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List of automated urban metro subway systems

The Vancouver SkyTrain is the longest automated transit system in the world
Barcelona Metro line 9 without train driver
London's Victoria line trains - 2009 stock

The first line to be operated with Automatic Train Operation (ATO) was London Underground's Victoria line, which opened in 1967, although a driver is present in the cabin. Many lines now operate like that, with the aim of improving the frequency of service. Since then, ATO technology has been developed to enable trains to operate even without a driver in a cab: either with an attendant roaming within the train, or with no staff on board. The first fully automated driverless mass-transit rail network is the Port Island Line in Kobe, Japan. The second in the world (and the first such driverless system in Europe) is the Lille Metro in northern France. This list focuses heavily on trains in the classical sense used for large-scale metros and railways but does include a few people mover systems.

Contents

Degrees of AutomationEdit

The list is ordered in descending order of the degree of automation. It uses the Grade of Automation classifications specified by the standard IEC 62290‐1.[1] These are explained diagrammatically by the UITP[2]

Grade of Automation 4 (GoA4)Edit

In this system trains are capable of operating automatically at all times, including door closing, obstacle detection and emergency situations. On-board staff may be provided for other purposes, e.g. customer service, but are not required for safe operation.

Examples include the Copenhagen Metro.

Grade of Automation 3 (GoA3)Edit

In this system trains run automatically from station to station but a staff member is always in the train, with responsibility for door closing and handling of emergency situations. In a GoA3 system, the train cannot operate safely without the staff member on board.

Examples include the Docklands Light Railway.

Grade of Automation 2 (GoA2)Edit

In this system trains run automatically from station to station but a driver is in the cab, with responsibility for door closing, obstacle detection on the track in front of the train and handling of emergency situations. As in a GoA3 system, the GoA2 train cannot operate safely without the staff member on board.

Examples include the London Underground Victoria line.

Grade of Automation 4 SystemsEdit

These systems are capable of unattended train operation (UTO), although some operators may choose to staff trains anyway.

EuropeEdit

Country Name of system Line Date System Notes
  Denmark Copenhagen Metro Line 1 Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
Line 2
  Spain Barcelona Metro Line 9 Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC
Line 10
  Italy Turin Metro Line M1 Opened in section 1 on 4 February 2006 for the 2006 Winter Olympics, completed in 2014. VAL type system First fully automatic metro in Italy.
Rome Metro Line C 2015 Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
Milan Metro Milan Metro Line 5 2013 Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
Brescia Metro 2015 Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
  France Paris Metro Line 14 Opened 15 October 1998 Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC
Line 15
Line 16
Line 17
Line 18
2022 (Planned) To be completed in 2030
Line 1 3 November 2011 Siemens CBTC Upgraded from manual operation with first GoA4 trains operating in mixed mode (driven trains and driverless trains). Last manually driven train was removed by end of 2012
Paris Orlyval 2 October 1991 VAL system Operates between Antony and Orly-Sud
Charles de Gaulle Airport CDGVAL VAL system.
Rennes Rennes Metro VAL system.
Toulouse Toulouse Metro VAL system.
Lille Lille Metro 25 April 1983 VAL system. First line to use the VAL system.
Lyon Metro Line D Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC Rubber-tyred trains controlled by a system known as MAGGALY (Métro Automatique à Grand Gabarit de l’Agglomération Lyonnaise).
  Germany Nuremberg U-Bahn Line U2 and Line U3
  Hungary Budapest Metro Line 4 [3]
  Switzerland Lausanne Metro Line M2 Alstom Urbalis
  United Kingdom London Gatwick Airport Innovia APM 100 Inter-terminal people mover built by Bombardier Transportation
London Stansted Airport Transit System Bombardier Innovia APM Inter-terminal people mover using

