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The Victoria line is a London Underground line that runs between Brixton in south London and Walthamstow Central in the north-east, via the West End. It is coloured light blue on the Tube map and is one of the only two lines on the network to run completely underground, the other being the Waterloo & City line.[note 1]

Victoria line
Victoria line in Johnston typeface, as used by tfl
2009 stock at Euston.jpg
A 2009 stock Victoria line train at Euston
Overview
TypeRapid transit
SystemLondon Underground
Stations16
Ridership199.988 million (2011/12)[1] passenger journeys
Colour on mapLight blue
Operation
Opened1 September 1968
CharacterDeep-level
Depot(s)Northumberland Park
Rolling stock2009 stock
Technical
Line length21 km (13 mi)
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)
London Underground
Bakerloo
Central
Circle
District
Hammersmith & City
Jubilee
Metropolitan
Northern
Piccadilly
Victoria
Waterloo & City
Other systems
DLR
London Trams
London Overground
TfL Rail

The line was constructed in the 1960s and was the first entirely new Underground line in London for 50 years. It was designed to reduce congestion on other lines, particularly the Piccadilly line and the Charing Cross branch of the Northern line. The first section, from Walthamstow Central to Highbury & Islington, opened in September 1968 and an extension to Warren Street followed in December. The line was completed to Victoria station in March 1969 and was opened by Queen Elizabeth II who rode a train from Green Park to Victoria. The southern extension to Brixton opened in 1971, and Pimlico station was added in 1972.

The Victoria line is operated using automatic train operation, but all trains still carry drivers. The 2009 Tube Stock replaced the original 1967 Tube Stock trains. The line serves 16 stations and all but Pimlico provide interchanges with other Underground lines or National Rail services. The line, the most intensively used on the Underground, is used by over 200 million passengers each year.

Contents

HistoryEdit

 
Geographically accurate map of the Victoria line

PlanningEdit

The first proposal for a railway in this area appeared in the County of London Plan, published in 1943.[2] In 1948, a working party set up by the British Transport Commission (BTC) proposed a tube railway from Victoria to Walthamstow,[3] largely based on a 1946 plan for a Croydon-to-Finsbury Park line. Its main purpose was to relieve congestion in the central area, which had been a problem since the 1930s.[4] Other benefits were linking the key railway stations at Victoria, Euston, King's Cross and St. Pancras and improving connections between north-east London and the city.[5]

In early 1949, the BTC committee looked at the feasibility of building a deep-level tube to fulfil these requirements.[6] For the first time cost–benefit analysis was used to ensure the line would be built within budget and be profitable.[7] The Private bill was introduced in Parliament in 1955. It described a line from Victoria to Walthamstow (Wood Street) next to the British Rail station. Another proposal not in the Bill, supported an extension from Victoria to Fulham Broadway on the District line terminating at Edmonton instead of Walthamstow.[8][9] Proposals were made to extend the line north to South Woodford or Woodford to provide interchange with the Central line.[10] In 1961 it was decided to terminate the line at Walthamstow (Hoe Street) station, which was renamed Walthamstow Central on 6 May 1968 in anticipation of the line's opening.[11][12] The line was planned to have cross-platform interchanges at Oxford Circus, Euston and Finsbury Park (with the Bakerloo, Northern (Bank) and Piccadilly lines respectively) and at Walthamstow Central to provide a quick and easy connection between the new line and existing services.[13]

The name "Victoria line" dates from 1955; other suggestions were "Walvic line" (Walthamstow–Victoria), "Viking line" (Victoria–King's Cross), "Mayfair line" and "West End line".[9] During the planning stages it was known as Route C and named the Victoria line (after the station) by David McKenna, whose suggestion was seconded by Sir John Elliot.[9][14] The board decided that the Victoria line sounded "just right".[9]

Walthamstow – VictoriaEdit

Initial construction began in January 1960, when two test tunnels were started from Tottenham to Manor House under Seven Sisters Road. The tunnels were excavated using an experimental "drum digger" rotary shield, powered by hydraulic rams, that could cut more than 60 feet (18 m) per day. The work was completed in July 1961, with the expectation it would be used for the completed Victoria line.[15]

After the line gained parliamentary approval on 20 August 1962 with a budget of £56 million, construction began the following month.[16] The economic boom of the mid-to-late 1950s had faded leading to a rise in unemployment in London, and the government had hoped that building the Victoria line would stop this.[17] Work began adapting Oxford Circus station to link to the new line; a cross-platform interchange was provided with the Bakerloo line and a subway link with the Central line.[18] A steel umbrella was erected over the junction in August 1963 so that a new ticket hall could be built without disrupting existing traffic.[16] Rolling stock on the line was fitted with Automatic Train Operation (ATO), which allowed self-driving of the train based on automatic electrical signals along the track.[19] In March 1964, a £2.25 million contract was awarded to Metro-Cammell for the Victoria line fleet.[20]

That October, the Northern City Line closed between Drayton Park and Finsbury Park so that the latter station could be redesigned for a cross-platform interchange between the Victoria and Piccadilly lines. All major contracts had been awarded by 1965, and construction was on track to be completed in 1968.[21] New stations were constructed at Walthamstow Central, Blackhorse Road, Tottenham Hale and Seven Sisters.[22] The station at Blackhorse Road was built on the opposite side of the mainline station (serving the Kentish Town to Barking line) and was not an interchange.[23][note 2]

The line opened from Walthamstow Central to Highbury & Islington on 1 September 1968.[25][26] There was no opening ceremony; instead the normal timetable started.[25] The first train left Walthamstow Central for Highbury & Islington at 7:32 a.m. The line proved to be popular; more than 1,000 tickets were purchased at Highbury & Islington within its first hour of opening.[27]

The next section to Warren Street, opened on 1 December 1968, again without ceremony.[25] The line was formally opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 7 March 1969 when it had been completed to Victoria. At 11:00 a.m., the Queen made the first trip from Green Park to Victoria on a 5d (2.08p) ticket, where she unveiled a plaque.[28][29] In so doing, she was the first reigning monarch to ride on the Underground.[30] The line was open to the general public by 3:00 p.m. Trains from Walthamstow to Victoria took around 24 minutes.[28]

Victoria – BrixtonEdit

 
Pimlico station was the last part of the Victoria line to open, and is the line's only station that is not an interchange.

The 3.5-mile (5.6 km) extension from Victoria to Brixton with stations at Vauxhall and Stockwell was approved in March 1966.[21] Preparatory work had started at Bessborough Gardens near Vauxhall Bridge Road in May 1967.[31] The contract was awarded on 4 August 1967.[21] A proposal to build Pimlico tube station received Government approval on 28 June 1968.[25] In July, the Prince of Wales and the Duke of Edinburgh visited tunnel workings under Vauxhall Park.[32]

The Brixton extension was bored using the older Greathead shield. Although slower, use of the tunnelling shield allowed easier digging through the gravel strata south of the Thames. It was opened by Princess Alexandra on 23 July 1971, who made a journey from Brixton to Vauxhall.[33][34] On opening, it was the first new section of Underground to open south of the Thames since the extension of the City and South London Railway from Clapham Common to Morden in 1926.[33] The final piece of the Victoria line, Pimlico station, opened on 14 September 1972.[35]

London Transport considered extensions to Streatham, Dulwich and Crystal Palace to provide a connection to southeast London and Kent but no construction work was undertaken.[36]

Post-openingEdit

The Kentish Town – Barking line did not close as expected and both stations at Blackhorse Road remained open. The mainline was connected to the Victoria line on 14 December 1981, when surface-line platforms and a connecting overbridge were built on the same side as the tube station. The original station was then closed and demolished.[37][38]

The London Underground (Victoria) Act 1991 allowed for the construction of a 43-metre (140 ft) underground pedestrian link at Victoria station between the Victoria line platforms and the sub-surface Circle line platforms above.[39] The London Underground (Victoria Station Upgrade) Order 2009 came into force in September that year, authorising the construction of a second 1,930-square-metre (21,000 sq ft) ticket hall at Victoria.[40]

On 23 January 2014, during upgrade work at Victoria, construction workers accidentally penetrated the signalling room of the Victoria line and flooded it with quick-drying concrete, leading to the suspension of services south of Warren Street.[41] Services resumed the following day after using sugar to slow the setting of the concrete and make it easier to shovel out.[42][43]

A 24-hour Night Tube service on Friday and Saturday nights, due to start in September 2015 on the entire line[44] was delayed because of strike action.[45] The service started in August 2016, with trains running at 10-minute intervals on the whole line.[46]

DesignEdit

Every Victoria line station apart from Pimlico and Blackhorse Road was built as an interchange and several stations were rearranged to allow for cross-platform interchange with the line. In some stations the Victoria line platforms were built on either side of the existing arrangement; in others, the Victoria line uses the older platforms and the existing line was diverted onto a new alignment.[47] All platforms on the line are 132.6 metres (435 ft) long.[48] The line has hump-backed stations to allow trains to store gravitational potential energy as they slow down and release it when they leave a station, providing an energy saving of 5% and allowing trains run 9% faster.[49][50]

The stations were originally tiled in blue and grey, each decorated with tiled motifs in seating recesses for identification.[51] Some motifs were puns e.g. the image for Brixton was a ton of bricks.[33] During construction of the first stage of the Jubilee line in 1979, the motifs on Green Park station were replaced by others matching the design for the Jubilee line platforms.[52]

In late 2010 and 2011, platform humps were installed on all Victoria line stations except Pimlico to provide step-free access to trains.[53] The project was in accordance with the Rail Vehicle Accessibility (Non Interoperable Rail System) Regulations 2010 and the Disability Discrimination Act 1995.[54][55] The Victoria line humps resemble the Harrington Hump, a type of ramp being installed on some mainline stations, but are of a masonry construction.[56]

Service and rolling stockEdit

 
The line's original 1967 Stock was used until mid-2011. It is seen here at Holborn on a farewell tour.

About 200 million passengers a year use the Victoria line.[57] It is the sixth-most heavily used line on the network in absolute figures, but in terms of the average number of journeys per mile it is by far the most intensively used.[1] From May 2017, trains run every 100 seconds during peak periods, providing 36 trains per hour.[58] All trains run from Brixton to Seven Sisters and some continue to Walthamstow Central.[59]

When the line opened, services were operated by a fleet of ​39 12 eight-car trains of 1967 Tube Stock trains. In the early planning stages, an articulated type of rolling stock was considered, but not progressed because of difficulties transferring the stock to Acton Works for heavy overhauls.[60] After Acton Works closed this no longer applies. The 2009 tube stock has a wider profile and slightly longer carriages which precludes it from running on other deep-level tube lines. The 1967 stock was supplemented by 1972 Mark I Tube Stock, transferred from the Northern line and converted to be compatible with the 1967 stock.[61]

 
2009 tube stock at the Victoria line's Northumberland Park Depot

Replacement of the 1967 rolling stock began in July 2009.[62][63] The 2009 Tube Stock fleet of 47 eight-car trains, was built by Bombardier Transportation.[64] Testing the first prototypes began in 2008. The trains began to be introduced in 2009 and most were in operation by the following year. The last of the 1967 stock trains ran on 30 June 2011, after which the service was provided by 2009 stock.[65][66]

On opening, the line was equipped with a fixed-block Automatic Train Operation system (ATO). The train operator closed the train doors and pressed a pair of "start" buttons and, if the way ahead was clear, the ATO drives the train at a safe speed to the next station. At any point, the driver could switch to manual control if the ATO failed.[27] The system, which operated until 2012, made the Victoria line the world's first full-scale automatic railway.[note 3]

