Southern Bantoid languages

Southern Bantoid (or South Bantoid) is a branch of the Bantoid language family of the Niger–Congo language family. It consists of the Bantu languages along with several small branches and isolates of eastern Nigeria and west-central Cameroon (though the affiliation of some branches is uncertain). Since the Bantu languages are spoken across most of Sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Bantoid comprises 643 languages as counted by Ethnologue, though many of these are mutually intelligible.[2]

Southern Bantoid
Wide Bantu
Geographic
distribution
Sub-Saharan Africa, but not further west than Nigeria
Linguistic classificationNiger–Congo
Subdivisions
Glottologsout3152[1]
Map of the Southern Bantoid languages.svg
The Southern Bantoid languages shown within the Niger–Congo language family. Non-Southern Bantoid languages are greyscale.

HistoryEdit

Southern Bantoid was first introduced by Williamson in a proposal that divided Bantoid into North and South branches.[3]

The unity of the North Bantoid group was subsequently called into question, and Bantoid itself may be polyphyletic, but the work did establish Southern Bantoid as a valid genetic unit, something that has not happened for (Narrow) Bantu itself.[4]

Internal classificationEdit

According to Williamson and Blench, Southern Bantoid is divided into the various Narrow Bantu languages, Jarawan, Tivoid, Beboid, Mamfe (Nyang), Grassfields and Ekoid families.[5] The Bendi languages are of uncertain classification; they have traditionally been classified with Cross River, but they may actually be Southern Bantoid.[6] Blench suggests that Tivoid, Momo (ex-Grassfields) and East Beboid may form a group, perhaps with the uncertain languages Esimbi and Buru:[7]

 
The Southern Bantoid branches of Nigeria and Cameroon

NumeralsEdit

Comparison of numerals in individual languages:[8]