North AmericaEdit

Country Name of system Line Date System Notes
  Canada Vancouver, British Columbia SkyTrain The longest driverless network in the world, at over 100km. [4]
Toronto, Ontario LINK Train At Toronto Pearson International Airport
  United States O'Hare International Airport Airport Transit System VAL system Chicago, Illinois
AirTrain San Francisco International Airport San Francisco, California
Detroit People Mover Detroit, Michigan
JTA Skyway Jacksonville, Florida
TPA Monorail and Shuttle Tampa International Airport Tampa, Florida
ExpressTram Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport Romulus, Michigan
AirTrain JFK Jamaica, New York
AeroTrain Washington Dulles International Airport Sterling, Virginia
ATL Skytrain Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport Atlanta, Georgia
The Plane Train Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport Atlanta, Georgia
Miami, Florida Metromover
Morgantown, West Virginia Morgantown Personal Rapid Transit
Las Vegas Las Vegas Monorail Nevada
Denver International Airport Denver International Airport Automated Guideway Transit System Denver, Colorado
Seattle–Tacoma International Airport Satellite Transit System SeaTac, Washington

South AmericaEdit

Country Name of system Line Date System Notes
  Brazil São Paulo Metro Line 4 May 25, 2010 Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC First completely driverless heavy-capacity metro in South America
Line 6 2021
Line 15
Line 17
  Peru Lima Metro Line 2 AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
Line 4 AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro

AsiaEdit

 
Rapid KL - Sungai Buloh-Kajang Line, one of the trains in Asia that operates fully automated and driverless.
Country Name of system Line Date System Notes
  China Shanghai Metro Line 10 Alstom Urbalis Operated with a driver in a cab.
Beijing Metro Yanfang Line Planned line.[5]
  Hong Kong Disneyland Resort Line Most trains have an attendant on board.
South Island Line East UTO by Alstom Urbalis
  India Delhi Metro Pink Line Scheduled for early 2017 Initially with an attendant on board.
Magenta Line Scheduled for early 2017 Initially with an attendant on board.
  Japan Tokyo Yurikamome
Tokyo Nippori-Toneri Liner
Yokohama Kanazawa Seaside Line
Nagoya Linimo Built for Expo 2005 Commuter Maglev
Osaka Nanko Port Town Line
Kobe Kobe New Transit World's first GoA4 line.
Hiroshima Skyrail Midorizaka Line People Mover monorail
  Malaysia Kuala Lumpur - Rapid KL Kelana Jaya Line 1998 SelTrac CBTC
Sungai Buloh-Kajang Line 2017 Cityflo 650 CBTC
Kuala Lumpur KLIA Aerotrain Bombardier Innovia APM 100
  Qatar Doha Metro all lines 2019 Thales CBTC To be opened in 2019
  Philippines Manila Light Rail Transit System Manila LRT Line 2
  Princess Nourah Women's University (PNU-APM) Automated People Mover in Riyadh
  Singapore Bukit Panjang LRT Line Bombardier CITYFLO 550
Sengkang LRT Line Kyosan APM
Punggol LRT Line Kyosan APM
Changi Airport Skytrain Kyosan APM
North East MRT Line Alstom Urbalis 300 With train attendants who drive trains in the event of a disruption.
Circle MRT Line Alstom Urbalis 300 With train attendants who drive trains in the event of a disruption.
Downtown MRT Line Siemens Trainguard Sirius CBTC With train attendants who drive trains in the event of a disruption.
  South Korea Busan-Gimhae Light Rail Transit
Busan Subway Line 4
Daegu Daegu Metro Line 3
Incheon Incheon Airport Maglev
Incheon Incheon Subway Line 2
Seoul Shinbundang Line
Seoul Metropolitan Subway Ui LRT
Uijeongbu U Line
Yongin Everline Cityflo 650 CBTC
  Taipei Metro Wenhu Line. Each train has an attendant on board, the number of which has been gradually decreasing. By September 2017 trains will only have attendants in long tunnel sections.
  UAE Dubai Metro The longest driverless network in Asia.

