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List of automated urban metro subway systems

Singapore has the longest automated metro system in the world with three of its five Mass Rapid Transit lines having 4th grade automation (GoA4). It has had automated lines since 2003 and currently has 82 km (51 mi) of automated tracks with an additional 43 km (27 mi) by 2024 with the completion of the new Thomson-East Coast line.
Metro Vancouver's SkyTrain has been in operation since 1985; it is fully automated on all lines and is the 2nd longest automated metro system in the world with 79.6 km (49.5 mi) of Automated tracks.

The first line to be operated with Automatic Train Operation (ATO) was London Underground's Victoria line, which opened in 1967, although a driver is present in the cabin. Many lines now operate using an ATO system, with the aim of improving the frequency of service. Since then, ATO technology has been developed to enable trains to operate even without a driver in a cab: either with an attendant roaming within the train, or with no staff on board. The first fully automated driverless mass-transit rail network is the Port Island Line in Kobe, Japan. The second in the world (and the first such driverless system in Europe) is the Lille Metro in northern France. This list focuses heavily on trains in the classical sense used for large-scale metros and railways but does include a few people mover systems.

Contents

Degrees of AutomationEdit

The list is ordered in descending order of the degree of automation. It uses the Grade of Automation classifications specified by the standard IEC 62290‐1.[1] These are explained diagrammatically by the UITP.[2]

Grade of Automation 4 (GoA4)Edit

 
Barcelona Metro line 9 without train driver

In this system, trains are capable of operating automatically at all times, including door closing, obstacle detection and emergency situations. On-board staff may be provided for other purposes, e.g. customer service, but are not required for safe operation.

Examples include the Copenhagen Metro.

Grade of Automation 3 (GoA3)Edit

In this system, trains run automatically from station to station but a staff member is always in the train, with responsibility for handling of emergency situations. In a GoA3 system, the train cannot operate safely without the staff member on board.

Examples include the Docklands Light Railway.

Grade of Automation 2 (GoA2)Edit

 
London's Victoria line trains – 2009 stock

In this system, trains run automatically from station to station but a driver is in the cab, with responsibility for door closing, obstacle detection on the track in front of the train and handling of emergency situations. As in a GoA3 system, the GoA2 train cannot operate safely without the staff member on board.

Examples include the London Underground Victoria line.

Grade of Automation 4 systemsEdit

These systems are capable of unattended train operation (UTO), although some operators may choose to staff trains anyway.

AmericasEdit

Country Name of system Line Date System Notes
  Brazil São Paulo Metro Line 4 (Yellow) 25 May 2010 Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC First completely driverless metro line in Latin America[3]
São Paulo Metro Line 15 (Silver) 30 August 2014 Bombardier CITYFLO 650 27 Bombardier Innovia Monorails (54 considering phase 2).
São Paulo Metro Line 17 (Gold) Expected 2019 Hitachi
  Canada Vancouver, British Columbia SkyTrain 11 December 1985 The longest driverless network in the Americas, at 79.6 km.[4]
Toronto, Ontario LINK Train 6 July 2006 At Toronto Pearson International Airport
  Chile Santiago Metro Line 6 2 November 2017 Thales Group SelTrac
  United States O'Hare International Airport Airport Transit System VAL system Chicago, Illinois
AirTrain San Francisco International Airport Bombardier CITYFLO 650 San Francisco, California
Detroit People Mover Detroit, Michigan
JTA Skyway Jacksonville, Florida
TPA Monorail and Shuttle Tampa International Airport Bombardier CITYFLO 550 Tampa, Florida
ExpressTram Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport Romulus, Michigan
AirTrain JFK Jamaica, New York
AeroTrain Washington Dulles International Airport Sterling, Virginia
ATL Skytrain Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport Bombardier CITYFLO 550 Atlanta, Georgia
The Plane Train Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport Atlanta, Georgia
Miami, Florida Metromover Bombardier CITYFLO 550
Morgantown, West Virginia Morgantown Personal Rapid Transit
Las Vegas Las Vegas Monorail Nevada
Denver International Airport Denver International Airport Automated Guideway Transit System Bombardier CITYFLO 550 Denver, Colorado
DFW International Airport Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport Bombardier CITYFLO 650 Dallas, Texas
Seattle–Tacoma International Airport Satellite Transit System Bombardier CITYFLO 650 SeaTac, Washington

AsiaEdit

 
Rapid KL Line 9 at 51 km (32 mi) it is one of the longest single line in Asia
Country Name of system Line Date System Notes
  China Shanghai Metro Line 10 Alstom Urbalis Operated with a driver in a cab.
Beijing Metro Yanfang Line [5]
  Hong Kong MTR Disneyland Resort Line 1 August 2005 Most trains have an attendant on board.
South Island Line (East) 28 December 2016 UTO by Alstom Urbalis
  India Delhi Metro Pink Line Scheduled for early 2017 58.59 km (36.41 mi). Initially with an attendant on board.
Magenta Line 25 December 2017 Initially with an attendant on board.
Hyderabad Metro Red Line 28 November 2017 Half portion in Operation
Blue Line 28 November 2017 Half portion in Operation
Green Line Pending In final stage of construction
  Japan Tokyo Yurikamome
Tokyo Nippori-Toneri Liner
Yokohama Kanazawa Seaside Line
Nagoya Linimo Built for Expo 2005 Commuter Maglev
Osaka Nanko Port Town Line
Kobe Kobe New Transit World's first GoA4 line.
Hiroshima Skyrail Midorizaka Line People Mover monorail
  Malaysia Kuala LumpurRapid KL Kelana Jaya Line 1998 SelTrac CBTC The first GoA4 in Malaysia at 46.4 km (28.8 mi)
Sungai Buloh-Kajang Line 2017 Bombardier CITYFLO 650 The second GoA4 in Malaysia at 51 km (32 mi)
Ampang Line & Sri Petaling Line 2017 SelTrac CBTC With train attendants who drive trains in the event of a disruption.
Kuala Lumpur KLIA Aerotrain Bombardier CITYFLO 550
  Qatar Doha Metro all lines 2019 Thales CBTC To be opened in 2019
  Philippines Manila Light Rail Transit System Manila LRT Line 2
  Saudi Arabia Princess Nourah Women's University (PNU-APM) Automated People Mover in Riyadh
  Singapore Light Rail Transit (Singapore) Bukit Panjang LRT line Bombardier CITYFLO 550
Sengkang LRT line Kyosan APM
Punggol LRT line Kyosan APM
Changi Airport Skytrain Kyosan APM
Mass Rapid Transit (Singapore) North East MRT line Alstom Urbalis 300 One of the largest fully automated rapid transit network in the world at 82 km (51 mi). Trains may have an attendant on board.[6]
Circle MRT line Alstom Urbalis 300
Downtown MRT line Siemens Trainguard Sirius CBTC
  South Korea Busan-Gimhae Light Rail Transit
Busan Subway Line 4
Daegu Daegu Metro Line 3
Incheon Incheon Airport Maglev
Incheon Incheon Subway Line 2
Seoul Metropolitan Subway Shinbundang Line
Seoul Metropolitan Subway Ui LRT
Uijeongbu U Line
Yongin Everline Bombardier CITYFLO 650
  Taipei Metro Wenhu Line Bombardier CITYFLO 650 Each train has an attendant on board, the number of which has been gradually decreasing. By September 2017 trains will only have attendants in long tunnel sections.
  Turkey Istanbul Metro M5 15 December 2017 Bombardier CITYFLO 650[7] On the Asian side of Istanbul.
  UAE Dubai Metro Red Line at 52.1 km (32.4 mi). The longest driverless network in the Middle East.

EuropeEdit

Country Name of system Line Date System Notes
  Denmark Copenhagen Metro Line 1 Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
Line 2
  Spain Barcelona Metro Line 9 Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC 47.8 km (29.7 mi)
Line 10
  Italy Turin Metro Line M1 Opened in section 1 on 4 February 2006 for the 2006 Winter Olympics, completed in 2014. VAL type system First fully automatic metro in Italy.
Rome Metro Line C 2015 Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
Milan Metro Milan Metro Line 5 2013 Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
Brescia Metro 2015 Ansaldo STS / AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro
  France Paris Metro Line 14 Opened 15 October 1998 Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC
Line 15
Line 16
Line 17
Line 18
2022 (Planned) To be completed in 2030
Line 1 3 November 2011 Siemens CBTC Upgraded from manual operation with first GoA4 trains operating in mixed mode (driven trains and driverless trains). Last manually driven train was removed by end of 2012
Paris Orlyval 2 October 1991 VAL system Operates between Antony and Orly-Sud
Charles de Gaulle Airport CDGVAL VAL system
Rennes Rennes Metro VAL system
Toulouse Toulouse Metro VAL system
Lille Lille Metro 25 April 1983 VAL system First line to use the VAL system.
Lyon Metro Line D Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC Rubber-tyred trains controlled by a system known as MAGGALY (Métro Automatique à Grand Gabarit de l’Agglomération Lyonnaise).
  Germany Nuremberg U-Bahn Line U2 and Line U3
  Hungary Budapest Metro Line 4 [8]
  Switzerland Lausanne Metro Line M2 Alstom Urbalis
  United Kingdom London Gatwick Airport Bombardier CITYFLO 650 Inter-terminal people mover built by Bombardier Transportation
London Heathrow Airport Bombardier CITYFLO 650
London Stansted Airport Transit System Bombardier CITYFLO 550 Inter-terminal people mover using

Grade of Automation 3 systemsEdit

Country Name of system Line Date System Notes
  Brazil São Paulo Metro Line 1 (Blue) March 1976 ATO With train captains monitoring in cab.
São Paulo Metro Line 2 (Green) February 2016 Alstom CBTC URBALIS With train captains monitoring in cab.
São Paulo Metro Line 3 (Red) 1979 ATO With train captains monitoring in cab.
São Paulo Metro Line 5 (Lilac) 12 March 2017 Bombardier CITYFLO 650 With train captains monitoring in cab. To be upgraded to GoA4 in 2019-2020
Salvador Metro 1 and 2 2014 SelTrac[9] With train captains monitoring in cab.
  Bulgaria Sofia Metro Line 3 Scheduled for 2018–2019
  China Beijing Subway Airport Express, Beijing Subway Alstom CBTC System is operated by a driver in a cab.
Wuhan Metro Yangluo line 26 December 2017 [10]
  Hungary Budapest Metro Line 2 Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC A supervisor is monitoring the train in the cab.
  Singapore Mass Rapid Transit (Singapore) North South MRT Line Thales Seltrac® CBTC[11] With train captains monitoring in cab.
East West MRT Line Thales Seltrac® CBTC[11] With train captains monitoring in cab.
  Spain Barcelona Metro Line 11 Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC
  United Kingdom London, UK Docklands Light Railway Opened in 1987

Grade of Automation 2 systemsEdit

AfricaEdit

AmericasEdit

AsiaEdit

EuropeEdit

Country Name of system Line Date System Notes
  Austria Vienna U-Bahn U2 Uses the same system as Munich with fully driverless turning at some terminuses.
  Finland Helsinki Metro Including Länsimetro/Västmetron extension, has had various attempts at automation since the 1970s.
  France Paris Metro Line 2
Line 3 OCTYS System Provides ATP and high level ATO with mobile block system – Siemens CBTC
Line 4
Line 5 OCTYS System
Line 6
Line 7
Line 8
Line 9 OCTYS System
Line 11
Line 12
Line 13
Paris RER Line A SACEM System One of the most advanced traffic control systems and enables extremely short spacing (under 90 seconds in stations, under 2 minutes in tunnels).
  Germay Munich U-Bahn Driver operates the doors and handles emergency situations, accelerating and braking is fully automated; a fully driverless turning at terminus stations is planned.
Düsseldorf Stadtbahn Driver operates the doors and handles emergency situations, accelerating and braking is fully automated, but just between the 22 underground stations. Outside the underground stations the driver operates the train manual.
  Hungary Budapest Metro Line 3 Converted to automated operation in 1990 (a member of staff opens & closes the train doors)
  Italy Milan Metro Line 3
  Russia Kazan Metro System "Dvizhenie"
Saint Petersburg Metro Line 2 System "Dvizhenie"
  Spain Barcelona Metro Line 1 Bombardier CITYFLO 350
Line 2
Line 3 Bombardier CITYFLO 350
Line 5
Bilbao Metro Line 1 November 1995 Bombardier CITYFLO 350
Line 2 Abril 2002 Bombardier CITYFLO 350
Madrid Metro Line 1 July 2009 Bombardier CITYFLO 650
Line 3
Line 4
Line 5
Line 6 July 2008 Bombardier CITYFLO 650
Line 7 Invensys CBTC
Line 8
Line 9
Line 10
Line 11
Line 12
Branch line
  Sweden Stockholm Metro Green Line, (Lines T17,
T18 and T19)
Red Line Ansaldo STS CBTC Lines T13 and T14) will begin ATO operation in 2014.
  Turkey Ankara Metro Seltrac CBTC Uses a modified version of Toronto subway's H6 subway model made by Bombardier Transportation and configured for driverless operation.
İstanbul Metro Line M2 YenikapıHacıosman Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC
Line M3 KirazlıiOlimpiyat / Başakşehir Metrokent Bombardier CITYFLO 350
Line M4 KadıköyKartal Seltrac CBTC
Line M6 Levent – Hisarüstü Siemens Trainguard MT CBTC
  United Kingdom London Underground Victoria line 1967
Central line Converted to automated operation in the mid-1990s. A member of staff opens & closes the train doors monitors the train and fixes faults on board. Drivers drive the trains on Sundays and Bank holidays. All shunt moves are made by the drivers and whenever the train stops for fail safe reasons such as excess wheel spin or sliding the driver takes over; at other times trains are computer driven.
Jubilee line Converted to automated operation in 2011. A member of staff opens & closes the train doors, drives the train on Sundays, fixes faults.[15]
Northern line Converted in 2012 A driver operates the doors and presses buttons to start the train, the train is driven manually on Sundays, and can be driven in manual outside of peak hours.
Glasgow Subway Uses driver. The introduction of fully automated trains will begin in 2020.[16]

