Chongqing Rail Transit
The Chongqing Rail Transit (branded as CRT; also known as Chongqing Metro) is the rapid transit system in the city of Chongqing, China. In operation since 2005, it serves the transportation needs of the city's main business and entertainment downtown areas and inner suburbs. As of January 2021[update], CRT consisted of eight lines, with a total track length of 370 km (230 mi). Lines 1, 4, 5, 6, 10 and the Loop line are conventional heavy-rail subways, while Lines 2 and 3 are high-capacity monorails. To keep up with urban growth, construction is under way on Lines 9, 18 and Jiangtiao line, in addition to extensions to Lines 1, 4, 5, 6, 10 and the Loop line. A network of 18 lines is planned.
|Owner||Chongqing City Transportation Development & Investment (Group) Co., Ltd.|
|Area served||Chongqing Urban Area|
|Transit type|| rapid transit|
|Number of lines||8|
|Number of stations||198[a]|
|Daily ridership||2.036 million (2017 avg)|
3.356 million (peak on 22 February 2019)
|Annual ridership||743.10 million (2017)|
|Chief executive||Le Mei|
|Headquarters||123 Renmin Rd., Yuzhong District, Chongqing|
|Began operation||6 November 2004 (trial)|
18 June 2005 (officially)
|Operator(s)||Chongqing Rail Transit (Group) Co., Ltd.|
|Number of vehicles||274|
|Headway||2′30″ to 12′|
|System length||370 km (230 mi)|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8+1⁄2 in)|
|Electrification|| 1500 V DC overhead line|
1500 V DC third rail
|Average speed|| 50 km/h (31 mph)|
40 km/h (25 mph)
|Top speed|| 100 km/h (62 mph)|
75 km/h (47 mph)
|Chongqing Rail Transit|
The Chongqing Rail Transit is a unique transit system in China because of the geography of Chongqing being a densely-populated but mountainous city, with multiple river valleys. Two lines use heavy-monorail technology, leveraging the ability to negotiate steep grades and tight curves and rapid transit capacity. They are capable of transporting 32,000 passengers per hour per direction. At 98 km (61 mi), the system's two monorail lines form the longest monorail system in the world, with the 56.1 km (34.9 mi) Line 3 being the world's longest single monorail line even if the 11.0 km (6.8 mi) Airport branch is excluded. The length and the capacity of its monorail network both also make it the world's busiest monorail system, with a total of 94 million and 250 million rides in 2015 on Line 2 and Line 3, respectively. The latter ridership statistic for Line 3 also makes it the world's busiest single monorail line.
The extreme difference in elevation between the river valleys and the hilly plateaus of Chongqing pose a unique challenge in designing alignments for conventional rail transit lines. The network currently has the world's highest metro-only bridge, the Caijia Rail Transit Bridge for Line 6, spanning the Jialing River valley, with the bridge deck being approximately 100 m above the water. Hongtudi station is the deepest subway station in China and the second-deepest station in the world, after the Kyiv Metro's Arsenalna, with Line 10's platforms being more than 94 m (308 ft) below the surface. Liyuchi station, also on Line 10, is the second-deepest station in China, being 76 m (249 ft) below the surface.
The Chongqing Rail Transit is also in the process of constructing a number of extremely-long metro-only suspension bridges. The 1,650 m (5,410 ft) long Egongyan Rail Transit Bridge carries the southern arc of the Loop line across the Yangtze River using a 600 m (2,000 ft) long suspension main span, making it the longest cable supported metro-only bridge by main span in the world. The Nanjimen Bridge will carry Line 10 trains across a 1,225 m (4,019 ft) cable-stayed bridge with a main span of 480 m (1,570 ft), making it the longest metro-only cable-stayed bridge by main span in the world. The Gaojiahuayuan Rail Transit Bridge carries the western arc of the Loop line over the Jialing River using a long 594 m (1,949 ft) bridge with a main span of 340 m (1,120 ft). Finally, the Chongqing Rail Transit has numerous double-deck bridges carrying vehicle and metro traffic, such as the Chaotianmen Bridge, which is the world's longest arch bridge.
