Open main menu

Unfederated Malay States

The term Unfederated Malay States (Malay: Negeri-negeri Melayu Tidak Bersekutu) was the collective name given to five British protected states in the Malay peninsula in the first half of the twentieth century. These states were Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis, and Terengganu. In contrast with the four adjoining Federated Malay States of Selangor, Perak, Pahang, and Negri Sembilan, the five Unfederated Malay States lacked common institutions, and did not form a single state in international law; they were in fact standalone British protectorates.

Unfederated Malay States
马来属邦

Negeri-negeri Melayu Tidak Bersekutu
1826–1942
Japanese Occupation: 1942–45
1945–46
Malaya in 1922:   Unfederated Malay States   Federated Malay States   Straits Settlements
Malaya in 1922:
  Unfederated Malay States
  Federated Malay States
  Straits Settlements
StatusProtectorate of British Empire
Common languages
Government
Monarch 
• 1826–30
George IV
• 1830–37
William IV
• 1837–1901
Victoria
• 1901–10
Edward VII
• 1910–36
George V
• 1936
Edward VIII
• 1936–42; 1945–46
George VI
Historical eraBritish Empire
• Established
1826
• Disestablished
1946
Currency
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Johor
Kedah
Kelantan
Perlis
Terengganu
Japanese occupation of Malaya
British Military Administration (Malaya)
Malayan Union
Today part ofMalaysia

In 1946 the British colony of the Straits Settlements was dissolved. Penang and Malacca which had formed a part of the Straits Settlements were then grouped with the Unfederated Malay States and the Federated Malay States to form the Malayan Union. In 1948, the Malayan Union was reconstituted as a federation of eleven states known as the Federation of Malaya. Nine of the states of the new Federation of Malaya continued as British Protected States, while two of them, Penang and Malacca remained as British colonies. The Federation of Malaya gained full independence from the UK in August 1957.

HistoryEdit

Johor accepted a treaty of protection with the United Kingdom in 1885, and eventually succumbed to British pressure to accept a resident "Advisor" in 1914. Unlike the other Malay states under British protection, however, Johor remained outside of the Federated Malay States (formed in 1895).

Under the Bangkok Treaty of 1909, Siam transferred its rights over some of the northern Malay states (Kelantan, Terengganu, Kedah, and Perlis) to the United Kingdom.[1] These states then became British Protected States. With the assistance of Japan, they temporarily returned to Thai jurisdiction for the latter part of the Second World War.

Administration and languageEdit

The chief officer of the British colonial administration was the "Advisor". In contrast with the Federated Malay States, the Unfederated Malay States enjoyed greater autonomy. The de facto official language of the Unfederated Malay States was Malay (written with the Jawi script).

 
Evolution of Malaysia

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ John Haywood (2002). Historical Atlas of the 19th Century World 1783 – 1914. Barnes and Noble. p. 22. ISBN 0-7607-3203-5.