Classification Language 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Ndemli Ndemli mɔ̀hɔ́ ífɛ́ ítáá ítʃìjè ítâŋ tóhó sàᵐbá fɔ̀ːmɔ́ bùʔɛ̀ dʒòm
Tikar Tikar mbɔʔ ɓî ɲî ʃæ̃̂ ɸyulu ʃâmɓì nìnì tæ̂nì wûm
Tivoid Esimbi (1) kēnə̄ mə̄rākpə̄ mākə̄lə̄ mōɲī mātə̄nə̀ mālālə̄ mātə̄nə̀ mə̄rākpə̄ (5+ 2) mōɲìōɲī (4+ 4) mātə̄nə̀ mōɲī (5 + 4) būɣù
Tivoid Esimbi (2) ɔ-nə râkpə á-kələ oɲí a-tənə a-lələ à-tən râkpə (5+ 2) ò-ɲi o-ɲí (4+ 4) à-tən o-ɲí (5 + 4) bùɣù
Tivoid Ipulo émɔ̀ víàl vétàt véɲì vétàn véɾátúm véɾátúm nɔ̀mɔ̀ (6 + 1) víɲèɲí víɲèɲí nɔ̀mɔ̀ (8 + 1) épɔ́ːt
Tivoid Iyive mɔ̌m hjâl tàt ɲîn táŋə̀n kə̀lə̀kə̀tàt kə̀lə̀kə̀tàt kàt mɔ̀mú (6 + 1) kíníkìnì táŋìɲìn (5 + 4 ??) pùɛ̀
Tivoid Tiv mɔ̀ḿ / mɔ́m úhár útáŕ únjì: útã́ː átérátáŕ útã́ː kàː úhár (5 + 2) ániènì útã́ː kàː únjì: (5 + 4) púè / púwè
Grassfields, Menchum Befang móʔ (~mʊ́ʔ) fe táí ɪ̀kᶣà (ɪ̀kɥà) ɪ̀tʲə̂n ⁿdʊ̀fú èkᶣànátáí (4 and 3) i.e. (4+ 3) éfómó étʲə̂nékᶣà (5+ 4) éɣúm
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke Fe'fe' (1) ʃʉʔ pʉ́ɒ́ tāā kwɒ̀ tíì ntɔ́hɔ́ sə̀mbʉ́ɒ́ hə̌ vʉ̀ʔʉ̄ ɣǎm
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke Fe'fe' (2) ŋʃʉʔ pʉ́ə táá kwà tiì ntóɣó sə̀mbʉ́ə́ hə́ə́ vʉ́ʔʉ́ ɣám
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke Ghomala yə́mūʔ yə́pwə́ yə́tá yápfʉə̀ yə́tɔ̂ ntɔ̀kə́ sɔmbwə́ə hɔ̌m vʉ̀ʔʉ́ ɣǎm
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke Mengaka (Megaka) yimɔʔɔ / mɔʔ yipá /pa yitét / tét nəkʷɔ̀ yitɛ ntɔ̌ sambá nəhǎ nəvøʔ nəɣám
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke Nda'nda' ŋtʃɔ̀ʔ pə́ɣə́ kwò tɔ̀ sòmbə̀ɣə̀ χóp vɨ̀ʔ ɣáp
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke Ngiemboon mmɔ́ʼɔ́ [m̩̀mɔ́ʔɔ́] mbʉ́a [m̩̀bɯ́á] ntá [ǹ̩tá] lekùa [lèkùȁ] ntʉ̂a [ɳ̩̀ʈɯ́à] ntɔɡɔ́ [ǹ̩tɔ̀ʁɔ́] sɔɔn mbʉ́a [sɔ̃̀ːm̩̀bɯ́á] lefɔ̌ɔn [lèfɔ̃̌ː] lepfwɔʼɔ́ [lèpfwɔ̀ʔɔ́] leɡém [lèɣə́m]
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke Ngomba yemoʔ yépá yétát yénékwa yeta yenentúku sambá yénéfom yenepfúʔú neɡʉ́m
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke Ngombale pwó tárə kwo taa toɣə saabwó ləfaa ləpfuʔú ləɡham
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke Ngwe mɔʔfi -biə -tat lɛkwə -tɛ -ntuli saambiə lɛfɔ lɛʙə̌ʔá lɛ̄ɣɛ̀m
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Bamileke Yemba (Dschang) wɔ́ mɔʔɔ́ mé piá mé tét lekwa metā ntukɔ́ ésabiā lefá levuʔɔ́ leɣɛ̄m
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba Awing (1) mɔ̌ pɛ́ térə́ nə̀kwà ténə̀ tóɣə́ sàmbɛ́ nə̀fémə́ nə̀púʔə́ nə̀ɣə́mə́