|Commencement||Newest extension||Rolling stock[b]||Length
|Chaotianmen (Yuzhong)||Bishan (Bishan)||2011||2020||6B2||43.7||25|
|Jiaochangkou (Yuzhong)||Yudong (Ba'nan)||2005||2014||4/6HL||31.4||25|
|Yudong (Ba'nan)||Terminal 2 of Jiangbei Airport (Yubei)||2011||2016||6/8HL||56.1||45|
|Bijin (Yubei)||Jurenba (Yubei)||6HL||11.0|
|Min'an Ave. (Yubei)||Tangjiatuo (Jiangbei)||2018||2019||6AS||17.9||8|
|(North)||The Expo Garden Center (Yubei)||Dashiba (Jiangbei)||2017||2018||6AS||16.4||10|
|(South)||Shiqiaopu (Jiulongpo)||Tiaodeng (Dadukou)||2021||N/A||6AS||18.3||12|
|Chayuan (Nan'an)||Beibei (Beibei)||2012||2020||6B2||59.8||40|
|Lijia (Yubei)||Shaheba (Yubei)||25.8|
|Liyuchi (Jiangbei)||Wangjiazhuang (Yubei)||2017||N/A||6AS||33.4||19|
The Loop line (coded as “Line 0”) is a rapid transit loop line. The northeastern section was opened on 28 December 2018. The southern section with the Egongyan Rail Transit Bridge opened on December 30, 2019. The line runs through two important railway stations: Chongqing North Railway Station, and Chongqing West Railway Station. Loop Line's color is beige.
Line 1 runs 16.4 km (10.2 mi) from Chaotianmen, in the central west, to Shapingba and then to Bishan with a total length of 44.5 km (27.7 mi). It has 24 stations, including interchange stations with Line 2, at Jiaochangkou in Jiefangbei CBD and at Daping, and with Line 3, at Lianglukou, near Chongqing railway station, in the Caiyuanba section of central Yuzhong. It is the first heavy-rail subway line in Chongqing and the second in Western China. The passenger capacity is 36,000 passengers per hour in each way. The line serves as the system's backbone connecting the densest areas including the main Central Business Districts of Jiefangbei, Lianglukou, Daping, and Shapingba. It is the first conventional subway, running in a deep-bored tunnel below Yuzhong and Shapingba Districts.
In 1992, the Chongqing government signed a Build-Operate-Transfer agreement with a Hong Kong company and provided the land for the project, but work ceased in 1997 because of legal issues. Work resumed from Chaotianmen to Shapingba on 9 June 2009, and a limited opening occurred on 28 July 2011. Thales provided an operations control centre for the line. Line 1's color is red.
Line 2, a monorail line, runs 31.4 km (19.5 mi) and has 25 stations. It begins as a subway under downtown Jiefangbei, then runs west along the southern bank of Jialing River on an elevated line, and then turns south into the southwestern inner suburbs, looping back east, to terminate at Yudong, in Ba'nan District. It runs mostly elevated, but a 2.2 km (1.4 mi) section is underground, including three of its 18 stations in the Jiefangbei CBD and central Daping areas in the extremely-dense area of Yuzhong District. Line 2 runs through four administrative districts in the central city (Yuzhong, Jiulongpo, Dadukou, and Ba'nan). In 2010, Line 2 served 45 million passengers. It also runs through Daping CBD and Yangjiaping CBD in Jiulongpo District and Chongqing Zoo at Zoo Station. Most trains have four cars, and six-car trains began to operate in September 2012. Line 2 is the first rapid transit line to open in the Interior West of China, in 2005. In 2013, six-car trains are being implemented because of overcrowding and increasing demand. Line 2's color is green.
Line 3 is the longest and busiest monorail in the world. It runs from north to south and links the districts separated by the Yangtze (Chang Jiang) and the Jialing Rivers. The initial segment, from Lianglukou to Yuanyang (18 stations, 17.5 km (10.9 mi)), opened on 29 September 2011, with a northern extension, from Yuanyang to Jiangbei Airport, opening on 30 December 2011. A southern extension, from Ertang to Yudong, opened on 28 December 2012.
Most trains have six cars, more than on the older Line 2. The line started to equip eight-car trains in 2014, which are now in operation. There are interchange stations in central Yuzhong district with Line 1, at Lianglukou (Caiyuanba Intercity Railway/Coach Station), and with Line 2, at Niujiaotuo. Line 3's color is indigo.
Line 5 is a northeast-southwest heavy-rail line crossing the centre, and the line has opened its northern section of phase 1, from the EXPO Garden Center to Dashiba. It will connect Yubei, Jiangbei, Yuzhong, Jiulongpo, Shapingba and Dadukou districts, and the extension line from Tiaodeng (the southern terminal) to Dingshan in Jiangjin district is under construction. New six-car trains were introduced on the line. Line 5's color is light blue.
