Kedah Sultanate

The Kedah Sultanate is a Muslim dynasty located in the Malay Peninsula. It was originally an independent state, but became a British Protectorate in 1909. Its monarchy was abolished after it was added to the Malayan Union but was restored and added to the Malayan Union's successor, the Federation of Malaya.

Sultanate of Kedah
كسلطانن قدح
Kesultanan Kedah
1136–1941
1945–1946
1948–present
Kedah in present-day Malaysia
Kedah in present-day Malaysia
StatusIndependent (1136–1821)
State of Siam (1821–1909)
Protectorate of the United Kingdom (1909–1941; 1945–1946)
CapitalAlor Setar
Common languages
Religion
Sunni Islam
Sultan 
• 1136–1179
Mudzaffar Shah I (first)
• 2017–present
Sallehuddin
Advisor 
• 1909–1915; 1918–1919
George Maxwell
Historical eraEarly modern period
• Conversion to Islam
1136; 885 years ago (1136)
1735
• Annexed by Siam
1821
9 July 1909
16 February 1942
18 October 1943
• Japanese surrender; returned to United Kingdom
14 August 1945
• Added into Malayan Union
31 March 1946
CurrencyNative gold and silver coins
Straits dollar (until 1939)
Malayan dollar (until 1953)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Kedah Kingdom
Srivijaya
Syburi
Malayan Union
Kedah
Rattanakosin Kingdom
Today part ofMalaysia
1 Remains as capital until today
2 Malay using Jawi (Arabic) script

The information regarding the formation of this sultanate and the history before and after its creation comes from the "Kedah Annals". The Kedah Annals were written in the eighteenth century, over a supposed millennium after the formation of the Kedah Kingdom. It describes the first king of Kedah as arriving on the shores of Kedah as a result of an attack by a mythical gigantic beast. It states that the nation was founded by the offspring of Alexander the Great; who maintained ties with Rome throughout his reign (two centuries after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, but while the Eastern Roman Empire still existed).

The Kedah Annals also gives unreliable information on the sultans of Kedah. Listing the first sultan of Kedah as Sultan Mudzafar Shah I centuries before the partitioning of the Abbasid Caliphate into distinct sultanates and almost three centuries prior to the contradicting claims of the Terengganu Inscription Stone. This claim also directly contradicts the fact that the Buddhist Srivijaya kingdom was in direct control of Kedah at the time that Sultan Mudzafar Shah I allegedly converted the region to a sultanate. Kedah may have remained Hindu-Buddhist until the 15th century.[1]

HistoryEdit

 
Map of the early Kadaha kingdom and the Early transpeninsular routeway
 
Ancient artefact found in Kedah

Around 788 BCE, a systematic government of a large settlement of Malay native of Kedah had already established around the northern bank of Merbok River. The state consisted a large area of Bujang Valley, covering Merbok and Muda River branches about 1000 square miles area. The capital of the settlement was built at the estuary of a branch of Merbok River, now known as Sungai Batu.[2][3] Around 170 CE groups of Hindu faith arrived at Kedah, joining them soon were peoples from nearby islands and from the northern Mon-Khmer region. At the same time traders from India, Persia and Arab, arrived the brink of the Malacca Strait, using Gunung Jerai the Kedah Peak as marking point. Ancient Kedah covered the areas of Kuala Bahang, Kuala Bara, Kuala Pila and Merpah.[4]

The king from GombroonEdit

According to At-Tarikh Salasilah Negeri Kedah, written by Muhammad Hassan bin Dato' Kerani Muhammad Arshad, 1928, in about 630 CE, Maharaja Derbar Raja of Gombroon (now known as Bandar Abbas) in Persia was defeated in battle and escaped to Sri Lanka, and he was later blown off course by a storm to the remote shores of Kuala Sungai Qilah, Kedah.[4] The inhabitants of Kedah found him to be a valiant and intelligent person, and they made him the king of Kedah. In 634 CE, a new kingdom was formed in Kedah consisting of Persian royalty and native Malay of Hindu faith, the capital was Langkasuka.[4]

Conversion to IslamEdit

Based on the account given in Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa (also known as the Kedah Annals), the Sultanate of Kedah when King Phra Ong Mahawangsa converted to Islam and adopted the name Sultan Mudzafar Shah. At-Tarikh Salasilah Negeri Kedah described the conversion to Islamic faith was started in 1136 AD. However, historian Richard Winstedt, quoting an Acehnese account, gave a date of 1474 for the year of conversion to Islam by the ruler of Kedah. This later date accords with an account in the Malay Annals where a raja of Kedah visited Malacca during the reign of its last sultan seeking the honour of the royal band that marks the sovereignty of Malacca Empire on a Muslim ruler.[5]

 
Kedah Sultanate and other Malay kingdom's territory in 1530-1730 AD

British colonisation of Penang and Seberang PeraiEdit

In 1770, Francis Light was instructed by the British East India Company (BEIC) to take Penang from Kedah. He achieved this by giving assurance to Sultan Muhammad Jiwa Zainal Adilin II that his army would protect Kedah from any Siamese invasion. In return, the Sultan agree to hand over Penang to the British. In 1786, Light negotiated with the new Sultan of Kedah, Abdullah Mukarram Shah, over the cession of Penang to the BEIC.[6][7] However, Light made the agreement without the consent of his superiors in India. The BEIC did not provide military support, as promised by Light, when Siam attacked Kedah. The Sultan demanded that Light return Penang, but Light was reluctant to hand it back. He offered compensation for the damage but was refused by the Sultan. In 1790, Abdullah planned to launch an amphibious invasion of the Island of Penang to recapture it. The BEIC with the help of the British military made a preemptive strike and attacked Kedah's navy and fort in Seberang Perai, damaging them. The Sultan signed a ceasefire agreement with Light in 1791.

