Chongqing Rail Transit

The Chongqing Rail Transit (branded as CRT; also known as Chongqing Metro) is the rapid transit system in the city of Chongqing, China. In operation since 2005, it serves the transportation needs of the city's main business and entertainment downtown areas and inner suburbs. As of December 2019, CRT consisted of eight lines, with a total track length of 326.9 km (203.1 mi).[3] Lines 1, 4, 5, 6, 10 and the Loop line are conventional heavy-rail subways, while Lines 2 and 3 are high-capacity monorails. To keep up with urban growth, construction is under way on Lines 9, 18 and S5, in addition to extensions to Lines 1, 4, 5, 6, 10 and the Loop line. A network of 18 lines is planned.

Chongqing Rail Transit
CRT Logo.svg
Native name重庆轨道交通
OwnerChongqing City Transportation Development & Investment (Group) Co., Ltd.
Area servedChongqing Urban Area
LocaleChongqing, China
Transit typeUrban rail transit in China rapid transit
Urban rail transit in China straddle-beam monorail
Number of lines8
Line number Loop   1   2   3   4   5   6   10 
Number of stations181
Daily ridership2.036 million (2017 avg)[1]
3.356 million (peak on 22 February 2019)[2]
Annual ridership743.10 million (2017)[1]
Chief executiveLe Mei
Headquarters123 Renming Rd., Yuzhong District, Chongqing
Began operation6 November 2004; 15 years ago (2004-11-06) (trial)
18 June 2005; 15 years ago (2005-06-18) (officially)
Operator(s)Chongqing Rail Transit (Group) Co., Ltd.
Number of vehicles274[1]
Headway2′30″ to 12′[1]
System length326.9 km (203.1 mi)
Track gaugeUrban rail transit in China 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)
ElectrificationUrban rail transit in China 1500 V DC overhead line
Urban rail transit in China 1500 V DC third rail
Average speedUrban rail transit in China 50 km/h (31 mph)
Urban rail transit in China 40 km/h (25 mph)[1]
Top speedUrban rail transit in China 100 km/h (62 mph)
Urban rail transit in China 75 km/h (47 mph)
System map

Chongqing Rail Transit system map 201812 ver 20190126.png

Chongqing Rail Transit
Simplified Chinese重庆轨道交通
Traditional Chinese重慶軌道交通

The Chongqing Rail Transit is a unique transit system in China because of the geography of Chongqing being a densely-populated but mountainous city, with multiple river valleys. Two lines use heavy-monorail technology, leveraging the ability to negotiate steep grades and tight curves and rapid transit capacity. They are capable of transporting 32,000 passengers per hour per direction.[4] At 98 km (61 mi),[5] the system's two monorail lines form the longest monorail system in the world,[6] with the 56.1 km (34.9 mi) Line 3 being the world's longest single monorail line even if the 11.0 km (6.8 mi) Airport branch is excluded.[7][8] The length and the capacity of its monorail network both also make it the world's busiest monorail system, with a total of 94 million and 250 million rides in 2015 on Line 2 and Line 3, respectively.[9] The latter ridership statistic for Line 3 also makes it the world's busiest single monorail line.

The extreme difference in elevation between the river valleys and the hilly plateaus of Chongqing pose a unique challenge in designing alignments for conventional rail transit lines. The network currently has the world's highest metro-only bridge, the Caijia Rail Transit Bridge for Line 6, spanning the Jialing River valley, with the bridge deck being approximately 100 m above the water.[10] Hongtudi station is the deepest subway station in China and the second-deepest station in the world, after the Kiev Metro's Arsenalna, with Line 10's platforms being more than 94 m (308 ft) below the surface.[11] Liyuchi station, also on Line 10, is the second-deepest station in China, being 76 m (249 ft) below the surface.[12]

The Chongqing Rail Transit is also in the process of constructing a number of extremely-long metro-only suspension bridges. The Gaojiahuayuan Rail Transit Bridge is currently the longest transit only bridge in China and carries the western arc of the Loop line over the Jialing River using a long 594 m (1,949 ft) bridge with a main span of 340 m (1,120 ft).[13] The 1,650 m (5,410 ft) long Egongyan Rail Transit Bridge carries the southern arc of the Loop line across the Yangtze River using a 600 m (2,000 ft) long suspension main span, making it the longest cable supported metro-only bridge by main span in the world.[14] The Nanjimen Bridge will carry Line 10 trains across a 1,225 m (4,019 ft) cable-stayed bridge with a main span of 480 m (1,570 ft), making it the longest metro-only cable-stayed bridge by main span in the world.[15] Finally, the Chongqing Rail Transit has numerous double-deck bridges carrying vehicle and metro traffic, such as the Chaotianmen Bridge, which is the world's longest arch bridge.

Timelapse of the Chongqing Rail Transit.


Line Terminus
Commencement Newest extension Rolling stock[Note 1] Length
   Loop  Chongqing Library (Shapingba) Erlang (Jiulongpo) 2018 2019 6AS 43.2 26
   1  Xiaoshizi (Yuzhong) Bishan (Bishan) 2011 2019 6B2 44.5 24
   2  Jiaochangkou (Yuzhong) Yudong (Ba'nan) 2005 2014 4/6HL 31.4 25
   3  Yudong (Ba'nan) Terminal 2 of Jiangbei Airport (Yubei) 2011 2016 6/8HL 56.1 45
Bijin (Yubei) Jurenba (Yubei) 6HL 11.0
   4  Min'an Ave (Yubei) Tangjiatuo (Jiangbei) 2018 2019 6AS 15.6 8
   5  The Expo Garden Center (Yubei) Dashiba (Jiangbei) 2017 2018 6AS 15.8 10
   6  Chayuan (Nan'an) Beibei (Beibei) 2012 2015 6B2 63.3 33
Lijia (Yubei) Yuelai (Yubei) 12.6
   10  Liyuchi (Jiangbei) Wangjiazhuang (Yubei) 2017 N/A 6AS 33.4 19
  Sub-Total (Heavy-rail) 228.4 118[Note 2]
  Sub-Total (Monorail) 98.5 70[Note 3]
Grand Total 326.9 189

Loop lineEdit

Line 0 Egongyan Transit Bridge
CRT Loop line's logo.

The Loop line (also known as "Line 0"; Chinese: 零号线) is a rapid transit loop line.[16] The northeastern section was opened on 28 December 2018. When the line is fully completed, it will run through two important railway stations: Chongqing North Railway Station, and Chongqing West Railway Station.[17]

Line 1Edit

CRT Line 1's logo.

Line 1 runs 16.4 km (10.2 mi) from Chaotianmen, in the central west, to Shapingba and then to Bishan with a total length of 44.5 km (27.7 mi). It has 24 stations, including interchange stations with Line 2, at Jiaochangkou in Jiefangbei CBD and at Daping, and with Line 3, at Lianglukou, near Chongqing railway station, in the Caiyuanba section of central Yuzhong. It is the first heavy-rail subway line in Chongqing and the second in Western China. The passenger capacity is 36,000 passengers per hour in each way. The line serves as the system's backbone connecting the densest areas including the main Central Business Districts of Jiefangbei, Lianglukou, Daping, and Shapingba. It is the first conventional subway, running in a deep-bored tunnel below Yuzhong and Shapingba Districts.

In 1992, the Chongqing government signed a Build-Operate-Transfer agreement with a Hong Kong company and provided the land for the project, but work ceased in 1997 because of legal issues.[18] Work resumed from Chaotianmen to Shapingba on 9 June 2009, and a limited opening occurred on 28 July 2011.[19] Thales provided an operations control centre for the line.

Line 2Edit

CRT Line 2's logo.

Line 2, a monorail line, runs 31.4 km (19.5 mi) and has 25 stations. It begins as a subway under downtown Jiefangbei, then runs west along the southern bank of Jialing River on an elevated line, and then turns south into the southwestern inner suburbs, looping back east, to terminate at Yudong, in Ba'nan District. It runs mostly elevated, but a 2.2 km (1.4 mi) section is underground, including three of its 18 stations in the Jiefangbei CBD and central Daping areas in the extremely-dense area of Yuzhong District. Line 2 runs through four administrative districts in the central city (Yuzhong, Jiulongpo, Dadukou, and Ba'nan). In 2010, Line 2 served 45 million passengers.[20] It also runs through Daping CBD and Yangjiaping CBD in Jiulongpo District and Chongqing Zoo at Zoo Station. Most trains have four cars, and six-car trains began to operate in September 2012.[21] Line 2 is the first rapid transit line to open in the Interior West of China, in 2005. In 2013, six-car trains are being implemented because of overcrowding and increasing demand.[22]

Line 3Edit

Line 3 Station
CRT Line 3's logo.

Line 3 is the longest and busiest monorail in the world. It runs from north to south and links the districts separated by the Yangtze (Chang Jiang) and the Jialing Rivers. The initial segment, from Lianglukou to Yuanyang (18 stations, 17.5 km (10.9 mi)), opened on 29 September 2011, with a northern extension, from Yuanyang to Jiangbei Airport, opening on 30 December 2011.[23] A southern extension, from Ertang to Yudong, opened on 28 December 2012.[24]

Most trains have six cars, more than on the older Line 2. The line started to equip eight-car trains in 2014, which are now in operation.[25] There are interchange stations in central Yuzhong district with Line 1, at Lianglukou (Caiyuanba Intercity Railway/Coach Station), and with Line 2, at Niujiaotuo.

Line 4Edit

CRT Line 4's logo.

Line 4 is a rapid transit line.[26] In June 2018, debugging of the first segment of Phase I commenced. [27] The line began operating on 28 December that year.

Line 5Edit

CRT Line 5's logo.

Line 5 is a northeast-southwest heavy-rail line crossing the centre, and the line has opened its northern section of phase 1, from the EXPO Garden Center to Dashiba. It will connect Yubei, Jiangbei, Yuzhong, Jiulongpo, Shapingba and Dadukou districts, and the extension line from Tiaodeng (the southern terminal) to Dingshan in Jiangjin district is under construction. New six-car trains were introduced on the line.

Line 6Edit

CRT Line 6's logo.

Line 6 is the second heavy-rail subway line of Chongqing. Opened on 28 September 2012, it connects Nan'an, Yuzhong, Jiangbei and Yubei districts, in central Chongqing.

A northern branch, from Lijia to Wulukou, Beibei District, was opened on 31 December 2013,[28] 26.2 km (16.3 mi) long with five stations. Phase 1 of the Chayuan extension was opened in 2014. Thales provided an operations control centre for the line.

Line 10Edit

CRT Line 10's logo.

The line serves the North Railway station and the airport terminals. The first phase (Liyuchi to Wangjiazhuang) opened on 28 December 2017, and the second phase will connect Yuzhong and Nan'an districts by crossing the Jialing and the Yangtze rivers. Two new bridges, Zengjiayan Jialing River Bridge and Nanjimen Railway Bridge, are under construction for train services to the south.


Single-journey ticketEdit

Tickets range from CN¥2 (0.3 USD) to ¥7 (1.06 USD), depending on the distance. Day passes cost ¥18 (2.72 USD).[citation needed]


Only unused tickets bought on the same day and at the same station can be refunded without an explanation. If the train was delayed for over 15 minutes, the tickets may be refunded, and a certificate of delay can be acquired.[citation needed]

Transport cardsEdit

CRT accepts Life & Transport Card (Chongqing Universal Card, released by Chongqing City Card Payment Co., Ltd.) and its compatible cards, released by partner companies in other cities of China. There is a 10% discount applied to the Regular Card if it is used on public transit in the city. The higher price is paid for transfers between the bus and the metro within 1 hour (not including metro-to-metro, according to the paying time). The Regular Card can be purchased at any CRT station, and a deposit can be recovered when the card is returned with its receipt. In addition the card can be used in many shops, cinemas, restaurants, etc. in Chongqing. The Students' Card and the Elders' Card can not be directly used on the metro since their monthly fee covers only buses unless a cash sub-account, which allows a 50% discount, is added to the cards for free at the service points.

Time limitEdit

All trips must be completed in 3 hours upon entering the fare-paid area, or the highest ticket price in the system will be charged in addition.[29]


Operation hours
Lines First train Last train[Note 4]
Weekdays Holidays
 Loop [Note 5]  1 [Note 6]
 2   3 [Note 7]  5   6   10 
6:30 22:30 23:00
 Loop [Note 8]  1 [Note 9]
 3 [Note 10]  3A   6I 
6:30 22:30
 4  7:30 20:30

During times of heavy use like for major events, CRT may close some stations to avoid overcrowding. In 2018, CRT closed Xiaoshizi, Jiaochangkou, Qixinggang, Lianglukou, Xiaolongkan, and Shapingba stations of Line 1; Jiaochangkou and Linjiangmen stations of Line 2; Lianglukou, Huaxinjie, Guanyinqiao, and Hongqihegou stations of Line 3; Shangxinjie, Xiaoshizi, Grand Theater, Jiangbeicheng, and Hongqihegou stations of Line 6 after 20:00 on Christmas Eve, Christmas Day, after 19:00 on New Year's Eve. And they also closed Shapingba and Shangxinjie stations of Loop line after 19:00 on New Year's Eve.

From 9 to 12 November 2018, they closed Grand Theater and Jiangbeicheng stations from 10:00 to 15:00 because of heavy use during Flower Expo; from 1 to 7 November 2019, they closed Grand Theater and Jiangbeicheng stations since 10:00 till 16:00 because of heavy use during Flower Expo.


Free Wi-fi is provided on most platforms and trains on Lines 1 and 6 at 5 GHz. An app, Heikuai (Chinese: 嘿快), is required.[30]


Almost every station has accessible elevators and toilets, and almost every train has wheelchair locks. Only the oldest rolling stock and toilets of Line 2 are not fully accessible. In addition, many older interchange channels between lines are not designed with accessibility in mind, which means the disabled there must transfer via the main concourse.[31]

Luggage rackEdit

The trains on Line 10, which links Jiangbei Airport and Chongqing North railway station, are equipped with a luggage rack on each car.[32]


The CRT is part of the central government's project to develop the Western regions. The Japan Bank for International Cooperation provided some of the funding.[33] Construction was carried out, with co-operation between Changchun Railway Vehicles Co. Ltd. and Hitachi Monorail, which used advanced Japanese monorail technology.[34] Construction on Line 2 began in 1999, and the line was officially opened in June 2005 from Jiaochangkou (Jiefangbei CBD) to Zoo (Chongqing Zoo).

Planning timelineEdit


The Nationalist government made a plan of high-speed tram system. The rail weighs 47.77 kg/m, with a rail gauge of 1000 mm, a maximum slope of 9%, a minimum radius of curvature of 80 m. The top speed is 25 km/h (16 mph) in the urban area and 45 km/h (28 mph) in the suburban area. The train was 8 m long, 1.8 m wide, with two 35-horsepower motors and a trailer. Each train took 240 passengers. The headway was designed to be 10 minutes. The system was expected to carry 1 million passengers per day. Some of the tracks were underground.

  • Line A, Longmenhao – Ciqikou, 9 Stations, 14.75 km (9.17 mi)
  • Line B, Longmenhao – Nanwenquan, 7 Stations, 19.49 km (12.11 mi)
  • Line C, Longmenhao – Datiankan, 3 Stations, 6.9 km (4.3 mi)


A 100 km-long (62 mi) underground rapid rail transit system, linking the city center with Xinpaifang, Xiaolongkan, Yangjiaping, Shiqiaopu, Lianglukou, etc., was planned.


A 12.2 km-long (7.6 mi) subway line (Chaotianmen – Yangjiaping) was planned. It is the precursor to today's Line 2.


A 55 km-long (34 mi) monorail system was planned.

  • Chaotianmen – Shapingba (– Shuangbei), the forerunner of Line 1.
  • Chaotianmen – Xinshancun (– Jiugongmiao), the forerunner of Line 2.
  • Airport Line: Xinpaifang – Nanping (– Sigongli), the forerunner of Line 3.
  • Link Line: Yangjiaping – Shiqiaopu.


In a refreshed edition of the 1991 plan, the total length was about 119 km (74 mi).

  • Line 1: Chaotianmen – Shuangbei.
  • Line 2: Chaotianmen – Jiugongmiao.
  • Line 3: Jiangbei Airport – Sigongli.
  • Line 4: Sigongli – Shiqiaopu. (evolved from Link Line in the previous edition)
  • Line 5: Tongjiayuanzi – Zhongliangshan.

2003 and 2007Edit

Two similar expanded editions of the 1998 plan included 10 lines, with a total length of about 522 km (324 mi). Line 4 in the previous blueprint received a huge update and was renamed to Loop line, according to its new shape.[18]


The current plan is an expanded edition of the 2007 plan, with a length of about 820 km (510 mi). Eight new lines were merged to the plan, with some minor modifications.[35]

Testing timelineEdit

The tests left some tunnels, which were reused in the construction of Lines 1 and 2.

  • In late 1958, the "Yuzhong District Subway Engineering Unit" was started, only to be suspended one year later.
  • In 1965, the unit was reinstated. It has 4 units, including more than 1000 workers in total. Construction was stopped again in late 1966 by the Cultural Revolution. The unit was officially disbanded again in 1971. The completed tunnel sections were taken over by the Civil Air Defense Department.
  • In 1988, some Hong Kong businessmen arrived to start a metro company in Lianglukou. The original completed tunnel sections where extended.[18]

Opening timelineEdit


At around 14:00 of 8 January 2019, an improperly secured air defense lock was struck by an in service Loop line train, derailing it and causing serious damage to the cabcar.[36] The accident injured three employees and one passenger. One of the employees, the driver, later died from their injuries shortly after being sent to the hospital.[37]


Line Rolling stock Signal system Notes
Manufacturer Trains[Note 1] Manufacturer CBTC
 Loop  CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles 6As 66 Traffic Control Technology[Note 11] Yes [38]
 1  CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles 6B 36 Siemens Yes
 2  Hitachi 4HL 2 The Nippon Signal [ja] No
CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles 4HL 25
6HL 22
 3  CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles 6HL 68 Hitachi Yes
8HL 15
 4  CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles 6As 13 United Mechanical & Electrical [zh] Yes
 5  CRRC Qingdao Sifang Locomotive & Rolling Stock 6As 39 China Railway Signal & Communication Yes
 6  CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles 6B 41 Siemens Yes
 9  CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles 6As 38 TBA Yes
 10  CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicles 6As 26 China Academy of Railway Sciences [zh] Yes

Visual designEdit

Unlike most metro systems of other cities in China, CRT did not follow the design style of MTR Corporation in Hong Kong. The signage system was designed by GK Design Group in Japan, and the monorail lines are based on Hitachi Monorail technology. That gives the Chongqing Rail Transit a distinctive Japanese aesthetic, in contrast to other metro systems in China.[39]

Line themeEdit

CRT gave each line a theme about the local culture, and the stations on the line will have some art works in the theme.[40]

Line Theme
 Loop  Memories
 1  Folk
 2  Civilization's Journey
 3  Life
 4  Sister Cities
 5  Cultural Characters
 6  Landscape
 7  Historical Figures
 8  Old Towns
 9  Cultural Heritage


CRT is expected to have 8 lines criss-crossing the urban districts by 2020 and a loop line connecting the commercial areas in the urban area. The other 9 lines are expected to be in operation by 2050.[35]

Projects under constructionEdit

Planned opening Project Terminus Track type Rolling stock [Note 1] Length (km) New stations Start of construction Ref.
2020 (estimated)  Loop  Southwestern section Erlang Chongqing Library Heavy-rail 6As 11.3 6 28 October 2013 [41]
 5  Phase 1 - Southern Section Shiqiaopu Tiaodeng Heavy-rail 6As 12 3 December 2013 [42]
 6I  21  International Expo branch - Phase 2 Yuelai Shaheba Heavy-rail 6B 13.71 7 28 October 2016 [43]
 9  Phase 1 - Northern Section Lijiaping Xingke Ave. Heavy-rail 6As 16 28 September 2016 [44]
2021 (estimated)  5  Phase 1 - Central Section Shiqiaopu Dashiba Heavy-rail 6As 3 3 December 2013 [45]
 S5  Phase 1 Tiaodeng Shengquansi Heavy-rail 6As 26.7 6 10 June 2015 [46]
 9  Phase 1 - Southern Section Xinqiao Lijiaping Heavy-rail 6As 9 28 September 2016 [44]
 9  Phase 2 Xingke Ave. Huashigou Heavy-rail 6As 10.77 5 Late 2017 [44]
 10  Phase 2 Lanhualu Liyuchi Heavy-rail 6As 11.3 8 28 October 2016 [43]
2022  4  Phase 2 Tangjiatuo Shichuan Heavy-rail 6As 32.46 12 25 January 2019 [47]
 5  Phase 2 The Expo Garden Center Yuegangbeilu Heavy-rail 6As 8.5 7 25 January 2019
2023  18  Phase 1 Fuhualu Tiaodeng South Heavy-rail 6As 29.45 19 25 January 2019

Scheduled projectsEdit

Planned opening Project Terminus Track type Rolling stock [Note 1] Length (km) New stations Planned start Ref.
2023  4  Phase 3 Min'an Ave. Panguilu Heavy-rail 6As 11.2 9 2019 [48]
 6  Phase 3 Chayuan Chongqingdong Railway Station Heavy-rail 6B 5.2 3 2019 [48]
 7  Phase 1 Wuliuyuan Hub Jinfeng Monorail 8HL 27.3 17 2019 [48]
 15  Phase 1 Zengjia Liangjiang Film Town Heavy-rail 6D 66.8 25 2019 [48]
2024  8  Full line Ganbazi Chongqingdong Railway Station Monorail 6/8HL 17.7 11 2020 [48]
 18  Phase 2 Fuhualu Xiaoshizi Heavy-rail 6As 10.6 8 2020 [48]
 27  Full line Bishan Chongqingdong Railway Station Heavy-rail 6D 49.0 14 2020 [48]
2025  S5  Phase 2 Shengquansi Dingshan Heavy-rail 6As 4.61 2 2020 [49]
 17  Phase 1 Shijiayuanzi Wuliuyuan Hub Monorail 6/8HL 25.5 17 2022 [48]
 24  Full line Lujiao North Guangyangwan Heavy-rail 6As 16.4 11 2022 [48]

See alsoEdit


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  2. ^ 昨日客运量. Sina Weibo (in Chinese). Chongqing Rail Transit. 1 October 2018. 2月22日,重庆轨道交通线网客运量335.6万乘次。
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  12. ^ Liu Chunyuan (刘春暖). 埋深达94米相当于31层楼高 "全国最深地铁站"下还有更深地铁站_社会新闻_大众网. Danzhong Web (in Chinese). Retrieved 27 January 2018.
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  1. ^ a b c d The number refers to the number of the carriages of each train, and the letter followed refers to the type of the carriage. AS and B2 are defined by China, while HL is short for "Hitachi Large" from Japan.
    Full Load Capacity
    Type AS B2 HL
    4 1534 1240 882
    6 2322 1882 1342
    7 2716 - -
    8 - - 1802
  2. ^ This figure involves counting the two interchanges once for every line of which it is part. If every interchange is only counted once, there are 94 stations.
  3. ^ This figure involves counting the two interchanges once for every line of which it is part. If every interchange is counted only once, there are 69 stations.
  4. ^ the departure time
  5. ^ between Chongqing Library and Haixia Rd
  6. ^ excl. Bishan
  7. ^ from both terminals to Longtousi
  8. ^ between Haixia Rd and Erlang
  9. ^ Bishan only
  10. ^ from Longtousi to both terminals
  11. ^ Chinese: 交控科技

External linksEdit