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba Awing (2) mɔh pəːə teːre kwa taa ntuɡu saːmbe nɨfeːme nɨpueh nɨɡeːme
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba Bafut (1) mɔ́ʔɔ̂ báà tárə̀ kwàà ntáà ntóʔò sàmbà fwámə́ kwálìʔí / nɨ̀bùʔû tàwûm / nɨ̀wûm
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba Bafut (2) mɔʔɔ̂ baa tarə kwà ǹtaà ntoʔo sàmbà fwamə kwalɛ̀ʔɛ tàɡhûm
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba Bambili-Bambui (1) mɔ̀ʔɔ̀ bə̀ɡə̀ tyè kyà tɔ̀ɔ̀ ntúú ʃàmbà nɨ̀fɔ̀ɔ̀ nɨ̀bɛ̀ʔɛ̀ nɨ̀ɣám
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba Bambili-Bambui (2) mɔʔɔ bɨɡə tyé kɥa tɔː n-túː ʃambá nɨ-fɔː nɨ-bɛʔɛ nɨ-ɣám
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba Bamukumbit m²mɔʔɔ⁷⁷ or tɑʔ bɛ, bɨbɛ, mɨmbɛ tɑrɨ, bɨ²tɑː⁷⁵ɾə², mɨntɑrɨ nɨkwɑ, bɨnɨkwɑ, mɨnkwɑ jitɑ̃, bɨtɑ̃, mɨntɑ̃ jintoʔ, bɨntoʔ, mɨntoʔ ʃɑmbɛ, bɨʃɑmbɛ, mɨʃɑmbɛ nɨfɔ̃, bɨnɨfɔ̃, mɨnɨfɔ̃ nɨ²buʔ²¹, bɨnɨbuʔ, mɨnɨbuʔ nɨwũ
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba Mendankwe-Nkwen mɔ̄h bəɡə tarɔ kua tan ntɔ̄ sāmbā nəfah nəbuɔ̄h nəɣəm
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba Mbəkum (Mankon) (1) mɔ́ʔɔ̂ tárə̂ kwà tánə̀ ntúɣú sàmbà nɨ̀fámə́ nɨ̀bùʔû nɨ̀ɣɨ̂m
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba Ngemba (Mankon) (2) mɔ́ʔɔ́ táré kwà tâŋ ntúɡhə̂ sámbǎ nɨ̀fə̂ŋ nɨ̀bvùʔə́ nɨ̀wúmə̀
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Ngemba Pinyin mɔ́ʔɔ̀ páá táɾə̀ kwà tânə̀ ǹtô sàmbâ nə̀fámə̂ nə̀pùʔə̂ nə̀wúmə̀
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe Kwaja mũũ ˧˩ baa ˦˧ ta ˦ kɥ ˧˩ tɔ̃ ˦˧ tɔ̃ ˨ fũ ˧ sə ˨ mba ˧˨ wɔ ˦ ŋkxɨt ˦ bə ˦ ʁət ˨ wəm˦
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe Limbum (1) mɔ̀ʔsíɾ báː táːɾ kjèː ntūːnfú sàːmbâ wāːmí bɨ̀ʔɨ̂ / bɨ̀ɾɨ̂ ɾɨ
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe Limbum (2) mòʔsír báā táar kyèe ntūunfú sàambâ wāamé bʉ̀ʔʉ̂ rʉ̂ʉ
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe Mfumte (Koffa) mìʔincí bʉ́à kweé tóŋ ntunfúu sɔ̀mbaa wáamí búum húʔum
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nkambe Yamba mòʔfís tɛʔ kwè tàŋ ntuuŋfú sàmbâ fwamɛʔ və̀kɛʔ húm
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun Baba1 (Papia) (1) mɔ̀ʔ mbá ntí kúá ntíóʔó kpataɾ fómə́ ʃìpó kòɣəm
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun Baba (Papia) (2) jimàa / jímɔ̀ jípàa / ji mbá ji tára / ji ntíi ji kwà / kpa ji tè ntúwó / tuʔo kwàtar / kpataɾ fómə tʃìpóo / ʃipɔ kòɣəm / ɣəm