Line 6 is the second heavy-rail subway line of Chongqing. Opened on 28 September 2012, it connects Nan'an, Yuzhong, Jiangbei and Yubei districts, in central Chongqing.
A northern branch, from Lijia to Wulukou, Beibei District, was opened on 31 December 2013, 26.2 km (16.3 mi) long with five stations. Phase 1 of the Chayuan extension was opened in 2014. Thales provided an operations control centre for the line. Line 6's color is pink.
The line serves the North Railway station and the airport terminals. The first phase (Liyuchi to Wangjiazhuang) opened on 28 December 2017, and the second phase will connect Yuzhong and Nan'an districts by crossing the Jialing and the Yangtze rivers. Two new bridges, Zengjiayan Jialing River Bridge and Nanjimen Railway Bridge, are under construction for train services to the south. Line 10's color is purple.
Tickets range from CN¥2 (0.29 USD) to ¥7 (1.01 USD), depending on the distance. Day passes cost ¥18 (2.61 USD).
Only unused tickets bought on the same day and at the same station can be refunded without an explanation. If the train was delayed for over 15 minutes, the tickets may be refunded, and a certificate of delay can be acquired.
CRT accepts Life & Transport Card (Chongqing Universal Card, released by Chongqing City Card Payment Co., Ltd.) and its compatible cards, released by partner companies in other cities of China. There is a 10% discount applied to the Regular Card if it is used on public transit in the city. The higher price is paid for transfers between the bus and the metro within 1 hour (not including metro-to-metro, according to the paying time). The Regular Card can be purchased at any CRT station, and a deposit can be recovered when the card is returned with its receipt. In addition the card can be used in many shops, cinemas, restaurants, etc. in Chongqing. The Students' Card and the Elders' Card can not be directly used on the metro since their monthly fee covers only buses unless a cash sub-account, which allows a 50% discount, is added to the cards for free at the service points.
All trips must be completed in 3 hours upon entering the fare-paid area, or the highest ticket price in the system will be charged in addition.
|Lines||First train||Last train[c]|
During times of heavy use like for major events, CRT may close some stations to avoid overcrowding. In 2018, CRT closed Xiaoshizi, Jiaochangkou, Qixinggang, Lianglukou, Xiaolongkan, and Shapingba stations of Line 1; Jiaochangkou and Linjiangmen stations of Line 2; Lianglukou, Huaxinjie, Guanyinqiao, and Hongqihegou stations of Line 3; Shangxinjie, Xiaoshizi, Grand Theater, Jiangbeicheng, and Hongqihegou stations of Line 6 after 20:00 on Christmas Eve, Christmas Day, after 19:00 on New Year's Eve. And they also closed Shapingba and Shangxinjie stations of Loop line after 19:00 on New Year's Eve.
From 9 to 12 November 2018, they closed Grand Theater and Jiangbeicheng stations from 10:00 to 15:00 because of heavy use during Flower Expo; from 1 to 7 November 2019, they closed Grand Theater and Jiangbeicheng stations since 10:00 till 16:00 because of heavy use during Flower Expo.
Almost every station has accessible elevators and toilets, and almost every train has wheelchair locks. Only the oldest rolling stock and toilets of Line 2 are not fully accessible. In addition, many older interchange channels between lines are not designed with accessibility in mind, which means the disabled there must transfer via the main concourse.
The CRT is part of the central government's project to develop the Western regions. The Japan Bank for International Cooperation provided some of the funding. Construction was carried out, with co-operation between Changchun Railway Vehicles Co. Ltd. and Hitachi Monorail, which used advanced Japanese monorail technology. Construction on Line 2 began in 1999, and the line was officially opened in June 2005 from Jiaochangkou (Jiefangbei CBD) to Zoo (Chongqing Zoo).
Early concepts and attemptsEdit
- 1946 plan: The Nationalist government made a plan of high-speed tram system. The rail weighs 47.77 kg/m, with a rail gauge of 1000 mm, a maximum slope of 9%, a minimum radius of curvature of 80 m. The top speed is 25 km/h (16 mph) in the urban area and 45 km/h (28 mph) in the suburban area. The train was 8 m long, 1.8 m wide, with two 35-horsepower motors and a trailer. Each train took 240 passengers. The headway was designed to be 10 minutes. The system was expected to carry 1 million passengers per day. Some of the tracks were underground.
