Chongqing Rail Transit
The Chongqing Rail Transit (branded as CRT) also known as Chongqing Metro, is the rapid transit system in the city of Chongqing, China and has been in operation since the year 2005. The CRT serves transportation needs in the city's main business and entertainment downtown areas and inner suburbs. It is the oldest of the four metro systems in operation in the western China, the others being Chengdu Metro, Xi'an Metro and Kunming Rail Transit which opened in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively.
|Owner||Chongqing City Transportation Development & Investment (Group) Co., Ltd.|
|Area served||Chongqing Urban Area|
|Transit type|| rapid transit
|Number of lines||4|
|Number of stations||126[Note 1]|
|Daily ridership||1.895 million (2016 Avg.)
2.618 million (peak on 30 December 2016)
|Annual ridership||693 million (2016)|
|Chief executive||Le Mei|
|Headquarters||123 Renming Rd., Yuzhong District, Chongqing|
|Began operation||6 November 2004 (trial)
18 June 2005 (officially)
|Operator(s)||Chongqing Rail Transit (Group) Co., Ltd.|
|Number of vehicles||209|
|Headway||2'30" to 12'|
|System length||213.3 km (132.5 mi)|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)|
|Electrification|| 1500 V DC overhead line
1500 V DC third rail
|Average speed|| 50 km/h (31 mph)
40 km/h (25 mph)
|Top speed|| 100 km/h (62 mph)
75 km/h (47 mph)
|Chongqing Rail Transit|
As of December 2016[update], CRT consisted of four lines, with a total track length of 212.6 km (132.1 mi). Lines 1 and 6 are conventional heavy-rail subways, while Lines 2 and 3 are heavy-capacity monorails. Line 1 is the system's backbone connecting the most densely populated areas including the main Central Business Districts: Jiefangbei, Lianglukou, Daping, and Shapingba. Line 2 runs through four administrative districts in the central city (Yuzhong, Jiulongpo, Dadukou, and Ba'nan). Line 6 runs from Jiangbei to Yubei. A system network of 18 lines in total is planned.
At 98 km (61 mi), the system's two monorail lines form the longest monorail system in the world, with the 55.5 km (34.5 mi) Line 3 being the world's longest single monorail line, even if the 9.97 km (6.20 mi) Airport Branch is excluded. The system is also the world's busiest monorail system with 94 million and 250 million annual rides on Line 2 and 3 respectively in 2015. Line 3 is the world's busiest single monorail line. The network also boosts the world's highest metro-only bridge, the Caijia Rail Transit Bridge on Line 6, spanning a valley with the bridge deck approximately 100 meters above water level. The Chongqing Rail Transit is also constructing the world's longest metro-only suspension bridge, the Egongyan Rail Transit Bridge. The bridge will carry Loop Line trains across a 600m long main section spanning the Yangtze River. The total length of the bridge is 1,650 meters long.
The CRT is part of the central government's project to develop the Western regions and the Japan Bank for International Cooperation provided part of the funding. Construction was carried out in cooperation between Changchun Railway Vehicles Co. Ltd. and Hitachi Monorail, using advanced Japanese monorail technology. Construction on Line 2 began in 1999, and it was officially opened in June 2005 from Jiaochangkou (Jiefangbei CBD) to Zoo (Chongqing Zoo).
Nationalist government made a plan of high-speed tram system. The rail weighs 47.77 kg/m, with a rail gauge of 1000 mm, a maximum slope of 9%, a minimum radius of curvature of 80 m. The top speed is 25 km/h (16 mph) in the urban area, and 45 km/h (28 mph) in the suburban area. The train is 8-meter-long, 1.8-meter-wide, with two 35-horsepower motors and a trailer. Each train takes 240 passengers. The headway was designed to be 10 minutes. The system was expected to carry 1 million passengers per day. Some of the tracks are underground.
- Line A, Longmenhao – Ciqikou, 9 Stations, 14.75 km (9.17 mi)
- Line B, Longmenhao – Nanwenquan, 7 Stations, 19.49 km (12.11 mi)
- Line C, Longmenhao – Datiankan, 3 Stations, 6.9 km (4.3 mi)
A 100 km-long (62 mi) underground rapid rail transit system which links the city center with Xinpaifang, Xiaolongkan, Yangjiaping, Shiqiaopu, Lianglukou, etc. was planned.
A 12.2 km-long (7.6 mi) subway line (Chaotianmen – Yangjiaping) was planned. This route is the precursor to today's Line 2.