On 7 July 1800, while George Alexander William Leith was Lieutenant-Governor of Penang, a treaty came into effect that gave the British sovereignty over Seberang Perai, subsequently named Province Wellesley. The treaty, negotiated by Penang's First Assistant George Caunter and Sultan of Kedah Dziaddin Mukarram Shah II, increased the annual payment to the Sultan from 6,000 to 10,000 Spanish dollars per annum.[8] While the acquisition improved Penang Island's military and food security, for Kedah it provided a protective strip against enemy attack from the sea.[9] The treaty also provided for the free flow of food and commodities from Kedah to Penang Island and Province Wellesley.[10] To this day, the Malaysian federal government still pays Kedah, on behalf of Penang, RM 10,000 annually as a symbolic gesture.[11]

Partition of KedahEdit

After the death of Sultan Abdullah Mukarram Shah the 20th Sultan of Kedah in 1797, the thrones were given to his half brother Sultan Dziaddin Mukarram Shah II. However Sultan Dziaddin was forced to abdicate in 1803 by the King of Siam and was replaced by his nephew Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin II. This sparked a succession crisis as crown prince, Tunku Bisnu claimed to be the rightful heir to the throne. Fearing civil war, the Siamese Kingdom reconciled the two parties by appointing Tunku Bisnu as ruler of Setul, thus establishing the Kingdom of Setul Mambang Segara in 1808.[12] In 1892, the kingdom was reunified with Kedah Sultanate. However the assimilation of Siamese people and culture in Setul had weakened Kedah rule over it. The Anglo-Siamese Treaty in 1909 finally ended Kedah rule over Setul, as the Siamese and British agreed to exclude Setul from Kedah jurisdiction, thus separating Kedah and Setul.

List of rulersEdit

The list of rulers of Kedah as given here is based to some extent on the Kedah Annals beginning with the Hindu ruler Durbar Raja I. According to the Kedah Annals, the 9th Kedah Maharaja Derbar Raja converted to Islam and changed his name to Sultan Muzaffar Shah, thereby started the Kedah Sultanate.[13] A genealogy was compiled in the 1920s, Al-Tarikh Salasilah Negeri Kedah Darul Aman or Kedah Genealogy.[14] The historicity and the dating of the list of rulers however is questionable as Kedah may have remained Hindu-Buddhist until the 15th century when its king converted to Islam.[15]

Hindu eraEdit

The following is a list of kings of Kadaram, nine in total. Each used the Hindu title of Sri Paduka Maharaja. The exact dates of each king's reign are not known.

  1. Durbar Raja I (330–390)
  2. Diraja Putra (390-440)
  3. Maha Dewa I (440-465)
  4. Karna Diraja (465-512)
  5. Karma (512-580)
  6. Maha Dewa II (580-620)
  7. Maha Dewa III (620-660)
  8. Diraja Putra II (660-712)
  9. Darma Raja (712-788)
  10. Maha Jiwa (788-832)
  11. Karma II (832-880)
  12. Darma Raja II (880-956)
  13. Durbar Raja II (956–1136; succeeded as Sultan of Kedah, see below)
Source for the list of sultans is the Muzium Negeri Kedah, Alor Setar, Malaysia. "The sultans of Kedah".

Islamic eraEdit

Sultan of Kedah
Provincial/State
Incumbent
Sallehuddin
since 12 September 2017
installation 22 October 2018
Details
StyleHis Royal Highness
Heir apparentTunku Sarafuddin Badlishah
First monarchMudzaffar Shah I (first)
Formation1136; 885 years ago (1136)
ResidenceIstana Anak Bukit, Alor Setar

The beginning of the use of the title sultan in Kedah is attributed to a visit by a Muslim scholar from Yemen, Sheikh Abdullah bin Ja'afar Quamiri, to Durbar Raja II's palace at Bukit Meriam in 1136.[citation needed] The audience resulted in the king's conversion to Islam. He adopted the name "Mudzaffar Shah" and established the sultanate of Kedah, which continues to rule today.[13]

The source for the list of sultans given here is the official genealogy given for the Sultan of Kedah.[16] There are however discrepancies with the Kedah Annals as it lists only 5 sultans from the first convert Mudzaffar Shah to Sulaiman Shah who was captured by Aceh in 1619, in contrast to the twelve listed here. The rest of the list largely follows as that given in the Kedah Annals with the exception of a few changes and more recent updates in the 20th and 21st century.[17]

