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List of automated urban metro subway systems

The Vancouver SkyTrain is the longest automated transit system in the world
Barcelona Metro line 9 without train driver
London's Victoria line trains - 2009 stock

The first line to be operated with Automatic Train Operation (ATO) was London Underground's Victoria line, which opened in 1967, although a driver is present in the cabin. Many lines now operate like that, with the aim of improving the frequency of service. Since then, ATO technology has been developed to enable trains to operate even without a driver in a cab: either with an attendant roaming within the train, or with no staff on board. The first fully automated driverless mass-transit rail network is the Port Island Line in Kobe, Japan. The second in the world (and the first such driverless system in Europe) is the Lille Metro in northern France. This list focuses heavily on trains in the classical sense used for large-scale metros and railways but does include a few people mover systems.


Degrees of AutomationEdit

The list is ordered in descending order of the degree of automation. It uses the Grade of Automation classifications specified by the standard IEC 62290‐1.[1] These are explained diagrammatically by the UITP[2]

Grade of Automation 4 (GoA4)Edit

In this system trains are capable of operating automatically at all times, including door closing, obstacle detection and emergency situations. On-board staff may be provided for other purposes, e.g. customer service, but are not required for safe operation.

Examples include the Copenhagen Metro.

Grade of Automation 3 (GoA3)Edit

In this system trains run automatically from station to station but a staff member is always in the train, with responsibility for door closing and handling of emergency situations. In a GoA3 system, the train cannot operate safely without the staff member on board.

Examples include the Docklands Light Railway.

Grade of Automation 2 (GoA2)Edit

In this system trains run automatically from station to station but a driver is in the cab, with responsibility for door closing, obstacle detection on the track in front of the train and handling of emergency situations. As in a GoA3 system, the GoA2 train cannot operate safely without the staff member on board.

Examples include the London Underground Victoria line.

Grade of Automation 4 SystemsEdit

These systems are capable of unattended train operation (UTO), although some operators may choose to staff trains anyway.


North AmericaEdit

South AmericaEdit


Rapid KL - Sungai Buloh-Kajang Line, one of the train that operate in fully automated, driverless train.

Grade of Automation 3 SystemsEdit

Grade of Automation 2 systemsEdit


North AmericaEdit

South AmericaEdit


  •   Puerto Rico - San Juan - Tren Urbano - the entire system is fully automated, but can be over-ridden. Substations providing the power are remotely controlled from an operational control centre.



Future system and linesEdit

Standard systems for automated operationEdit

Defunct systemsEdit

  •   Post Office Railway - subway connected main post offices and railway terminals in London.
  •   Berlin M-Bahn - This was a maglev train in West-Berlin in operation from 1989 to 1991. It closed when a metro line, on which the M-Bahn's route partly lay, was scheduled to reopen. The metro line was closed in 1961 when the Berlin Wall erected, because it crossed the border.

See alsoEdit


External linksEdit