Future system and linesEdit

Standard systems for automated operationEdit

Defunct systemsEdit

  •   Post Office Railway – subway connected main post offices and railway terminals in London.
  •   Berlin M-Bahn – This was a maglev train in West-Berlin in operation from 1989 to 1991. It closed when a metro line, on which the M-Bahn's route partly lay, was scheduled to reopen. The metro line was closed in 1961 when the Berlin Wall erected, because it crossed the border.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ http://webstore.iec.ch/webstore/webstore.nsf/artnum/036384!opendocument
  2. ^ "Automation Essentials – Automated Metros Observatory". 
  3. ^ "ViaQuatro ganha Prêmio UITP Latino" (in Portuguese). 
  4. ^ "Evergreen Extension opening today". 2 December 2016. 
  5. ^ https://www.intelligenttransport.com/transport-news/64185/beijing-significant-expansion-network/
  6. ^ Briginshaw, David (July 20, 2016). "Automated metros set to reach 2200km by 2025". International Railway Journal. Retrieved February 9, 2018. 
  7. ^ UK, DVV Media. "Erdoğan opens first driverless metro line in Istanbul". Metro Report. Retrieved 2017-12-23. 
  8. ^ Railway Gazette International May 2014, pg 15.
  9. ^ https://www.thalesgroup.com/en/worldwide/transportation/press-release/thales-awarded-signalling-contract-new-salvador-metro
  10. ^ a b "中新网湖北 湖北新闻网 武汉地铁进入全自动驾驶时代 5号线有望"尝鲜"". www.hb.chinanews.com. Retrieved 2018-05-21. 
  11. ^ a b TODAY Online (April 13, 2017). "doors open and close automatically under the new system-Gov.sg". gov.sg. Retrieved February 9, 2018. 
  12. ^ Weir, Kytja (June 2, 2011). "Metro: Trains to stay in manual mode for several years". The Washington Examiner. Retrieved July 13, 2011. 
  13. ^ NY1 News (2009-02-21). "L Subway service to be run by computers". Archived from the original on 2009-09-09. Retrieved 2011-12-05. 
  14. ^ "MTA L Train Response to Squadron" (PDF) (Press release). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. 2011-09-06. Retrieved 2011-12-05. 
  15. ^ Transport for London Tube Upgrade Plan Archived 2013-02-15 at the Wayback Machine.
  16. ^ "Subway Modernisation – SPT". spt.co.uk. 
  17. ^ Templeton, Dan. "China to start operations on first driverless metro in 2017". Retrieved 2017-12-28. 
  18. ^ Briginshaw, David. "Shanghai awards contract for first automated metro line". Retrieved 2018-05-21. 
  19. ^ Ltd, DVV Media International. "Chengdu driverless metro contracts awarded". Metro Report. Retrieved 2018-05-21. 
  20. ^ "Rio Tinto has confirmed that it is on track to completely transition to driverless trains across its entire Pilbara operation by the end of 2018". iseekplant.com.au. July 20, 2017. Retrieved 1 September 2017. 
  21. ^ Spurr, Ben (November 6, 2017). "TTC test of new signalling system 'exceeded expectations'". Toronto Star. Retrieved November 8, 2017. 

External linksEdit