- Line A, Longmenhao – Ciqikou, 9 stations, 14.75 km (9.17 mi)
- Line B, Longmenhao – Nanwenquan, 7 stations, 19.49 km (12.11 mi)
- Line C, Longmenhao – Datiankan, 3 stations, 6.9 km (4.3 mi)
- 1958 attempt: "Yuzhong District Subway Engineering Unit" was started in late 1958, only to be suspended one year later.
- 1960 plan: A 100 km-long (62 mi) underground rapid rail transit system, linking the city center with Xinpaifang, Xiaolongkan, Yangjiaping, Shiqiaopu, Lianglukou, and other populated areas, was planned.
- 1965 attempt: The unit was reinstated. It has 4 units, including more than 1000 workers in total. Construction was stopped again in late 1966 by the Cultural Revolution. The unit was officially disbanded again in 1971. The completed tunnel sections were taken over by the civil air defense authorities.
- 1983 plan: A 12.2 km-long (7.6 mi) subway line (Chaotianmen – Yangjiaping) was planned. It is the precursor to today's Line 2.
- 1988 attempt: Some Hong Kong businessmen arrived to start a metro company in Lianglukou. The tunnel from previous attempts were extended.
- 1991 plan: A 4-line 55 km-long (34 mi) monorail system was planned.
Official long-term plansEdit
- 1998 plan: Has 5 lines in total, with a length of about 119 km (74 mi).
- 2003 and 2007 plans: Two similar expansion including 10 lines, with a total length of about 522 km (324 mi). Line 4 in the previous blueprint received a huge update and was renamed to Loop line, according to its new shape.
- 2011 plan: Features 8 new lines, with a length of about 820 km (510 mi).
- 2019 plan: Target a 30-line network as of 2050, with a length of about 1,473 km (915 mi).
Commencement and expansionsEdit
|Line||Segment||Start of construction||Began operation|
|Phase I (2000 ‒ 2014)|
|Chaotianmen||Xiaoshizi||June 18, 2007||December 31, 2020|
|Xiaoshizi||Jiaochangkou||July 28, 2011|
|Jiaochangkou||Shapingba||September 27, 2011|
|Shapingba||Daxuecheng||December 20, 2012|
|Daxuecheng||Jiandingpo||September 20, 2012||December 30, 2014|
|Jiaochangkou||Daping||December 26, 1999||December 11, 2004|
|Daping||Zoo||November 6, 2004|
|Zoo||Xinshancun||July 1, 2006|
|Xinshancun||Yudong||July 31, 2008||December 30, 2014|
|Yudong||Ertang||2010||December 28, 2012|
|Ertang||Lianglukou||April 6, 2007||December 30, 2011|
|Lianglukou||Longtousi||September 29, 2011|
|Yuanyang||Changfulu||October 8, 2011|
|Changfulu||Terminal 2 of Jiangbei Airport||December 30, 2011|
|Bijin||Jurenba||January 2013||December 28, 2016|
|Chayuan||Wulidian||2009||December 30, 2014|
|Wulidian||Kangzhuang||September 28, 2012|
|Kangzhuang||Lijia||December 26, 2012|
|Lijia||Beibei||December 31, 2013|
|Phase II (2012 ‒ 2020)|
|Chongqing Library||Haixialu||October 28, 2013||December 28, 2018|
|Haixialu||Erlang||December 30, 2019|
|Erlang||Chongqing Library||January 20, 2021|
|Min'an Ave||North Square of Chongqing
North Railway Station
|December 3, 2013||January 11, 2019|
|North Square of Chongqing
North Railway Station
|Tangjiatuo||December 28, 2018|
|The Expo Garden Center||Dalongshan||December 28, 2017|
|Dalongshan||Dashiba||December 24, 2018|
|Shiqiaopu||Tiaodeng||January 20, 2021|
|Lijia||Yuelai||2009||May 15, 2013|
|Yuelai||Shaheba||October 28, 2016||December 31, 2020|
|Liyuchi||Wangjiazhuang||May 2014||December 28, 2017|
At around 14:00 of 8 January 2019, an improperly secured air defense lock was struck by an in service Loop line train, derailing it and causing serious damage to the cabcar. The accident injured three employees and one passenger. One of the employees, the driver, later died from their injuries shortly after being sent to the hospital.
|Line||Rolling stock||Signal system||Notes|
|CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles||6As||66||Traffic Control Technology[j]||Yes|||
|CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles||6B||36||Siemens||Yes|
|Hitachi||4HL||2||The Nippon Signal||No|
|CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles||4HL||25|
|CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles||6HL||68||Hitachi||Yes|
|CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles||6As||13||United Mechanical & Electrical||Yes|
|CRRC Qingdao Sifang Locomotive & Rolling Stock||6As||39||China Railway Signal & Communication||Yes|
|CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles||6B||41||Siemens||Yes|
|CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles||6B||12||China Railway Signal & Communication||Yes|
|CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles||6As||38||China Academy of Railway Sciences||Yes|
|CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles||6As||26||China Academy of Railway Sciences||Yes|
Unlike most metro systems of other cities in China, CRT did not follow the design style of MTR Corporation in Hong Kong. The signage system was designed by GK Design Group in Japan, and the monorail lines are based on Hitachi Monorail technology. That gives the Chongqing Rail Transit a distinctive Japanese aesthetic, in contrast to other metro systems in China.
CRT also gave each line a theme about the local culture, and the stations on the line will have some art works in the theme.
|provisional capital era|
Entrance 4 of Hongqihegou Station
The navigation boards at the concourse of Hongqihegou Station
The navigation board at the escalator of University Town Station
The navigation board at the platform of Tongjiayuanzi Station
The southern concourse of Xiaoshizi Station
The mural on the wall of Entrance 1 of Nanping Station
The platform of Lieshimu Station
CRT is expected to have 8 lines criss-crossing the urban districts by 2020 and a loop line connecting the commercial areas in the urban area. The other 9 lines are expected to be in operation by 2050.
Phase 2 & 3 projectsEdit
|Planned opening||Project||Terminus||Track type||Rolling stock [b]||Length (km)||New stations||Start of construction||Ref.|
|Late 2021 (including early 2022)||Phase 1||Tiaodeng||Shengquansi||Heavy-rail||6As||28.22||6||10 June 2015|||
|Phase 1||Xinqiao||Xingke Ave.||Heavy-rail||6As||29.7||26||28 September 2016|||
|Phase 2||Xingke Ave.||Huashigou||Heavy-rail||6As||10.77||5||Late 2017|||
|2022||Phase 1 - Central Section||Shiqiaopu||Dashiba||Heavy-rail||6As||3||3 December 2013|||
|Phase 2||Tangjiatuo||Shichuan||Heavy-rail||6As||32.46||12||25 January 2019|||
|Phase 2||The Expo Garden Center||Yuegangbeilu||Heavy-rail||6As||8.5||7||25 January 2019|
|Phase 2||Lanhualu||Liyuchi||Heavy-rail||6As||11.3||8||28 October 2016|||
|2023||Phase 1||Fuhualu||Tiaodeng South||Heavy-rail||6As||29.45||19||25 January 2019|
Phase 4 projectsEdit
The short-term plan, including Line 4 (West extension), Line 6 (Extension to Chongqing East), Lines 7, 15, 17, 24, 27 and Line 18 (Phase 2) was approved by NDRC. Construction on several lines started in March 2021.
|Planned opening||Project||Terminus||Track type||Rolling stock [b]||Length (km)||New stations||Start of Construction||Ref.|
|Beyond 2025||Western Extension||Min'an Ave.||Panguilu||Heavy-rail||6As||11.2||9||2021|||
|Eastern Extension||Chayuan||Chongqing East Station||Heavy-rail||6B||5.48||3||Planned|||
|Phase 1||Jiuquhe East||Liangjiang Film Town||Heavy-rail||6D||38.7||14||2021|||
|Full line||Bishan||Chongqing East Station||Heavy-rail||6D||51.8||14||Planned|||
|Phase 1||Lujiao North||Guangyangwan||Heavy-rail||6As||19||12||2021|||
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- This figure involves counting the interchanges once for every line of which it is part. If every interchange is only counted once, there are 176 stations.
- The number refers to the number of the carriages of each train, and the letter followed refers to the type of the carriage. AS and B2 are defined by China, while HL is short for "Hitachi Large" from Japan.
Full Load Capacity Type AS B2 HL 4 1534 1240 882 6 2322 1882 1342 7 2716 - - 8 - - 1802
- the departure time
- between Chongqing Library and Haixialu
- excl. Bishan
- from both terminals to Longtousi
- between Haixialu and Erlang
- Bishan only
- from Longtousi to both terminals
- Chinese: 交控科技
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