Grade of Automation 3 SystemsEdit

Country Name of system Line Date System Notes
  Bulgaria Sofia Metro Line 3 Scheduled for 2018-2019
  China Beijing Subway Airport Express, Beijing Subway Alstom CBTC System is operated by a driver in a cab.
  Hungary Budapest Metro Line 2 Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC A supervisor is monitoring the train in the cab.
  Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Rapid KLAmpang Line Seltrac® CBTC
  Singapore Singapore North South MRT Line Thales Seltrac® CBTC[6] With train captains monitoring in cab.
East West MRT Line Thales Seltrac® CBTC[6] With train captains monitoring in cab.
  Spain Barcelona Metro Line 11 Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC
  United Kingdom London, UK Docklands Light Railway Opened in 1987

Grade of Automation 2 systemsEdit

EuropeEdit

Country Name of system Line Date System Notes
  Austria Vienna U-Bahn U2 Uses the same system as Munich with fully driverless turning at some terminuses.
  Finland Helsinki Metro Including Länsimetro/Västmetron extension, has had various attempts at automation since the 1970s.
  France Paris Metro Line 2
Line 3 OCTYS System Provides ATP and high level ATO with mobile block system - Siemens CBTC
Line 4
Line 5 OCTYS System
Line 6
Line 7
Line 8
Line 9 OCTYS System
Line 11
Line 12
Line 13
Paris RER Line A SACEM System One of the most advanced traffic control systems and enables extremely short spacing (under 90 seconds in stations, under 2 minutes in tunnels).
  Germay Munich U-Bahn Driver operates the doors and handles emergency situations, accelerating and braking is fully automated; a fully driverless turning at terminus stations is planned.
Düsseldorf Stadtbahn Driver operates the doors and handles emergency situations, accelerating and braking is fully automated, but just between the 22 underground stations. Outside the underground stations the driver operates the train manual.
  Hungary Budapest Metro Line 3 Converted to automated operation in 1990 (a member of staff opens & closes the train doors)
  Italy Milan Metro Line 3
  Russia Kazan Metro System "Dvizhenie"
Saint Petersburg Metro Line 2 System "Dvizhenie"
  Spain Barcelona Metro Line 1
Line 2
Line 3
Line 5
Bilbao Metro Line 1
Line 2
Madrid Metro Line 1 Bombardier CBTC
Line 3
Line 4
Line 5
Line 6 Bombardier CBTC
Line 7 Invensys CBTC
Line 8
Line 9
Line 10
Line 11
Line 12
Branch line
  Sweden Stockholm Metro Green Line, (Lines T17,
T18 and T19)
Red Line Ansaldo STS CBTC Lines T13 and T14) will begin ATO operation in 2014.
  Turkey Ankara Metro Uses a modified version of Toronto subway's H6 subway model made by Bombardier Transportation and configured for driverless operation.
İstanbul Metro Line M2 Yenikapi - Haciosman
Line M3 Kirazli - Olympic Village / Basaksehir
Line M4 Kadikoy - Kartal
  United Kingdon London Underground Victoria line 1967
Central line Converted to automated operation in the mid-1990s. A member of staff opens & closes the train doors monitors the train and fixes faults on board. Drivers drive the trains on Sundays and Bank holidays. All shunt moves are made by the drivers and whenever the train stops for fail safe reasons such as excess wheel spin or sliding the driver takes over; at other times trains are computer driven.
Jubilee line Converted to automated operation in 2011. A member of staff opens & closes the train doors, drives the train on Sundays, fixes faults.[7]
Northern line Converted in 2012 A driver operates the doors and presses buttons to start the train, the train is driven manually on Sundays, and can be driven in manual outside of peak hours.
Glasgow Subway Uses driver. The introduction of fully automated trains will begin in 2020.[8]

North AmericaEdit

South AmericaEdit

CaribbeanEdit

  •   Puerto Rico - San Juan - Tren Urbano - the entire system is fully automated, but can be over-ridden. Substations providing the power are remotely controlled from an operational control centre.

AsiaEdit

AfricaEdit

Future system and linesEdit

Standard systems for automated operationEdit

Defunct systemsEdit

  •   Post Office Railway - subway connected main post offices and railway terminals in London.
  •   Berlin M-Bahn - This was a maglev train in West-Berlin in operation from 1989 to 1991. It closed when a metro line, on which the M-Bahn's route partly lay, was scheduled to reopen. The metro line was closed in 1961 when the Berlin Wall erected, because it crossed the border.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit