List of automated urban metro subway systems
The first line to be operated with Automatic Train Operation (ATO) was London Underground's Victoria line, which opened in 1967, although a driver is present in the cabin. Many lines now operate like that, with the aim of improving the frequency of service. Since then, ATO technology has been developed to enable trains to operate even without a driver in a cab: either with an attendant roaming within the train, or with no staff on board. The first fully automated driverless mass-transit rail network is the Port Island Line in Kobe, Japan. The second in the world (and the first such driverless system in Europe) is the Lille Metro in northern France. This list focuses heavily on trains in the classical sense used for large-scale metros and railways but does include a few people mover systems.
Degrees of AutomationEdit
The list is ordered in descending order of the degree of automation. It uses the Grade of Automation classifications specified by the standard IEC 62290‐1. These are explained diagrammatically by the UITP
Grade of Automation 4 (GoA4)Edit
In this system trains are capable of operating automatically at all times, including door closing, obstacle detection and emergency situations. On-board staff may be provided for other purposes, e.g. customer service, but are not required for safe operation.
Examples include the Copenhagen Metro.
Grade of Automation 3 (GoA3)Edit
In this system trains run automatically from station to station but a staff member is always in the train, with responsibility for door closing and handling of emergency situations. In a GoA3 system, the train cannot operate safely without the staff member on board.
Examples include the Docklands Light Railway.
Grade of Automation 2 (GoA2)Edit
In this system trains run automatically from station to station but a driver is in the cab, with responsibility for door closing, obstacle detection on the track in front of the train and handling of emergency situations. As in a GoA3 system, the GoA2 train cannot operate safely without the staff member on board.
Grade of Automation 4 SystemsEdit
These systems are capable of unattended train operation (UTO), although some operators may choose to staff trains anyway.
|Country||Name of system||Line||Date||System||Notes|
|Denmark||Copenhagen Metro||Line 1||Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro|
|Spain||Barcelona Metro||Line 9||Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC|
|Italy||Turin Metro||Line M1||Opened in section 1 on 4 February 2006 for the 2006 Winter Olympics, completed in 2014.||VAL type system||First fully automatic metro in Italy.|
|Rome Metro||Line C||2015||Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro|
|Milan Metro||Milan Metro Line 5||2013||Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro|
|Brescia Metro||2015||Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro|
|France||Paris Metro||Line 14||Opened 15 October 1998||Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC|
|2022 (Planned)||To be completed in 2030|
|Line 1||3 November 2011||Siemens CBTC||Upgraded from manual operation with first GoA4 trains operating in mixed mode (driven trains and driverless trains). Last manually driven train was removed by end of 2012|
|Paris||Orlyval||2 October 1991||VAL system||Operates between Antony and Orly-Sud|
|Charles de Gaulle Airport||CDGVAL||VAL system.|
|Rennes||Rennes Metro||VAL system.|
|Toulouse||Toulouse Metro||VAL system.|
|Lille||Lille Metro||25 April 1983||VAL system.||First line to use the VAL system.|
|Lyon Metro||Line D||Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC||Rubber-tyred trains controlled by a system known as MAGGALY (Métro Automatique à Grand Gabarit de l’Agglomération Lyonnaise).|
|Germany||Nuremberg U-Bahn||Line U2 and Line U3|
|Hungary||Budapest Metro||Line 4|||
|Switzerland||Lausanne Metro||Line M2||Alstom Urbalis|
|United Kingdom||London||Gatwick Airport||Innovia APM 100||Inter-terminal people mover built by Bombardier Transportation|
|London||Stansted Airport Transit System||Bombardier Innovia APM||Inter-terminal people mover using|
|Country||Name of system||Line||Date||System||Notes|
|Brazil||São Paulo Metro||Line 4||May 25, 2010||Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC||First completely driverless heavy-capacity metro in South America|
|Peru||Lima Metro||Line 2||AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro|
|Line 4||AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro|
|Country||Name of system||Line||Date||System||Notes|
|China||Shanghai Metro||Line 10||Alstom Urbalis||Operated with a driver in a cab.|
|Beijing Metro||Yanfang Line||Planned line.|
|Hong Kong||Disneyland Resort Line||Most trains have an attendant on board.|
|South Island Line||East||UTO by Alstom Urbalis|
|India||Delhi Metro||Pink Line||Scheduled for early 2017||Initially with an attendant on board.|
|Magenta Line||Scheduled for early 2017||Initially with an attendant on board.|
|Yokohama||Kanazawa Seaside Line|
|Nagoya||Linimo||Built for Expo 2005||Commuter Maglev|
|Osaka||Nanko Port Town Line|
|Kobe||Kobe New Transit||World's first GoA4 line.|
|Hiroshima||Skyrail Midorizaka Line||People Mover monorail|
|Malaysia||Kuala Lumpur - Rapid KL||Kelana Jaya Line||1998||SelTrac CBTC|
|Sungai Buloh-Kajang Line||Cityflo 650 CBTC|
|Kuala Lumpur||KLIA Aerotrain||Bombardier Innovia APM 100|
|Philippines||Manila Light Rail Transit System||Manila LRT Line 2|
- Singapore – Bukit Panjang LRT Line by Bombardier CITYFLO 550
- Singapore – Sengkang LRT Line by Kyosan APM
- Singapore – Punggol LRT Line by Kyosan APM
- Singapore – Changi Airport Skytrain by Kyosan APM
- Singapore – North East MRT Line by Alstom Urbalis 300 (with train attendants who drive trains in the event of a disruption.)
- Singapore – Circle MRT Line by Alstom Urbalis 300 (with train attendants who drive trains in the event of a disruption.)
- Singapore – Downtown MRT Line by Siemens Trainguard Sirius CBTC (with train attendants who drive trains in the event of a disruption.)
- Dubai Metro the longest driverless network in Asia
- Princess Nourah Women's University Automated People Mover in Riyadh (PNU-APM)
- Busan-Gimhae Light Rail Transit
- Busan Subway Line 4
- Daegu - Daegu Metro Line 3
- Incheon - Incheon Airport Maglev
- Incheon - Incheon Subway Line 2
- Seoul - Shinbundang Line
- Uijeongbu - U Line
- Yongin - Everline – Cityflo 650 CBTC
- Taipei Metro - Wenhu Line. Each train has an attendant on board, the number of which has been gradually decreasing. By September 2017 trains will only have attendants in long tunnel sections.
Grade of Automation 3 SystemsEdit
|Country||Name of system||Line||Date||System||Notes|
|Bulgaria||Sofia Metro||Line 3||Scheduled for 2018-2019|
|China||Beijing Subway||Airport Express, Beijing Subway||Alstom CBTC||System is operated by a driver in a cab.|
|Malaysia||Kuala Lumpur||Rapid KL – Ampang Line||Seltrac® CBTC|
|Singapore||Singapore||North South MRT Line||Thales Seltrac® CBTC||With train captains monitoring in cab.|
|East West MRT Line||Thales Seltrac® CBTC||With train captains monitoring in cab.|
|Spain||Barcelona Metro||Line 11||Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC|
|United Kingdom||London, UK||Docklands Light Railway||Opened in 1987|
Grade of Automation 2 systemsEdit
- Paris Métro Line 2
- Paris Métro Line 3 OCTYS system provides ATP and high level ATO with mobile block system - Siemens CBTC
- Paris Métro Line 4
- Paris Métro Line 5 OCTYS system
- Paris Métro Line 6
- Paris Métro Line 7
- Paris Métro Line 8
- Paris Métro Line 9 OCTYS System
- Paris Métro Line 11
- Paris Métro Line 12
- Paris Métro Line 13
- Paris RER Line A - Utilizes the SACEM system, one of the most advanced traffic control systems and enables extremely short spacing (under 90 seconds in stations, under 2 minutes in tunnels).
- London's Victoria line opened 1967.
- London's Central line converted to automated operation in the mid-1990s (a member of staff opens & closes the train doors monitors the train and fixes faults on board. Drivers drive the trains on Sundays and Bank holidays. All shunt moves are made by the drivers and whenever the train stops for fail safe reasons such as excess wheel spin or sliding the driver takes over; at other times trains are computer driven).
- London's Jubilee line converted to automated operation in 2011 (a member of staff opens & closes the train doors, drives the train on Sundays, fixes faults).
- London's Northern line converted in 2012 (a driver operates the doors and presses buttons to start the train, the train is driven manually on Sundays, and can be driven in manual outside of peak hours).
- Glasgow Subway Uses driver. The introduction of fully automated trains will begin in 2020.
- Munich U-Bahn (driver operates the doors and handles emergency situations, accelerating and braking is fully automated; a fully driverless turning at terminus stations is planned)
- Duesseldorf U-Bahn (driver operates the doors and handles emergency situations, accelerating and braking is fully automated, but just between the 22 undergroundstations. Outside the underground stations the driver operates the train manual.
- Vienna U-Bahn uses the same system as Munich with fully driverless turning at some terminuses (e.g. U2)
- Budapest Line 3 - converted to automated operation in 1990 (a member of staff opens & closes the train doors)
- Bilbao Metro Line 1
- Bilbao Metro Line 2
- Barcelona Metro line 1
- Barcelona Metro line 2
- Barcelona Metro line 3
- Barcelona Metro line 5
- Madrid Metro Line 1 - Bombardier CBTC
- Madrid Metro Line 3
- Madrid Metro Line 4
- Madrid Metro Line 5
- Madrid Metro Line 6 - Bombardier CBTC
- Madrid Metro Line 7 - Invensys CBTC
- Madrid Metro Line 8
- Madrid Metro Line 9
- Madrid Metro Line 10
- Madrid Metro Line 11
- Madrid Metro Line 12
- Madrid Metro Branch line
- Saint Petersburg Metro Line 2 - system "Dvizhenie"
- Kazan Metro - system "Dvizhenie"
- Ankara Metro Uses a modified version of Toronto subway's H6 subway model made by Bombardier Transportation and configured for driverless operation.
- İstanbul Metro Line M2 Yenikapi - Haciosman
- İstanbul Metro Line M3 Kirazli - Olympic Village / Basaksehir
- İstanbul Metro Line M4 Kadikoy - Kartal
- Stockholm Metro Green Line (Lines T17, T18 and T19)
- Stockholm Metro Red Line (Lines T13 and T14) will begin ATO operation in 2014 - Ansaldo STS CBTC
- Helsinki Metro (including Länsimetro/Västmetron extension) has had various attempts at automation since the 1970s and, as of 2016, none of them successful.
- Milan Metro Line 3
- Montreal Metro Line 1 Green, Line 2 Orange and Line 5 Blue, opened in 1966 (Lines 1 and 2) and 1986 (Line 5), operates in ATO mode introduced since 1976. A member of staff closes the train doors (doors are usually opened automatically unless the driver requests otherwise) but does not normally drive the trains.
- Toronto Subway and RT is expected to have ATC/ATO implemented on the Yonge–University–Spadina Line and the Bloor–Danforth Line by 2016 and 2020 respectively. The Scarborough RT, which uses the same trains as the Vancouver SkyTrain and the Detroit People Mover, already runs on an ATC/ATO system.
- Bay Area Rapid Transit in San Francisco opened in 1972. (A member of staff closes the train doors but does not normally drive the trains).
- PATCO Speedline between Philadelphia and New Jersey operates in automated mode since 1969, but can be overridden by a staff member.
- Washington Metro has an automated mode, where the driver is responsible for opening and closing of doors and of overriding the system. However, the system has been operating in manual mode since the June 2009 Washington Metro train collision, and plans are to operate in manual mode until newer railcars are delivered.
- New York City Subway BMT Canarsie Line L train began automatic train operation in early 2012 - Siemens CBTC.
- San Francisco Muni Metro light rail trains switch to automatic control while operating in the Market Street Subway and in the Twin Peaks Tunnel. The operator manages the doors in-station and pilots the vehicle when running aboveground.
- Mexico City Metro line 12 by Alstom Urbalis
- Puerto Rico - San Juan - Tren Urbano - the entire system is fully automated, but can be over-ridden. Substations providing the power are remotely controlled from an operational control centre.
- East West MRT Line by Westinghouse (only Jurong East - Pasir Ris and Changi Airport till 21 October 2017)
- Seoul Subway Line 5 - driver on standby and will drive the train when ATO malfunctions or is not available.