The Victoria line runs faster trains than other Underground lines because it has fewer stops, ATO running and modern design.[70][71] Train speeds can reach up to 50 miles per hour (80 km/h). A popular way for locals in north London to visit the West End is to take the Northern line to Bank, change platforms at Euston, and continue on faster Victoria line trains.[50][70] The original signalling has been replaced with a more modern ATO system from Westinghouse Rail Systems incorporating 'Distance to Go Radio' and more than 400 track circuits. The track operator, London Underground Limited, claimed it is the world's first ATO-on-ATO upgrade.[62][64][72] The new system allowed a revised timetable to be introduced in February 2013, allowing up to 33 trains per hour instead of 27.[73] In combination with new, faster trains, the line's capacity increased by 21%, equivalent to an extra 10,000 passengers per hour.[62][65]

FacilitiesEdit

Step-free accessEdit

 
Notice explaining about step-free access. This can be found inside every Victoria line train.

When the line was built, budget restrictions meant that station infrastructure standards were lower than on older lines and on later extension projects.[17] Examples include narrower than usual platforms and undecorated ceilings at Walthamstow Central, Blackhorse Road and Tottenham Hale, affecting lighting levels.[74] The line was built with fewer escalators than other lines as a cost saving exercise.[75] The lack of a third escalator linking station entrances to platforms at some stations can cause severe congestion at peak times.[76] Stations have closed temporarily for safety reasons when escalators have been unserviceable.[77]

Step-free routes are available between the Victoria line and other lines at most interchanges.[78] Tottenham Hale, King's Cross St. Pancras, Green Park, Victoria, Vauxhall and Brixton have step-free access from street to train.[78][79][80][81][82] Platform humps have been installed at all stations (except Pimlico) to provide level access to trains, improving access for customers with mobility impairments, luggage or pushchairs.[83]

VentilationEdit

 
Ferry Lane fan shaft and emergency access point at Heron Island, approximately halfway between Blackhorse Road and Tottenham Hale

About 50 ventilation shafts were constructed during the construction phase.[84] Midpoint tunnel ventilation shafts remain between stations. Special "local arrangements" are in place should it be necessary to evacuate passengers from trains via Netherton Road emergency escape shaft.[85] Planning permission for a shaft at Ferry Lane, next to Tottenham Hale station, was granted on 11 January 1968, during the first phase of construction.[86]

By mid-2009, trial boreholes for a cooling system at Green Park station had been created and more were scheduled to be created by the end of 2009.[87] In 2010, Engineering & Technology reported that 200 litres (44 imp gal) of water per second for the cooling system was being pumped through heat-exchangers at Victoria station from the River Tyburn and into the River Thames.[88]

Between 2009 and 2014, thirteen ventilation shafts were refurbished. In the first phase were Drayton Park, Gillingham Street, Moreton Terrace, Pulross Road, Somerleyton Road and Tynemouth Road.[89] For the second phase were Cobourg Street, Dover Street, Gibson Square, Great Titchfield Street, Isledon Road, Kings Cross, Palace Street and Rita Road.[89]

By 2009, changes at Cobourg Street were in the planning stage and demolition at Moreton Terrace, Somerleyton Road and Drayton Park shafts had taken place.[87] Planning permission for Netherton Road shaft was granted on 8 September 1967.[90] On 31 March, the demolition and rebuilding of Netherton Road shaft was allowed as permitted development.[91][92]

DepotEdit

The depot at Northumberland Park, the service and storage area for trains, is the only part of the Victoria line above ground. Trains access the depot via a branch line in a tunnel to the north of Seven Sisters.[93]

The depot opened with the first stage of the line in September 1968. It is next to Northumberland Park railway station, on Tottenham Marshes in the London Borough of Haringey, over a mile from the Victoria line. When built, it was 900 feet (270 m) long and had working space for 22 eight-car trains.[23] As part of Transport for London's tube upgrade scheme, the depot has been expanded and upgraded to accommodate all the 2009 Tube Stock trains.[94][95]

