas (5 + 3) kəcʌ̀ntᵊ mànkᵊlɛ (5 + 4)
Mel, Temne, Temne-Banta Temne (Themne) (1) pín pɨrʌ́ŋ pɨsas panlɛ tamát̪ dukín (5 + 1) dɛrɨ́ŋ (5 + 2) dɛsas (5 + 3) dɛŋanlɛ (5 + 4) tɔfɔ́t
Mel, Temne, Temne-Banta Temne (Themne) (2) pìn pə̀rə́ŋ pə̀sàs pànlɛ̀ tàmàθ dùkìn (5 + 1) dɛ̀rə̀ŋ (5 + 2) dɛ̀sàs (5 + 3) dɛ̀ŋànlɛ̀ (5 + 4) tɔ̀fɔ̀t
Mel, Temne, Temne-Banta Temne (Themne) (3) p-in pə-rəŋ pə-sas p-aŋlɛ tamath tamath rukin (5 + 1) tamath dɛrəŋ (5 + 2) tamath rɛsasa (5 + 3) tamath rɛŋaŋlɛ (5 + 4) tɔfʌt

NotesEdit

  1. ^ "West Atlantic" is the traditional term, following Diedrich Hermann Westermann; "Atlantic" is more typical in recent work, particularly since Bendor-Samuel (1989), but is also used specifically for the northern branch of West Atlantic.

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ Sapir (1971), pp. 48–49.
  2. ^ Güldemann (2018), pp. 180–183.
  3. ^ Segerer, Guillaume (2016). A new, innovation-based classification of Atlantic languages. ACAL 47, Berkeley, Mar 23-26, 2016.
  4. ^ Güldemann (2018), p. 188.
  5. ^ Vossen, Rainer and Gerrit J. Dimmendaal (eds.). 2020. The Oxford Handbook of African Languages. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  6. ^ Pozdniakov, K., and Segerer, G. (forthcoming). ‘A genealogical classification of Atlantic languages’, in F. Lüpke (ed.). The Oxford Guide to the Atlantic Languages of West Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  7. ^ a b Pozdniakov & Segerer (2017).
  8. ^ Chan, Eugene (2019). "The Niger-Congo Language Phylum". Numeral Systems of the World's Languages.

BibliographyEdit

  • Dalby, David (1965). "The Mel languages: a reclassification of southern 'West Atlantic'." African language studies 6, 1-17.
  • Güldemann, Tom (2018). "Historical linguistics and genealogical language classification in Africa". In Güldemann, Tom (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of Africa. The World of Linguistics series. 11. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 58–444. doi:10.1515/9783110421668-002. ISBN 978-3-11-042606-9.
  • Holst, Jan Henrik. "Reconstructing the mutation system of Atlantic." Neuried, 2008.
  • Pozdniakov, Konstantin. "Etudes atlantiques comparatives : questions de méthodologie." Mémoires de la Société linguistique de Paris, XV, 2007, p. 93-119.
  • Pozdniakov, Konstantin. "Problèmes de l’étude comparative historique des langues atlantiques". Sprache und Geschichte in Afrika, 2007.
  • Pozdniakov, Konstantin & Segerer, Guillame. Reconstruction des pronoms atlantiques et typologie des systèmes pronominaux // Systèmes de marques personnelles en Afrique. Collection «Afrique et Langage », 8, 2004, p. 151-162.
  • Pozdniakov, Konstantin & Segerer, Guillame. Tradition et rupture dans les grammaires comparées de différentes familles de langues », 2007, p. 93-119.
  • Pozdniakov, Konstantin & Segerer, Guillaume (2017). "A Genealogical classification of Atlantic languages." (Draft) To appear in: Lüpke, Friederike (ed.) The Oxford guide to the Atlantic languages of West Africa: Oxford:Oxford University Press.
  • Guillaume Segerer & Florian Lionnet 2010. "'Isolates' in 'Atlantic'". Language Isolates in Africa workshop, Lyon, Dec. 4
  • Sapir, David (1971). "West Atlantic: An inventory of the languages, their noun class systems and consonant alternations." Current Trends in Linguistics 7:45-112. The Hague: Mouton.
  • Williamson, Kay and Blench, Roger (2000). "Niger-Congo." In Bernd Heine and Derek Nurse (eds.) African Languages: An Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 11–42.
  • Wilson, W. A. A. (1989). Atlantic. In John Bendor-Samuel (Ed.), The Niger–Congo Languages. New York & London: University Press of America. pp. 81–104.

External linksEdit