A 55 km-long (34 mi) monorail system was planned.
- Chaotianmen – Shapingba (– Shuangbei), the forerunner of Line 1.
- Chaotianmen – Xinshancun (– Jiugongmiao), the forerunner of Line 2.
- Airport Line: Xinpaifang – Nanping (– Sigongli), the forerunner of Line 3.
- Link Line: Yangjiaping – Shiqiaopu.
A refreshed edition of the 1991 plan. The total length is about 119 km (74 mi).
- Line 1: Chaotianmen – Shuangbei.
- Line 2: Chaotianmen – Jiugongmiao.
- Line 3: Jiangbei Airport – Sigongli.
- Line 4: Sigongli – Shiqiaopu. (evolved from Link Line in the previous edition)
- Line 5: Tongjiayuanzi – Zhongliangshan.
2003 & 2007Edit
Two similar expanded editions of the 1998 plan. It includes 10 lines with the total length of about 522 km (324 mi). The Line 4 in the previous blueprint received a huge update and was renamed to Loop Line according to its new shape.
The current plan. An expanded edition of the 2007 plan. The length was about 820 km (510 mi). 8 new lines were merged to the plan as well as some minor modifications.
These tests left some tunnels, which were re-used in the construction of Lines 1 and 2.
- Late 1958. "Yuzhong District Subway Engineering Unit" was started only to be suspended one year later.
- 1965. "Yuzhong District Subway Engineering Units" was reinstated. It has 4 units including more than 1000 workers in total. The construction was stopped again in Late 1966 due to the Cultural Revolution. The units was officially disbanded again in 1971. The completed tunnel sections were taken over by the Civil Air Defense Department.
- 1988. Some foreign businessmen arrived to start a metro company located in Lianglukou. The original completed tunnel sections where extended.
Phase I (2000 ‒ 2016)Edit
Phase II (2012 ‒ 2022)Edit
CRT is a unique metro system in China in that a significant number of lines use heavy monorail technology. In a hilly, multiple-river city it is not feasible to construct an all heavy-rail tunnel system given the depths of some many of the stations. For this reason, there are two straddle-beam monorail lines using heavy vehicles. The monorail vehicles with strong climbing capabilities and have rapid transit capacity, capable of transporting 32,000 passengers per hour per direction, invaluable in the densely populated but hilly city. Line 2 is for the most part elevated above streets, although a 2.2 km (1.4 mi) section is underground, including three of its 18 stations in the Jiefangbei CBD and Daping downtown areas in hyper-dense populated area of Yuzhong District. In 2010, Line 2 served 45 million passengers.
Line 1 is the first conventional subway running in a deep bored tunnel below Yuzhong and Shapingba Districts. The other conventional subway is Line 6, which connects the main central business districts of Nanping in Nan'an District and Jiangbei's Guanyinqiao CBD and New City CBD to Jiefangbei CBD.
To keep up with demand, construction is under way on extensions to Line 1 and Line 3, whose primary route is currently under trial. There are also Loop Line and Line 4, 5, 9, 10 under construction.
|Opened||Newest extension||Cars [Note 2]||Length
|Xiaoshizi (Yuzhong)||Jiandingpo (Shapingba)||2011||2014||6B||38.9||23|
|Jiaochangkou (Yuzhong)||Yudong (Ba'nan)||2005||2014||4/6HL||31.4||25|
|Yudong (Ba'nan)||Terminal 2 of Jiangbei Airport (Yubei)||2011||2016||6/8HL||56.1||45|
|Bijin (Yubei)||Jurenba (Yubei)||6HL||11.0|
|Chayuan (Nan'an)||Beibei (Beibei)||2012||2015||6B||63.3||33|
|Lijia (Yubei)||Yuelai (Yubei)||12.6|
|Sub-Total (Heavy-rail)||114.8||56[Note 3]|
|Sub-Total (Monorail)||98.5||70[Note 4]|
Line 1 runs 16.4 km (10.2 mi) from Chaotianmen in downtown west to Shapingba, and eventually to Jiandingpo with a length of 38.9 km (24.2 mi). It is the first heavy-rail subway line, the second in Western China. Passenger capacity is 36,000 passengers per hour per direction.
In 1992, the Chongqing government signed a Build-Operate-Transfer agreement with a Hong Kong company and provided the land for the project, but work ceased in 1997 due to legal issues. Work resumed from Chaotianmen to Shapingba on 9 June 2007, and opened to limited operation on 28 July 2011. Thales provided an Operations Control Centre for this line.