FutureEdit

Tottenham Hotspur F.C. and its supporters have campaigned for a surface station next to Northumberland Park Station, adjacent to the depot to improve the stadium's transport links, which are essential for the club to redevelop its ground and increase capacity. The plans require co-operation with the local council and Network Rail to minimise disruption.[96][97] It was announced by Haringey Council in its 2012 A Plan for Tottenham report that there was "potential for a Victoria Line extension to Northumberland Park".[98]

Crossrail 2, also known as the Chelsea-Hackney line, is a planned line across central London between Victoria and King's Cross St. Pancras tube station to increase capacity in Central London by 270,000 passengers per day. It is be intended to relieve congestion on the Victoria line, a key line connecting several important London termini.[99][100]

Proposals have been made to extend the line one stop southwards from Brixton to Herne Hill, a significant interchange in south London providing access to Kent, Blackfriars, London Bridge and Sutton. The latter station would be on a large reversing loop with a single platform removing a critical capacity restriction eliminating the need for trains to reverse at Brixton and provide a more obvious route for passengers who look for the nearest tube station before any other transport options.[101][102]

StationsEdit

Victoria line
 
Walthamstow Central  
 
Blackhorse Road  
 
 
 
 
Tottenham Hale  
 
 
 
Seven Sisters    
 
Finsbury Park    
 
 
 
link with Piccadilly line
 
 
Highbury & Islington      
 
cross-over
 
King's Cross St. Pancras
     
     
 
Euston      
 
Warren Street  
 
cross-over
 
Oxford Circus    
 
Green Park    
 
Victoria      
 
Pimlico
 
 
Vauxhall    
 
Stockwell  
 
Brixton  
Station Image Opened Victoria line service began Interchanges Position
Walthamstow Central     26 April 1870[103] 1 September 1968

London Overground

51°34′59″N 000°01′11″W / 51.58306°N 0.01972°W / 51.58306; -0.01972 (01 - Walthamstow Central station)
Blackhorse Road     19 July 1894[37]

London Overground

51°35′13″N 000°02′29″W / 51.58694°N 0.04139°W / 51.58694; -0.04139 (02 - Blackhorse Road station)
Tottenham Hale       15 September 1840[104][TH]

Mainline trains

51°35′18″N 000°03′35″W / 51.58833°N 0.05972°W / 51.58833; -0.05972 (03 - Tottenham Hale station)
Seven Sisters     [SS]   22 July 1872[105]

London Overground, mainline trains

51°34′56″N 000°04′31″W / 51.58222°N 0.07528°W / 51.58222; -0.07528 (04 - Seven Sisters station)
Finsbury Park       1 July 1861[106][FP]

Piccadilly line (CPI),[23] mainline trains

51°33′53″N 000°06′23″W / 51.56472°N 0.10639°W / 51.56472; -0.10639 (05 - Finsbury Park station)
Highbury & Islington       26 September 1850[107]

Great Northern trains to Welwyn Garden City (CPI),[108] London Overground

51°32′45″N 000°06′18″W / 51.54583°N 0.10500°W / 51.54583; -0.10500 (06 - Highbury & Islington station)
King's Cross St. Pancras       10 January 1863[109] 1 December 1968

Northern (Bank branch), Piccadilly, Circle, Metropolitan, and Hammersmith and City lines; mainline trains

51°31′49″N 000°07′27″W / 51.53028°N 0.12417°W / 51.53028; -0.12417 (07 - King's Cross St. Pancras tube station)
Euston       12 May 1907[110]

Northern line (CPI with Bank branch),[28] London Overground, mainline trains

51°31′42″N 000°07′59″W / 51.52833°N 0.13306°W / 51.52833; -0.13306 (08 - Euston tube station)
Warren Street   22 June 1907[110]

Northern line (Charing Cross branch)