- Seoul Subway Line 6
- Seoul Subway Line 7
- Seoul Subway Line 8
- Seoul Subway Line 9
- Korail Bundang Line (Utilizes the Thales SelTrac system with driver on board in case of emergencies)
- Busan Subway Line 1
- Busan Subway Line 2
- Busan Subway Line 3
- Daejeon Subway Line 1
- Incheon Subway Line 1
- Daegu Subway Line 1
- Daegu Subway Line 2
- Taipei Metro Red Line (Tamsui Line)
- Taipei Metro Green Line (Xiaonanmen Line, Xindian Line, Xiaobitan Branch)
- Taipei Metro Blue Line (Banqiao-Nangang Line, Tucheng Line)
- Taipei Metro Orange Line (Zhonghe Line, Xinzhuang Line, Luzhou Line)
- Tokyo Metro Marunouchi Line (Main line converted to ATO in 2010, Hōnanchō branch continues to use ATC/TASC)
- Tokyo Metro Namboku Line
- Tokyo Metro Fukutoshin Line
- Tokyo Metro Chiyoda Line (Kita-Ayase branch)
- Tokyo Metro Hibiya Line (ATO trialled during the 1960s, trains now operated in manual mode)
- Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation Toei Ōedo Line
- Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation Toei Mita Line
- Nankō Port Town Line in Osaka
- Osaka Municipal Subway Nagahori Tsurumi-ryokuchi Line
- Osaka Municipal Subway Tanimachi Line (ATO trialled from October 1967 until February 1968, trains now operated in manual mode)
- Fukuoka City Subway Kūkō Line
- Fukuoka City Subway Hakozaki Line
- Fukuoka City Subway Nanakuma Line
- Saitama Rapid Railway Line (actually a continuation of the Tokyo Metro Namboku Line)
- Sendai Subway Nanboku Line (World's first railway system to use fuzzy logic to control the speed of trains)
- Yokohama Municipal Subway Green Line
- Nagoya Municipal Subway Sakura-dōri Line
- Okinawa Monorail
- MTR Kwun Tong Line - same system as Paris RER line A
- MTR Tsuen Wan Line - same system as Paris RER line A
- MTR Island Line - same system as Paris RER line A
- MTR Tung Chung Line - same system as Paris RER line A
- MTR Airport Express - same system as Paris RER line A
- MTR Tseung Kwan O Line - same system as Paris RER line A
- MTR East Rail Line
- MTR West Rail Line (Utilizes the SelTrac system with driver on board in case of emergencies)
- MTR Ma On Shan Line (Utilizes the SelTrac system with driver on board in case of emergencies)
- Beijing Subway, 4, 8, 10 (Utilizes the SelTrac system with driver on board in case of emergencies)
- Beijing Subway Fangshan Line by Alstom Urbalis
- Beijing Subway Line 2 by Alstom Urbalis
- Beijing Subway Line 6 by Alstom Urbalis
- Beijing Subway Line 9 by Alstom Urbalis
- Wuhan Metro Line 1 (Utilizes the SelTrac system with driver on board in case of emergencies)
- Guangzhou Metro Line 3 (Utilizes the SelTrac system with driver on board in case of emergencies)
- Shenyang Metro Line 1 - Ansaldo STS CBTC
- Shanghai Metro Lines 6, 7, 8, 9 and 11 (Line 11 from 2012) (Utilizes the SelTrac system with driver on board in case of emergencies)
- Shenzhen Metro Luobao Line by Siemens LZB 700M.
- Shenzhen Metro Shekou Line &Huanzhong Line by Alstom Urbalis.
- Shenzhen Metro Longgang Line by Bombardier CITYFLO 650.
- Shanghai Metro Lines 13 by Alstom Urbalis
- Kolkata Metro Line 1 and probably the future Line 2
- Delhi Metro Red Line (Uses signalling systems supplied by Alstom)
- Delhi Metro Yellow Line (Uses signalling systems supplied by Alstom)
- Delhi Metro Blue Line (Uses LZB 700 signalling systems supplied by Siemens)
- Delhi Metro Green Line Bombardier
- Delhi Metro Violet Line (Uses signalling systems supplied by Bombardier Transportation)
- Delhi Metro Airport Express (Uses RHEDA-2000 signalling systems supplied by Bombardier Transportation)
- BTS Skytrain Sukhumvit Line and Silom Line by Bombardier CITYFLO 450.
- MRT Blue Line by Siemens LZB 700M.
- Suvarnabhumi Airport Rail Link by Siemens LZB 700M.
- Kuala Lumpur – Rapid KL – KL Monorail – Commenced operations in 2003.