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun Bafanji jimuʔu / muʔu³⁵ / tiʔæ⁵³ jipɑɑ / piæ³⁵ jitii / tii³⁵ jikwə / kwə³ jintɑ̃ĩ⁵³ / tɑ̃ĩ⁵³ jintou / ntou⁵ jikwætæ / kwætæ³⁵ jifũɔ̃ / fũɔ̃⁵ jipuʔu / puʔu³⁵ jiɣwũ / ɣwũ⁵³
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun Bamali (Papia) mʷəʔə pɛt tɛt kʷa ta ntɔ kʷatʃø nəfɔː nəpuʔu nəɣu
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun Bambalang tɛʔi paa tɾe kʰwɛ tiɛ̃ ntiɡaw kwatʃəɨ fuõ ndipoʔu wuŋ
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun Bamun (Shupamen) (1) mòʔ mbàá tɛ́t pkà tɛ̀n ntú sàmbà fámə́ kóvýʔ ɣə́m
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun Bamun (Bamum) (2) ímoʔ ípáa ítɛt ípkwà ítɛ̀n ítúu ísamba ífámə ívʉ̀ʔʉ́ ɣóm
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun Bangolan mɔ̀ mbǎ tét kpà tíjē ǹtúhù kpáte̙t tʃɛ̀ŋɔ́ʔɔ̀ vwó
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun Medumba ntʃɯ̀ʔ bɔ̂ t̪át kwà t̪ân ndɔ́ɣə́ sàmbɔ̂ fúmə́ bwə̀ʔə́ ɣám
Grassfields, Mbam-Nkam, Nun Mungaka (Bali) ɲín íbáā itɛ́t ikwà itàn intwúʔ kwàtát ifúm sʉibɔ́m ɣóm / wɔm
Grassfields, Momo Moghamo ímɔ̄ʔ íbē ítád íkwē ítã tìfóɣə́ sàmbé fàmí àbōɡ ìɣùm
Grassfields, Momo Mundani yea-mɔʔ bebe betat bekpì betã̀ã̂ bentùa besã̀ã̀mbe befã̀ã bebə̀ʔa èɣɛm
Grassfields, Momo Ngamambo (1) -mɔ̀ʔ be tád kwè tân rɨ̀fúɣɔ́ / rʌ̀fúɣɔ́ sàmbe fàam bɔ̀ɔk ɣum
Grassfields, Momo Ngamambo (2) -mɔ̀ʔ tɑ́t kwè tɑ̂n rɨ̀fúɣə́ sɑ̀mbé fɑ̌m ə̀bɔ̌k wúm
Grassfields, Momo Ngie (1) ìfìŋ ìbǐɡə ìtá ìkjùɡə ìtɨŋ ìfəw ìsàmbìɡə ìfɨŋì àbəw ìwùm
Grassfields, Momo Ngie (2) ìfìŋ ìbǐɡ ìtá ìkɥǐɡ ìtʉ̄ŋ ìfœ́ ìsàmbǐɡ ìfɔ̌ŋ àbœ̀ ìwùm
Grassfields, Momo Ngwo ŋwāʔ fjēː tɛ́d kwɛ̀ tân m̀fó sàːmbjɛ̄ fwɔ̌ː kɔ̄ː wūm
Grassfields, Ring Bamunka (1) mɔ̌ʔ buǔ tiâ kʷì taâ ntɨ̌ʔ tə́kʷiǐtiâ (4 + 3) ? fɔ̌ŋ bɔ̀mɔ̂ʔ (10 - 1) ? wûŋ
Grassfields, Ring Bamunka (2) mɔʔ L buː RF tià F kʷi L ta F ntʉ̀ʔ F təkʷitia HHF (4 + 3) ? fɔ̃ R bɔmɔʔ R (10 - 1) ? wũ L
Grassfields, Ring Wushi mùɔ́ʔ tɨ́ə̀ʔ tsə̀ tɛ́ɛ̀ ǹtùɔ́ʔ tsə̀tɨ́ə̀ʔ (4 + 3) fə́mə́ bùfə̀mùɔ́ʔ (10 - 1) ? vóó
Grassfields, Ring, Center Babanki (Kejom) mùʔ táʔ kàʔ tàn ǹtʉ̀fə́ sòmbô fwòmə́ àbʉ̀múʔ (10 - 1) wúm
Grassfields, Ring, Center Bum mɔ̀k tât kìk tân túfá sàmbâ fâmá búlá mɔ̀k (10 - 1) ìwûm
Grassfields, Ring, Center Kom nòʔ tal kàe / kæ̀ tâyn ntufa nsòmbo / nsombô nfama bulamòʔ ivɨm
Grassfields, Ring, Center Kuk mɔ̀ʔ bòː tóː kɪ̀ːkò tâː tóːfə́ sōːmboː fāːmə́ buː́mɔ̀ʔ (? -1)? íɣə̄m
Grassfields, Ring, Center Kung mɔ̀ʔ bə̀ː tə́ː kʲə̀kə̀ tàʲ tūːfə́ sɛ̀ːⁿbɛː fɛ̀ːmə́ bólímɔ̀ʔ (? -1)? ìɣə̄m