51°31′29″N 000°08′18″W / 51.52472°N 0.13833°W / 51.52472; -0.13833 (09 - Warren Street tube station)
Oxford Circus   30 July 1900[111] 7 March 1969

Bakerloo (CPI)[28] and Central lines

51°30′55″N 000°08′30″W / 51.51528°N 0.14167°W / 51.51528; -0.14167 (10 - Oxford Circus tube station)
Green Park     15 December 1906[112]

Piccadilly and Jubilee lines

51°30′24″N 000°08′34″W / 51.50667°N 0.14278°W / 51.50667; -0.14278 (11 - Green Park tube station)
Victoria   (  Trains to Gatwick)     1 October 1860[113]

Circle and District lines, mainline trains

51°29′48″N 000°08′41″W / 51.49667°N 0.14472°W / 51.49667; -0.14472 (12 - London Victoria station)
Pimlico   14 September 1972[114] N/A 51°29′22″N 000°08′00″W / 51.48944°N 0.13333°W / 51.48944; -0.13333 (13 - Pimlico tube station)
Vauxhall       11 July 1848[113] 23 July 1971

Mainline trains, London River Services (St George Wharf Pier)[115]

51°29′07″N 000°07′22″W / 51.48528°N 0.12278°W / 51.48528; -0.12278 (14 - Vauxhall station)
Stockwell   4 November 1890[116]

Northern line (CPI)[33]

51°28′21″N 000°07′20″W / 51.47250°N 0.12222°W / 51.47250; -0.12222 (15 - Stockwell tube station)
Brixton       23 July 1971[117]

Mainline trains (within 100 metres' walking distance)

51°27′45″N 000°06′54″W / 51.46250°N 0.11500°W / 51.46250; -0.11500 (16 - Brixton tube station)
SS Seven Sisters is the only station with more than 2 platforms.[118] The third is a holding platform for trains that terminate their journeys from Brixton at Seven Sisters instead of at Walthamstow. The third platform allows access to the Northumberland Park depot.[119]
TH Opened as Tottenham, renamed on 1 December 1968.[104]
FP Opened as Seven Sisters Road (Holloway), renamed 15 November 1869.[106]

See alsoEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The exception is a branch line not used by passengers from Seven Sisters to the line's depot at Northumberland Park, position: 51°36′04″N 000°03′11″W / 51.60111°N 0.05306°W / 51.60111; -0.05306 (1 - Northumberland Park Depot)
  2. ^ The Kentish Town-to-Barking service, serving Blackhorse Road, was proposed for closure under the Beeching cuts.[24]
  3. ^ Although the system was tested on the Tube on a smaller scale before that, initially on a short section of the District line; then a larger trial was carried out on the Central line between Woodford and Hainault.[67][68][69]