- Kuala Lumpur – ERL – KLIA Ekspres & KLIA Transit
- Algiers Metro - opened on 1 November 2011 - Siemens CBTC
Future system and linesEdit
- Taichung Subway Green line - UTO by Alstom Urbalis
- Wuxi Metro Line 1 & Line 2 - by Alstom Urbalis
- Ningbo Metro Line 1 - by Alstom Urbalis
- Barcelona Metro line 2 - Siemens CBTC
- Seoul Metropolitan Subway Ui LRT
- Seoul Metropolitan Subway Incheon Subway Line 2 - by Incheon Transit Corporation
- Rome Rome Metro Line C - Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro - second section (first section already operating)
- Milan Metro Line 4 - Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
- Macau - driverless elevated lightrail
- Pilbara iron ore trains operated by Rio Tinto under testing as of July 2017 with an attendant operator, driverless operation expected by late 2018.
- Pilbara iron ore trains from Roy Hill.
- Sydney Metro, Bankstown to Rouse Hill - by Alstom Urbalis
- São Paulo Future Line 6 opened in 2014 between the stations Brasilândia to São Joaquim
- São Paulo Metro line 1, line 2, line 3 by Alstom Urbalis
- Copenhagen Metro line 3, line 4 by Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
- Amsterdam Metro 5 lines by Alstom Urbalis - GoA2 under construction with GoA4 planned long term
- Thomson-East Coast Line by Alstom Urbalis 400 CBTC (Under Construction)
- Jurong Region Line
- Cross Island Line
- Malaga Metro Line 1 & Line 2 by Alstom Urbalis
- New York City Subway IRT Flushing Line (7 train) converted to GoA2 automatic train operation by 2016.
- Al Sufouh LRT by Alstom Urbalis
- Taipei Circular Line - AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro.
- Thessaloniki Metro - Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro.
- Athens Metro Line 4.
- Montreal Réseau électrique métropolitain in Montreal, Quebec
- MRT MRT Purple Line - UTO by Bombardier CITYFLO 650
- Prague Metro Line D May change to non-automatic line
- Istanbul Metro M5 (Üsküdar-Çekmeköy/Sancaktepe) - UTO Fully driverless system
- Istanbul Metro M6 (Levent - Hisarustu) - GoA 2
- Istanbul Metro M7 (Mecidiyekoy - Mahmutbey) - UTO Fully driverless system
- Lima Metro Line 2 - AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro.
- London's Circle, Metropolitan, Hammersmith & City, Piccadilly Line and District lines
- Kuala Lumpur – Rapid KL – Bandar Utama-Klang Line – SelTrac CBTC
- Kuala Lumpur – Rapid KL – Sungai Buloh-Serdang-Putrajaya Line – Cityflo 650 CBTC
- Kuala Lumpur – Rapid KL – Circle Line
- Jakarta MRT
Standard systems for automated operationEdit
- Post Office Railway - subway connected main post offices and railway terminals in London.
- Berlin M-Bahn - This was a maglev train in West-Berlin in operation from 1989 to 1991. It closed when a metro line, on which the M-Bahn's route partly lay, was scheduled to reopen. The metro line was closed in 1961 when the Berlin Wall erected, because it crossed the border.
- "Automation Essentials - Automated Metros Observatory".
- Railway Gazette International May 2014, pg 15.
- "Evergreen Extension opening today". 2 December 2016.
- Barrow, Keith. "Beijing orders first driverless metro trains".
- "doors open and close automatically under the new system-Gov.sg".
- Transport for London Tube Upgrade Plan Archived 2013-02-15 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Subway Modernisation - SPT".
- Weir, Kytja (June 2, 2011). "Metro: Trains to stay in manual mode for several years". The Washington Examiner. Retrieved July 13, 2011.
- NY1 News (2009-02-21). "L Subway service to be run by computers". Archived from the original on 2009-09-09. Retrieved 2011-12-05.
- "MTA L Train Response to Squadron" (PDF) (Press release). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. 2011-09-06. Retrieved 2011-12-05.
- "Rio Tinto has confirmed that it is on track to completely transition to driverless trains across its entire Pilbara operation by the end of 2018.". iseekplant.com.au. July 20, 2017. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
- "UITP Automated Metro Observatory, a complete website with UTO Metro Resources"