Line 1 has 23 stations, including interchange stations with Line 2 at Jiaochangkou in Jeifangbei CBD and at Daping and with Line 3 at Lianglukou, near the Chongqing Rail Station in the Caiyuanba section of central Yuzhong.
Line 2, a monorail line, runs 31.4 km (19.5 mi) and services 25 stations. It begins as a subway under downtown Jiefangbei, then runs west along the southern bank of Jialing River on an elevated line, then turns south into the south-western inner suburbs, looping back east to terminate at Yudong in Ba'nan. It also runs through Daping CBD and Yangjiaping CBD in Jiulongpo District and Chongqing Zoo at Zoo Station. Most trains consist of four carriages, and six-carriage trains began to operate in September 2012. Line 2 is the first rapid transit line to open in the Interior West of China (in 2005). In 2013, six-car trains are being implemented due to overcrowding and increasing demand.
Line 3 runs from north to south, linking the districts separated by the Yangtze (Chang Jiang) and Jialing rivers. The initial segment from Lianglukou to Yuanyang (18 stations, 17.5 km (10.9 mi)) opened on 29 September 2011, with a northern extension from Yuanyang to Jiangbei Airport opening on 30 December 2011 and a southern extension from Ertang to Yudong on 28 December 2012.
Most trains consist of six carriages, bigger than on the older Line 2. The line started to equip eight-car trains in 2014 and currently 8 car trains are in operation. There are interchange stations in central Yuzhong district with Line 1 at Lianglukou (Caiyuanba Intercity Railway/Bus Station), and with Line 2 at Niujiaotuo.
Line 6 is the second heavy-rail subway. Opened on 28 September 2012 it connects Nan'an, Yuzhong, and Jiangbei districts in central Chongqing. A northern branch line from Lijia to Wulukou, Beibei district was opened on 31 December 2013, 26.2 km (16.3 mi) long with five stations. The Chayuan extension Phase 1 was opened in 2014. Thales provided an Operations Control Centre for this line.
Single journey ticketEdit
Tickets range from CN¥2 (0.3 USD) to ¥7 (1.05 USD) depending on distance. Day passes cost ¥18 (2.71 USD).
Only unused tickets bought on the same day and at the same station can be refunded without explanation. If the train was delayed for over 15 minutes, the tickets may be refunded and a certificate of delay can be acquired.
CRT accepts Life & Transport Card (Chongqing Universal Card, released by Chongqing City Card Payment Co., Ltd.) and its compatible cards released by partner companies in other cities of China. You can get a 10% discount applied to the Regular Card when used on public transit in the city. You'll only have to pay the higher price when you transfer between buses and metro within 1 hour (not including metro-to-metro, according to the paying time). Regular Card can be purchased at any CRT station and a deposit can be recovered when the card is returned with receipt. In addition the card can be used in many shops, cinemas, restaurant, etc. in Chongqing. Students' Card and Elders' Card can't be directly used in CRT since their monthly fee only covers the buses, unless a cash sub-account which receives a 50%-off discount was added to them at the service points for free.
All trips must be completed in 3 hours upon entering the fare paid area, if a passenger overstayed beyond the allowed time the highest ticket price in the system will be charged in addition.
For every terminal or branch terminal, the first train leaves at 6:30 while the last leaves at 22:30.
During times of heavy use such as major events, CRT may close some stations to avoid overcrowding. In 2017, CRT closed Xiaoshizi, Jiaochangkou, Qixinggang, Lianglukou, Shapingba, Xiaolongkan, Linjiangmen, Huaxinjie, Guanyinqiao, Hongqihegou, The Grand Theater, and Shangxinjie Station after 19:00 in Christmas Eve, Christmas Day and New Year Eve.
Almost every station has accessible elevators and toilets, and almost every train has wheelchair locks. Only the oldest rolling stock and toilets of Line 2 are not fully accessible. In addition, many older interchange channels between lines are not designed with accessibility in mind, which means the disabled have to transfer through the main concourse.
|Line||Rolling stock||Signal system||Ticket system provider||Notes|
|CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles||6As||66||Traffic Control Technology[Note 5]||CBTC||Potevio|||
|CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles||6B||36||Siemens||CBTC|
|Hitachi||4HL||2||The Nippon Signal||ABS|
|CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles||4HL||25|
|CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles||6HL||68||Hitachi||CBTC|
|TBA||6As||13||United Mechanical & Electrical||CBTC|
|CRRC Qingdao Sifang Locomotive & Rolling Stock||6As||39||China Railway Signal & Communication Co, Ltd||CBTC|
|CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles||6B||41||Siemens||CBTC|
|CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles||6As||26||China Academy of Railway Sciences||CBTC|
Unlike most metro systems of other cities in China, CRT did not follow the design style of MTR Corporation in Hong Kong. The signage system is designed by GK Design Group in Japan and the monorail lines are based on Hitachi Monorail technology, giving the Chongqing Rail Transit a distinctive Japanese aesthetic in contrast to other metro systems in China.
CRT gave each line a theme about local culture, and the stations of the line will have some art works in the theme.
Entrance 4 of Hongqihegou Station
The navigation boards at the concourse of Hongqihegou Station
The Navigation board at the escalator of University Town Station
The navigation board at the platform of Tongjiayuanzi Station
The southern concourse of Xiaoshizi Station
The mural on the wall of Entrance 1 of Nanping Station
The platform of Lieshimu Station
CRT is expected to have 8 lines criss-crossing the urban districts by 2020, and a loop line connecting the commercial areas in the urban area. The rest 8 lines are expected to be in operation before 2050.
Lines under constructionEdit
|Planned opening||Project||Terminals||Track type||Cars [Note 2]||Length (km)||New stations||Start of construction||Status||Notes|
|28 December 2017||Phase 1 - Northern Section||The EXPO Garden||Dashiba||Heavy-rail||6As||19.2||10||3 December 2013||Debugging|||
|Phase 1||Liyuchi||Wangjiazhuang||Heavy-rail||6As||32.2||19||14 May 2014||Debugging|||
|31 August 2018||Northeastern Section (through Chongqing North Railway Station)||Fengtianlu||Haixialu||Heavy-rail||6As||30.1||22||28 October 2013||Under construction|||
|December 2018||Phase 1||Minan Ave.||Tangjiatuo||Heavy-rail||6As||17.6||8||3 December 2013||Under construction|||
|2019||Bishan Extension||Jiandingpo||Bishan||Heavy-rail||6B||5.6||1||18 June 2014||Under construction|||
|Jiangjin Line - Phase 1||Tiaodeng||Jiangjin||Heavy-rail||4As||26.7||6||10 June 2015||Under construction|||
|2020||Southwestern Section (through Chongqing West Railway Station)||Fengtianlu||Haixialu||Heavy-rail||6As||20.8||11||28 October 2013||Under construction|||
|Phase 1 - Southern Section||Dashiba||Tiaodeng||Heavy-rail||6As||20.5||16||3 December 2013||Under construction|||
|International Expo Branch - Phase 2||Yuelai||Shaheba||Heavy-rail||6B||13.71||9||28 October 2016||Under construction|||
|Phase 1||Gaotanyan||Xingke Ave.||Heavy-rail||6As||32.3||24||28 September 2016||Under construction|||
|Phase 2||Lanhua Rd.||Liyuchi||Heavy-rail||6As||11.3||8||28 October 2016||Under construction|||
|2021||Phase 2||Xingke Ave.||Huashigou||Heavy-rail||6As||10.77||5||2017||Planned|||
|Phase 2||The EXPO Garden||Yuegang Ave.||Heavy-rail||6As||7.95||6||2018||Planned|||
|Branch||Fuhua Rd.||Tiaodeng S.||Heavy-rail||6As||29.45||19||2018||Planned|||
|Jiangjin Line - Phase 2||Jiangjin||Dingshan||Heavy-rail||4As||4.61||2||2018||Planned|||
Lines in long-term planEdit
|Planned opening||Line||Terminals||Length (km)||Stations||Status||Notes|
|Jinfeng S.||Lujiao S.||27||14||Planned|
|Fuxin||International Convention and Exhibition Center||41||16||Planned|
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- This figure involves counting the two interchanges once for every line that it is part of. If every interchange is only counted once, there will be 119 stations.
- The number refers to the number of the carriages of each train, and the letter followed refers to the type of the carriage. As and B are defined by China, while HL is short for "Hitachi Large" from Japan.
Full Load Capacity Type As B HL 4 1534 1240 882 6 2322 1882 1342 7 2716 - - 8 - - 1802
- This figure involves counting the two interchanges once for every line that it is part of. If every interchange is only counted once, there will be 54 stations.
- This figure involves counting the two interchanges once for every line that it is part of. If every interchange is only counted once, there will be 69 stations.
- Chinese: 交控科技