Sultans of Kedah
Number Sultan Reign
1 Mudzaffar Shah I 1136–1179
2 Mu'adzam Shah 1179–1202
3 Muhammad Shah 1202–1237
4 Muzzil Shah 1237–1280
5 Mahmud Shah I 1280–1321
6 Ibrahim Shah 1321–1373
7 Sulaiman Shah I 1373–1423
8 Ataullah Muhammad Shah I 1423–1473
9 Muhammad Jiwa Zainal Adilin Mu'adzam Shah I 1473–1506
10 Mahmud Shah II 1506–1547
11 Mudzaffar Shah III 1547–1602
12 Sulaiman Shah II 1602–1626
13 Rijaluddin Muhammad Shah 1626–1652
14 Muhyiddin Mansur Shah 1652–1662
15 Dziaddin Mukarram Shah I 1662–1688
16 Ataullah Muhammad Shah II 1688–1698
17 Abdullah Mu'adzam Shah 1698–1706
18 Ahmad Tajuddin Halim Shah I 1706–1710
19 Muhammad Jiwa Zainal Adilin Mu'adzam Shah II 1710–1778
20 Abdullah Mukarram Shah 1778–1797
21 Dziaddin Mukarram Shah II 1797–1803
22 Ahmad Tajuddin Halim Shah II 1803–1821
Siamese invasion of Kedah 1821–1842
(22) Ahmad Tajuddin Halim Shah II 1842–1845
23 Zainal Rashid Al-Mu'adzam Shah I 1845–1854
24 Ahmad Tajuddin Mukarram Shah 1854–1879
25 Zainal Rashid Mu'adzam Shah II 1879–1881
26 Abdul Hamid Halim Shah ll 1881–1943
27 Badlishah Shah 1943–1958
28 Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah 1958–2017
29 Sallehuddin 2017–present

CultureEdit

NobatEdit

The Nobat musical instruments of Nagara and Nepiri were introduced to Kedah by Maharaja Derbar Raja. The instrument is also called semambu. The band is led by the king, and it consists of drums, a gong, a flute and a trumpet. Today, Nobat is a Royal orchestra, played only during royal ceremonies such as inaugurations, weddings, and funerals. The building which houses the instruments and where the ensemble rehearses is known as the Balai Nobat, literally the Office of Nobat, in Alor Setar city proper.[4]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Dokras, Dr Uday. "The spread of Hindu Culture and Religion by Trade routes to far East (Not including Cambodia, Indonesia or Thailand". Indo Nordic SAuthor's Collective.
  2. ^ "Sg Batu to be developed into archaeological hub". The Star. 3 October 2020. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  3. ^ "FIVE REASONS WHY YOU MUST VISIT THE SUNGAI BATU ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE AT LEAST ONCE IN YOUR LIFETIME". Universiti Sains Malaysia. 14 November 2019. Retrieved 8 November 2020.
  4. ^ a b c d A concise history of Islam. Ḥusain, Muẓaffar., Akhtar, Syed Saud., Usmani, B. D. New Delhi. 2011-09-14. p. 308. ISBN 9789382573470. OCLC 868069299.CS1 maint: others (link)
  5. ^ Winstedt, Richard (December 1936). "Notes on the History of Kedah". Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 14 (3 (126)): 155–189. JSTOR 41559857.
  6. ^ "The Founding of Penang". www.sabrizain.org. Retrieved 2017-05-25.
  7. ^ Lewis, Su Lin (2016). Cities in Motion: Urban Life and Cosmopolitanism in Southeast Asia, 1920–1940. United Kingdom: Cambridge University. ISBN 9781107108332.
  8. ^ Marcus Langdon (2013). Penang: The Fourth Presidency of India. 1805-1830. Volume One: Ships, Men and Mansions. Areca Books. pp. 218–222.
  9. ^ Marcus Langdon (2015). Penang: The Fourth Presidency of India. 1805-1830. Volume Two: Fire, Spice and Edifice. George Town World Heritage Incorporated. p. 54.
  10. ^ Andrew Barber (2009). Penang under the East India Company. 1786-1858. AB&A. pp. 73, 75.
  11. ^ "Unconstitutional to wipe Penang off Malaysia's map, Kedah told". Malay Mail. 11 February 2017. Retrieved 4 March 2017.
  12. ^ MyKedah 2017
  13. ^ a b "Kedah: Intro and Background". Go2Travelmalaysia.com. Capslock Sdn Bhd. Retrieved 4 March 2011.
  14. ^ Jelani Harun. "Al-Tarikh Salasilah Negeri Kedah Darul Aman Sebuah Karya Agung Melayu" (PDF).
  15. ^ "The Development of Kedah's Early History Based on Archeological Finds". MyKedah.
  16. ^ Kedah State Public Library (2003). "The genealogy of His Highnesses". Our Sultan. Retrieved 29 August 2010.
  17. ^ R. O. Winstedt (December 1938). "The Kedah Annals". Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 16 (2 (131)): 31–35. JSTOR 41559921.

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit