List of automated urban metro subway systems
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The first line to be operated with Automatic Train Operation (ATO) was London Underground's Victoria line, which opened in 1967, although a driver is present in the cabin. Many lines now operate using an ATO system, with the aim of improving the frequency of service. Since then, ATO technology has been developed to enable trains to operate even without a driver in a cab: either with an attendant roaming within the train, or with no staff on board. The first fully automated driverless mass-transit rail network is the Port Island Line in Kobe, Japan. The second in the world (and the first such driverless system in Europe) is the Lille Metro in northern France. This list focuses heavily on trains in the classical sense used for large-scale metros and railways but does include a few people mover systems.
Degrees of AutomationEdit
The list is ordered in descending order of the degree of automation. It uses the Grade of Automation classifications specified by the standard IEC 62290‐1. These are explained diagrammatically by the UITP.
Grade of Automation 4 (GoA4)Edit
In this system, trains are capable of operating automatically at all times, including door closing, obstacle detection and emergency situations. On-board staff may be provided for other purposes, e.g. customer service, but are not required for safe operation.
Examples include the Copenhagen Metro.
Grade of Automation 3 (GoA3)Edit
In this system, trains run automatically from station to station but a staff member is always in the train, with responsibility for handling of emergency situations. In a GoA3 system, the train cannot operate safely without the staff member on board.
Examples include the Docklands Light Railway.
Grade of Automation 2 (GoA2)Edit
In this system, trains run automatically from station to station but a driver is in the cab, with responsibility for door closing, obstacle detection on the track in front of the train and handling of emergency situations. As in a GoA3 system, the GoA2 train cannot operate safely without the staff member on board.
Grade of Automation 4 systemsEdit
These systems are capable of unattended train operation (UTO), although some operators may choose to staff trains anyway.
|Country||Name of system||Line||Date||System||Notes|
|China||Shanghai Metro||Line 10||Alstom Urbalis||Operated with a driver in a cab.|
|Beijing Metro||Yanfang Line|||
|Hong Kong||MTR||Disneyland Resort Line||1 August 2005||Most trains have an attendant on board.|
|South Island Line (East)||28 December 2016||UTO by Alstom Urbalis|
|India||Delhi Metro||Pink Line||Scheduled for early 2017||58.59 km (36.41 mi). Initially with an attendant on board.|
|Magenta Line||25 December 2017||Initially with an attendant on board.|
|Hyderabad Metro||Red Line||28 November 2017||Half portion in Operation|
|Blue Line||28 November 2017||Half portion in Operation|
|Green Line||Pending||In final stage of construction|
|Yokohama||Kanazawa Seaside Line|
|Nagoya||Linimo||Built for Expo 2005||Commuter Maglev|
|Osaka||Nanko Port Town Line|
|Kobe||Kobe New Transit||World's first GoA4 line.|
|Hiroshima||Skyrail Midorizaka Line||People Mover monorail|
|Malaysia||Kuala Lumpur – Rapid KL||Kelana Jaya Line||1998||SelTrac CBTC||The first GoA4 in Malaysia at 46.4 km (28.8 mi)|
|Sungai Buloh-Kajang Line||2017||Bombardier CITYFLO 650||The second GoA4 in Malaysia at 51 km (32 mi)|
|Ampang Line & Sri Petaling Line||2017||SelTrac CBTC||With train attendants who drive trains in the event of a disruption.|
|Kuala Lumpur||KLIA Aerotrain||Bombardier CITYFLO 550|
|Qatar||Doha Metro||all lines||2019||Thales CBTC||To be opened in 2019|
|Philippines||Manila Light Rail Transit System||Manila LRT Line 2|
|Saudi Arabia||Princess Nourah Women's University (PNU-APM)||Automated People Mover in Riyadh|
|Singapore||Light Rail Transit (Singapore)||Bukit Panjang LRT line||Bombardier CITYFLO 550|
|Sengkang LRT line||Kyosan APM|
|Punggol LRT line||Kyosan APM|
|Changi Airport Skytrain||Kyosan APM|
|Mass Rapid Transit (Singapore)||North East MRT line||Alstom Urbalis 300||One of the largest fully automated rapid transit network in the world at 82 km (51 mi). Trains may have an attendant on board.|
|Circle MRT line||Alstom Urbalis 300|
|Downtown MRT line||Siemens Trainguard Sirius CBTC|
|South Korea||Busan-Gimhae Light Rail Transit|
|Busan Subway Line 4|
|Daegu||Daegu Metro Line 3|
|Incheon||Incheon Airport Maglev|
|Incheon||Incheon Subway Line 2|
|Seoul Metropolitan Subway||Shinbundang Line|
|Seoul Metropolitan Subway||Ui LRT|
|Yongin||Everline||Bombardier CITYFLO 650|
|Taipei||Metro||Wenhu Line||Bombardier CITYFLO 650||Each train has an attendant on board, the number of which has been gradually decreasing. By September 2017 trains will only have attendants in long tunnel sections.|
|Turkey||Istanbul Metro||M5||15 December 2017||Bombardier CITYFLO 650||On the Asian side of Istanbul.|
|UAE||Dubai Metro||Red Line at 52.1 km (32.4 mi). The longest driverless network in the Middle East.|
|Country||Name of system||Line||Date||System||Notes|
|Denmark||Copenhagen Metro||Line 1||Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro|
|Spain||Barcelona Metro||Line 9||Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC||47.8 km (29.7 mi)|
|Italy||Turin Metro||Line M1||Opened in section 1 on 4 February 2006 for the 2006 Winter Olympics, completed in 2014.||VAL type system||First fully automatic metro in Italy.|
|Rome Metro||Line C||2015||Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro|
|Milan Metro||Milan Metro Line 5||2013||Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro|
|Brescia Metro||2015||Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro|
|France||Paris Metro||Line 14||Opened 15 October 1998||Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC|
|2022 (Planned)||To be completed in 2030|
|Line 1||3 November 2011||Siemens CBTC||Upgraded from manual operation with first GoA4 trains operating in mixed mode (driven trains and driverless trains). Last manually driven train was removed by end of 2012|
|Paris||Orlyval||2 October 1991||VAL system||Operates between Antony and Orly-Sud|
|Charles de Gaulle Airport||CDGVAL||VAL system|
|Rennes||Rennes Metro||VAL system|
|Toulouse||Toulouse Metro||VAL system|
|Lille||Lille Metro||25 April 1983||VAL system||First line to use the VAL system.|
|Lyon Metro||Line D||Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC||Rubber-tyred trains controlled by a system known as MAGGALY (Métro Automatique à Grand Gabarit de l’Agglomération Lyonnaise).|
|Germany||Nuremberg U-Bahn||Line U2 and Line U3|
|Hungary||Budapest Metro||Line 4|||
|Switzerland||Lausanne Metro||Line M2||Alstom Urbalis|
|United Kingdom||London||Gatwick Airport||Bombardier CITYFLO 650||Inter-terminal people mover built by Bombardier Transportation|
|London||Heathrow Airport||Bombardier CITYFLO 650|
|London||Stansted Airport Transit System||Bombardier CITYFLO 550||Inter-terminal people mover using|
Grade of Automation 3 systemsEdit
|Country||Name of system||Line||Date||System||Notes|
|Brazil||São Paulo Metro||Line 1 (Blue)||March 1976||ATO||With train captains monitoring in cab.|
|São Paulo Metro||Line 2 (Green)||February 2016||Alstom CBTC URBALIS||With train captains monitoring in cab.|
|São Paulo Metro||Line 3 (Red)||1979||ATO||With train captains monitoring in cab.|
|São Paulo Metro||Line 5 (Lilac)||12 March 2017||Bombardier CITYFLO 650||With train captains monitoring in cab. To be upgraded to GoA4 in 2019-2020|
|Salvador Metro||1 and 2||2014||SelTrac||With train captains monitoring in cab.|
|Bulgaria||Sofia Metro||Line 3||Scheduled for 2018–2019|
|China||Beijing Subway||Airport Express, Beijing Subway||Alstom CBTC||System is operated by a driver in a cab.|
|Wuhan Metro||Yangluo line||26 December 2017|||
|Hungary||Budapest Metro||Line 2||Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC||A supervisor is monitoring the train in the cab.|
|Singapore||Mass Rapid Transit (Singapore)||North South MRT Line||Thales Seltrac® CBTC||With train captains monitoring in cab.|
|East West MRT Line||Thales Seltrac® CBTC||With train captains monitoring in cab.|
|Spain||Barcelona Metro||Line 11||Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC|
|United Kingdom||London, UK||Docklands Light Railway||Opened in 1987|
Grade of Automation 2 systemsEdit
- Algiers Metro – opened on 1 November 2011 – Siemens CBTC
- Montreal Metro Line 1 Green, Line 2 Orange and Line 5 Blue, opened in 1966 (Lines 1 and 2) and 1986 (Line 5), operates in ATO mode introduced since 1976. A member of staff closes the train doors (doors are usually opened automatically unless the driver requests otherwise) but does not normally drive the trains.
- Scarborough RT of the Toronto subway, which uses the same trains as the Vancouver SkyTrain and the Detroit People Mover, already runs on an ATC/ATO system with an attendant on board.
- Santiago Metro line 1 by Alstom Urbalis
- Mexico City Metro line 12 by Alstom Urbalis
- Puerto Rico – San Juan – Tren Urbano – the entire system is fully automated, but can be over-ridden. Substations providing the power are remotely controlled from an operational control centre.
- Bay Area Rapid Transit in San Francisco opened in 1972. (A member of staff closes the train doors but does not normally drive the train).
- PATCO Speedline between Philadelphia and New Jersey operates in automated mode since 1969, but can be overridden by a staff member.
- Washington Metro has an automated mode, where the driver is responsible for opening and closing of doors and of overriding the system. However, the system has been operating in manual mode since the June 2009 Washington Metro train collision, and plans are to operate in manual mode until newer railcars are delivered.
- New York City Subway BMT Canarsie Line L train began automatic train operation in early 2012 – Siemens CBTC.
- San Francisco Muni Metro light rail trains switch to automatic control while operating in the Market Street Subway and in the Twin Peaks Tunnel. The operator manages the doors in-station and pilots the vehicle when running aboveground.
- MARTA in Atlanta, Georgia opened in 1979. (A member of staff is in the driving cab and opens and closes the train doors but does not normally drive the train).
- Seoul Subway Line 5 – driver on standby and will drive the train when ATO malfunctions or is not available.
- Seoul Subway Line 6
- Seoul Subway Line 7
- Seoul Subway Line 8
- Seoul Subway Line 9
- Korail Bundang Line (Utilizes the Thales SelTrac system with driver on board in case of emergencies)
- Busan Subway Line 1
- Busan Subway Line 2
- Busan Subway Line 3
- Daejeon Subway Line 1
- Incheon Subway Line 1
- Daegu Subway Line 1
- Daegu Subway Line 2
- Taipei Metro Red Line (Tamsui Line)
- Taipei Metro Green Line (Xiaonanmen Line, Xindian Line, Xiaobitan Branch)
- Taipei Metro Blue Line (Banqiao-Nangang Line, Tucheng Line)
- Taipei Metro Orange Line (Zhonghe Line, Xinzhuang Line, Luzhou Line)
- Tokyo Metro Marunouchi Line (Main line converted to ATO in 2010, Hōnanchō branch continues to use ATC/TASC)
- Tokyo Metro Namboku Line
- Tokyo Metro Fukutoshin Line
- Tokyo Metro Chiyoda Line (Kita-Ayase branch)
- Tokyo Metro Hibiya Line (ATO trialled during the 1960s, trains now operated in manual mode)
- Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation Toei Ōedo Line
- Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation Toei Mita Line
- Nankō Port Town Line in Osaka
- Osaka Municipal Subway Nagahori Tsurumi-ryokuchi Line
- Osaka Municipal Subway Tanimachi Line (ATO trialled from October 1967 until February 1968, trains now operated in manual mode)
- Fukuoka City Subway Kūkō Line
- Fukuoka City Subway Hakozaki Line
- Fukuoka City Subway Nanakuma Line
- Saitama Rapid Railway Line (actually a continuation of the Tokyo Metro Namboku Line)
- Sendai Subway Nanboku Line (World's first railway system to use fuzzy logic to control the speed of trains)
- Yokohama Municipal Subway Green Line
- Nagoya Municipal Subway Sakura-dōri Line
- Okinawa Monorail
- MTR Kwun Tong Line – same system as Paris RER line A
- MTR Tsuen Wan Line – same system as Paris RER line A
- MTR Island Line – same system as Paris RER line A
- MTR Tung Chung Line – same system as Paris RER line A
- MTR Airport Express – same system as Paris RER line A
- MTR Tseung Kwan O Line – same system as Paris RER line A
- MTR East Rail Line
- MTR West Rail Line (Utilizes the SelTrac system with driver on board in case of emergencies)
- MTR Ma On Shan Line (Utilizes the SelTrac system with driver on board in case of emergencies)
- Beijing Subway, 4, 8, 10 (Utilizes the SelTrac system with driver on board in case of emergencies)
- Beijing Subway Fangshan Line by Alstom Urbalis
- Beijing Subway 2, 6 and 9 by Alstom Urbalis
- Wuxi Metro Line 1 & Line 2 – by Alstom Urbalis
- Ningbo Metro Line 1 – by Alstom Urbalis
- Wuhan Metro Line 1 (Utilizes the SelTrac system with driver on board in case of emergencies)
- Guangzhou Metro Line 3 (Utilizes the SelTrac system with driver on board in case of emergencies)
- Shenyang Metro Line 1 – Ansaldo STS CBTC
- Shanghai Metro Lines 6, 7, 8, 9 and 11 (Line 11 from 2012) (Utilizes the SelTrac system with driver on board in case of emergencies)
- Shenzhen Metro Luobao Line by Siemens LZB 700M.
- Shenzhen Metro Shekou Line &Huanzhong Line by Alstom Urbalis.
- Shenzhen Metro Longgang Line by Bombardier CITYFLO 650.
- Tianjin Metro Line 2 and Line 3 by Bombardier CITYFLO 650.
- Shanghai Metro Lines 13 by Alstom Urbalis
- Kolkata Metro Line 1 and probably the future Line 2
- Delhi Metro Red Line (Uses signalling systems supplied by Alstom)
- Delhi Metro Yellow Line (Uses signalling systems supplied by Alstom)
- Delhi Metro Blue Line (Uses LZB 700 signalling systems supplied by Siemens)
- Delhi Metro Green Line Bombardier CITYFLO 350
- Delhi Metro Violet Line Bombardier CITYFLO 350
- Delhi Metro Airport Express Bombardier CITYFLO 350
- BTS Skytrain Sukhumvit Line and Silom Line by Bombardier CITYFLO 450.
- MRT Blue Line by Siemens LZB 700M.
- Suvarnabhumi Airport Rail Link by Siemens LZB 700M.
- Kuala Lumpur – Rapid KL – KL Monorail – Commenced operations in 2003.