Grassfields, Ring, Center Mmen mɔ̀ʔ pɛ᷆ kjā tâɲ tūfɜ́ sɛ̄mbɛ᷇ fāmmɜ́ pʊ̄lɜ̄mɔ̀ʔ (10 - 1) ēɣə̆̀m
Grassfields, Ring, Center Oku mɔɔ baa taa kwɪʲ tan ntuufə saamba ɛfaamə buumək ɛvəm
Grassfields, Ring, East Lamnso' mɔ̀ʔɔ́n bàà táár kwɛ̀ɛ̀ tàn ntùùfú sààmbà wāāmɛ́ bvə̀ʔə̀ ɣwə̀m
Grassfields, Ring, West Aghem (1) mɔ̀ʔ bə̀ˠà tə́ˠá tʃʲàkò tɛ̀ʲ tǔ̞ː sə̀ˠàⁿbə̄ˠā ɪ́fǎː tɛ̄ⁿdzū̞ˠū̞ ɪ́ɣə̄m
Grassfields, Ring, West Aghem (2) mɒ̀ʔ bɨ̀ɣà tɨ́ɣá cìakɔ̀ tɛ̀ tǒo sɨ̀ɣàmbɨ̀ɣà ɛ́ʔfáa tèndzùɣò é-ʔɣɨ́m
Grassfields, Ring, West Isu mɔ̀ʔ bèː(bè) tsíː tʃàʔì tàː ntsìfɔ́ŋ sèmbè fáːmə́ bùkə́ ívə̄m
Grassfields, Ring, West Laimbue mòʔ kjə̀ʔ táì tɔ̀ɔ́ sùmbô ìfámá bə́lə́mɔ̀ʔ ɨɣɨ́m
Grassfields, Ring, West Weh bə̀ɣə́ tə̀ɣə́ kaikə́ tùbə́ səɣ-mbə̀ɣ ifám tàndzú iɣə́m
Yemne-Kimbi Ajumbu mʷə̀ fʲə̂ŋ ɲì kpɛ̂ kʲàtò nàtò nànà kpɛ̂ɲì kòɲ
Yemne-Kimbi Mundabli m¹.mö³² m¹.fɪe³² n¹.tɔ³² n¹.de² kpɔn² tʃi²ta² nɔ¹³tɔ² ne¹ne¹ kpa²ne¹ dzo²fɯ²
Yemne-Kimbi Mungbam (Abar) (1) -m̩̀ / -mù -fìn /-fá -tì / -tēè -ɲ̩̀ / -nì kpáān / kpōa lētɛ̀ / -lētè -ɲ̩̀tɛ̄ / -ɲītɛ -nə̀nè / -nə̄nè kpánə̀ɲ̩̀ / kpānāɲì dʒūhɛ́ / dʒóhó
Yemne-Kimbi Munbam (Munken) (2) -mwə́nə̀ / -mù / - mù -fè /-fō / -fé -tɛ̄ / -tēa / -tè -ɲə̄nə́ / -ɲì / -ɲì kpòōnə́ / kpɛ̄n / kpààɲì -lētɛ̀ / -létēa / -lētɛ̀ -ɲītɛ̀ / -ɲītə̀ / -ɲītɛ̀ -ɲīɲì ~ -ɲìɲì / --ɲìɲì / -ɲìɲì kpɔ̄ndʒùɲì / -ɲìnkpɛ̄n kwîn / kwîn / kwɔ̂n

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Southern Bantoid". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. ^ McWhorter, J. 2001. The Power of Babel (p. 81-82). Freeman-Times-Henry Holt, New York.
  3. ^ Williamson, Kay (1989) 'Niger–Congo Overview'. In: The Niger–Congo languages, ed. by John Bendor-Samuel, 3–45. University Press of America.
  4. ^ Roger Blench. "Niger-Congo classification : Niger-Congo: an alternative view" (PDF). Rogerblench.info. Retrieved 2017-07-07.
  5. ^ Williamson, Kay & Blench, Roger (2000) 'Niger–Congo', in Heine, Bernd and Nurse, Derek (eds) African Languages – An Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University press, pp. 11–42.
  6. ^ Blench, Roger (2011). "'The membership and internal structure of Bantoid and the border with Bantu" (PDF). Berlin: Humboldt University. p. 17.
  7. ^ Blench, Roger (2010). "The Tivoid Languages" (PDF). pp. 12, 15.
  8. ^ Chan, Eugene (2019). "The Niger-Congo Language Phylum". Numeral Systems of the World's Languages.

External linksEdit

  • ComparaLex, database with Southern Bantoid word lists