Unfederated Malay States

The term "Unfederated Malay States" (Malay: Negeri-Negeri Melayu Tidak Bersekutu; Jawi: نݢري٢ ملايو تيدق برسکوتو) was the collective name given to five British protected states in the Malay Peninsula during the first half of the 20th century. These states were Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis, and Terengganu. In contrast with the four adjoining Federated Malay States of Selangor, Perak, Pahang, and Negeri Sembilan, the five Unfederated Malay States lacked common institutions, and did not form a single state in international law; they were in fact standalone British protectorates.

Unfederated Malay States
Negeri-Negeri Melayu Tidak Bersekutu (Malay)
1942–1945 (Japanese occupation)
Malaya in 1922:
  Unfederated Malay States
  Federated Malay States
  Straits Settlements
StatusFederal protectorate of the British Empire
Common languagesMalay
Sunni Islam
GovernmentConstitutional monarchy
• 1909–1910 (first)
Edward VII
• 1936–1942; 1945–1946 (last)
George VI
Historical eraBritish Empire
9 July 1909
15 February 1942 – 2 September 1945
2 September 1945
1 April 1946
CurrencyStraits dollar (1909–1939)
Malayan dollar (1939–1942; 1945–1946)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Rattanakosin Kingdom
Japanese occupation of Malaya
Si Rat Malai
British Military Administration (Malaya)
Malayan Union
Today part ofMalaysia

In 1946, the British colony of the Straits Settlements was dissolved. Penang and Malacca, which had formed a part of the Straits Settlements, were then grouped with the Unfederated Malay States and the Federated Malay States to form the Malayan Union. In 1948, the Malayan Union was reconstituted as a federation of eleven states known as the Federation of Malaya. Nine of the states of the new Federation of Malaya continued as British Protected States, while two of them, Penang and Malacca, remained as British colonies. The Federation of Malaya gained full independence from the United Kingdom on 31 August 1957.

History edit

Johor accepted a treaty of protection with the United Kingdom in 1885, and eventually succumbed to British pressure to accept a resident "Advisor" in 1914. Unlike the other Malay states under British protection, however, Johor remained outside of the Federated Malay States (formed in 1895).

Under the Bangkok Treaty of 1909, Siam transferred its rights over some of the northern Malay states (Kelantan, Terengganu, Kedah, and Perlis) to the United Kingdom.[1] These states then became British Protected States. With the assistance of Japan, they temporarily returned to Thai jurisdiction for the latter part of the Second World War.

Administration and language edit

The chief officer of the British colonial administration was the "Advisor". In contrast with the Federated Malay States, the Unfederated Malay States enjoyed greater autonomy. The de facto official language of the Unfederated Malay States was Malay (written with the Jawi script).

Evolution of Malaysia

References edit

  1. ^ John Haywood (2002). Historical Atlas of the 19th Century World 1783 – 1914. Barnes and Noble. p. 22. ISBN 0-7607-3203-5.