- Kuala Lumpur – ERL – KLIA Ekspres & KLIA Transit. Bombardier CITYFLO 550
|Country||Name of system||Line||Date||System||Notes|
|Austria||Vienna U-Bahn||U2||Uses the same system as Munich with fully driverless turning at some terminuses.|
|Finland||Helsinki Metro||Including Länsimetro/Västmetron extension, has had various attempts at automation since the 1970s.|
|France||Paris Metro||Line 2|
|Line 3||OCTYS System||Provides ATP and high level ATO with mobile block system – Siemens CBTC|
|Line 5||OCTYS System|
|Line 9||OCTYS System|
|Paris RER Line A||SACEM System||One of the most advanced traffic control systems and enables extremely short spacing (under 90 seconds in stations, under 2 minutes in tunnels).|
|Germay||Munich U-Bahn||Driver operates the doors and handles emergency situations, accelerating and braking is fully automated; a fully driverless turning at terminus stations is planned.|
|Düsseldorf Stadtbahn||Driver operates the doors and handles emergency situations, accelerating and braking is fully automated, but just between the 22 underground stations. Outside the underground stations the driver operates the train manual.|
|Hungary||Budapest Metro||Line 3||Converted to automated operation in 1990 (a member of staff opens & closes the train doors)|
|Italy||Milan Metro||Line 3|
|Russia||Kazan Metro||System "Dvizhenie"|
|Saint Petersburg Metro||Line 2||System "Dvizhenie"|
|Spain||Barcelona Metro||Line 1||Bombardier CITYFLO 350|
|Line 3||Bombardier CITYFLO 350|
|Bilbao Metro||Line 1||November 1995||Bombardier CITYFLO 350|
|Line 2||Abril 2002||Bombardier CITYFLO 350|
|Madrid Metro||Line 1||July 2009||Bombardier CITYFLO 650|
|Line 6||July 2008||Bombardier CITYFLO 650|
|Line 7||Invensys CBTC|
|Sweden||Stockholm Metro||Green Line, (Lines T17,
T18 and T19)
|Red Line||Ansaldo STS CBTC||Lines T13 and T14) will begin ATO operation in 2014.|
|Turkey||Ankara Metro||Seltrac CBTC||Uses a modified version of Toronto subway's H6 subway model made by Bombardier Transportation and configured for driverless operation.|
|İstanbul Metro||Line M2 Yenikapı – Hacıosman||Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC|
|Line M3 Kirazlıi – Olimpiyat / Başakşehir Metrokent||Bombardier CITYFLO 350|
|Line M4 Kadıköy – Kartal||Seltrac CBTC|
|Line M6 Levent – Hisarüstü||Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC|
|United Kingdom||London Underground||Victoria line||1967|
|Central line||Converted to automated operation in the mid-1990s.||A member of staff opens & closes the train doors monitors the train and fixes faults on board. Drivers drive the trains on Sundays and Bank holidays. All shunt moves are made by the drivers and whenever the train stops for fail safe reasons such as excess wheel spin or sliding the driver takes over; at other times trains are computer driven.|
|Jubilee line||Converted to automated operation in 2011.||A member of staff opens & closes the train doors, drives the train on Sundays, fixes faults.|
|Northern line||Converted in 2012||A driver operates the doors and presses buttons to start the train, the train is driven manually on Sundays, and can be driven in manual outside of peak hours.|
|Glasgow Subway||Uses driver. The introduction of fully automated trains will begin in 2020.|
Future system and linesEdit
- Chile Santiago Metro Line 3, Expected December 2018 by Thales Group SelTrac; Line 7, Expected 2026
- Peru Lima Metro Line 2, Expected 2022. Line 4, Expected 2025 - AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
- Beijing Subway Line 3, Line 12, Line 17, and Line 19 are currently under construction. All aforementioned lines plan to utilize driverless trains. This could potentially create the longest fully automated subway network in the world.
- Shanghai Metro Line 14 UTO system jointly developed by Thales and Shanghai Electric.
- Wuhan Metro Line 5
- Chengdu Metro Line 9 – Alstom Urbalis CBTC System for UTO operation
- Barcelona Metro line 2 – Siemens CBTC
- Milan Metro Line 4 – Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
- Macau – driverless elevated lightrail
- Pilbara iron ore trains operated by Rio Tinto under testing as of July 2017 with an attendant operator, driverless operation expected by late 2018.
- Pilbara iron ore trains from Roy Hill.
- Sydney Metro, Bankstown to Rouse Hill – by Alstom Urbalis
- São Paulo Future Line 6 construction started in 2014 between the stations Brasilândia to São Joaquim. GoA4
- São Paulo Metro Line 1, Line 2, Line 3 by Alstom Urbalis. System is currently operating on Line 2, with upgrading of the other 2 lines to be fully completed by 2021.
- Copenhagen Metro line 3, line 4 by Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
- Amsterdam Metro 5 lines by Alstom Urbalis – GoA2 under construction with GoA4 planned long term
- Mass Rapid Transit Thomson-East Coast Line using Alstom Urbalis 400 CBTC is currently under construction. With the Jurong Region Line and Cross Island Line also planned to use driverless trains.
- Malaga Metro Line 1 & Line 2 by Alstom Urbalis
- New York City Subway IRT Flushing Line (7 train) converted to GoA2 automatic train operation by 2016.
- Al Sufouh LRT by Alstom Urbalis
- Taichung Subway Green line – UTO by Alstom Urbalis
- Taipei Circular Line – AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro.
- Thessaloniki Metro – Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro.
- Athens Metro Line 4.
- Réseau express métropolitain in Montreal, Quebec
- Toronto subway is expected to have ATC/ATO implemented on the Yonge–University–Spadina Line by 2019 and the Bloor–Danforth Line, funding permitting, by 2030.
- MRT MRT Purple Line – UTO by Bombardier CITYFLO 650
- Prague Metro Line D May change to non-automatic line
- Istanbul Metro M5, M7, M8 – Bombardier Cityflo 650 CBTC – UTO Fully driverless system
- London's Circle, Metropolitan, Hammersmith & City, Piccadilly Line and District lines
- Rapid KL Line 11 – Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC
- Rapid KL Line 12 – Cityflo 650 CBTC
- Rapid KL Line 13
- Jakarta MRT
Standard systems for automated operationEdit
- Post Office Railway – subway connected main post offices and railway terminals in London.
- Berlin M-Bahn – This was a maglev train in West-Berlin in operation from 1989 to 1991. It closed when a metro line, on which the M-Bahn's route partly lay, was scheduled to reopen. The metro line was closed in 1961 when the Berlin Wall erected, because it crossed the border.
- "Automation Essentials – Automated Metros Observatory".
- "ViaQuatro ganha Prêmio UITP Latino" (in Portuguese).
- "Evergreen Extension opening today". 2 December 2016.
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- UK, DVV Media. "Erdoğan opens first driverless metro line in Istanbul". Metro Report. Retrieved 2017-12-23.
- Railway Gazette International May 2014, pg 15.
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- TODAY Online (April 13, 2017). "doors open and close automatically under the new system-Gov.sg". gov.sg. Retrieved February 9, 2018.
- Weir, Kytja (June 2, 2011). "Metro: Trains to stay in manual mode for several years". The Washington Examiner. Retrieved July 13, 2011.
- NY1 News (2009-02-21). "L Subway service to be run by computers". Archived from the original on 2009-09-09. Retrieved 2011-12-05.
- "MTA L Train Response to Squadron" (PDF) (Press release). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. 2011-09-06. Retrieved 2011-12-05.
- Transport for London Tube Upgrade Plan Archived 2013-02-15 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Subway Modernisation – SPT". spt.co.uk.
- Templeton, Dan. "China to start operations on first driverless metro in 2017". Retrieved 2017-12-28.
- Briginshaw, David. "Shanghai awards contract for first automated metro line". Retrieved 2018-05-21.
- Ltd, DVV Media International. "Chengdu driverless metro contracts awarded". Metro Report. Retrieved 2018-05-21.
- "Rio Tinto has confirmed that it is on track to completely transition to driverless trains across its entire Pilbara operation by the end of 2018". iseekplant.com.au. July 20, 2017. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
- Spurr, Ben (November 6, 2017). "TTC test of new signalling system 'exceeded expectations'". Toronto Star. Retrieved November 8, 2017.
- "UITP Automated Metro Observatory, a complete website with UTO Metro Resources"