ReferencesEdit

Citations

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  2. ^ Day & Reed 2010, p. 143.
  3. ^ Horne 1988, pp. 14–15.
  4. ^ Wolmar 2012, p. 301.
  5. ^ HMSO 1959, p. 10.
  6. ^ Day & Reed 2010, p. 148.
  7. ^ Wolmar 2012, pp. 300–301.
  8. ^ Cooke, B.W.C., ed. (April 1955). "Proposed New London Underground". The Railway Magazine. Vol. 101 no. 648. London. pp. 279–281.
  9. ^ a b c d Day & Reed 2010, p. 153.
  10. ^ "Public Passenger Transport, London". Hansard. 18 December 1963.
  11. ^ Horne 1988, p. 15.
  12. ^ Butt 1995, p. 240.
  13. ^ HMSO 1959, p. 13.
  14. ^ Klapper 1976, p. 123.
  15. ^ Day & Reed 2010, p. 156.
  16. ^ a b Day & Reed 2010, pp. 160–161.
  17. ^ a b Martin 2012, p. 235.
  18. ^ HMSO 1959, p. 36.
  19. ^ Day & Reed 2010, p. 160.
  20. ^ Day & Reed 2010, p. 161.
  21. ^ a b c Day & Reed 2010, p. 163.
  22. ^ HMSO 1959, p. 37.
  23. ^ a b c Day & Reed 2010, p. 167.
  24. ^ "Gospel Oak to Barking Renaissance". Rail Engineer. 13 September 2016. Retrieved 12 September 2018.
  25. ^ a b c d Day & Reed 2010, p. 166.
  26. ^ "London's new tube starts work". Modern Railways. Vol. XXIV no. 241. Shepperton, Middlesex: Ian Allan Ltd. October 1968. p. 532.
  27. ^ a b "Busy start for Victoria Line". The Times. London. 2 September 1968. p. 3. Retrieved 12 September 2018.
  28. ^ a b c d Day & Reed 2010, p. 168.
  29. ^ "Victoria Line". The Times. London. 7 March 1969. p. X. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  30. ^ "150 Facts for 150 Years of the Tube". The Independent. 9 January 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  31. ^ "Seeing Red Over A Green". The Times. London. 24 May 1967. p. 2. Retrieved 12 September 2018.
  32. ^ "Picture Gallery". The Times. London. 13 July 1968. p. 3. Retrieved 12 September 2018.
  33. ^ a b c d Day & Reed 2010, p. 171.
  34. ^ "Picture Gallery". The Times. London. 24 July 1971. p. 2. Retrieved 14 April 2018.
  35. ^ Day & Reed 2010, p. 172.
  36. ^ Warman, Christopher (23 March 1973). "GLC Conservatives hope to put north Kent towns on Tube". The Times. London. p. 6. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  37. ^ a b Butt 1995, p. 36.
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  42. ^ Edgar, James (24 January 2014). "Underground blunder: 'sugar used to slow concrete setting'". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  43. ^ Gray, Richard (24 January 2014). "Why sugar helped remove Victoria Line concrete flood". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
  44. ^ "The Night Tube". The Future of the Tube. Transport for London. Archived from the original on 11 July 2015. Retrieved 11 July 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  45. ^ "Night Tube begins in London, bringing 'huge boost' to capital". BBC News. 20 August 2016. Retrieved 24 August 2018.
  46. ^ "The Night Tube". Transport for London. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
  47. ^ Day & Reed 2010, pp. 167–168.
  48. ^ "2009 Tube Stock on Track" (PDF). London Underground Railway Society. Retrieved 12 July 2009.
  49. ^ MacKay, David J.C. (2008). Sustainable Energy - without the hot air (Free full text). ISBN 978-1-906860-01-1.
  50. ^ a b "This Northern Line Cheat Will Save You Minutes On Every Commute". Londonist. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
  51. ^ Day & Reed 2010, p. 169.
  52. ^ Day & Reed 2010, p. 180.
  53. ^ "Tube Update Plan — Victoria". Transport for London. Archived from the original on 26 February 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  54. ^ "Victoria Line Platform Humps and RVAR". Livis. Archived from the original on 11 July 2015. Retrieved 6 December 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  55. ^ "Victoria Line Platform Humps and RVAR" (PDF). Livis. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 July 2015. Retrieved 6 December 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  56. ^ "Creating Step Free Access for All" (PDF). Marshalls. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 July 2015. Retrieved 6 December 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  57. ^ "London Underground's Victoria Line marks 50th birthday". BBC News. 1 September 2018. Retrieved 12 September 2018.
  58. ^ Dan Templeton (26 May 2017). "New Victoria Line timetable increases frequency". International Railway Journal. Retrieved 14 July 2017.
  59. ^ Feather, Clive (20 June 2017). "Victoria Line – Services". Clive's Underground Line Guides. Archived from the original on 25 October 2018. Retrieved 25 October 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  60. ^ Day 1969, p. 81.
  61. ^ Hardy 2002, pp. 10,12.
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  63. ^ "Information on Cooling th Tube – temperature monitoring". Transport for London. 3 October 2017. Retrieved 23 October 2018.
  64. ^ a b Waboso, David (December 2010). "Transforming the tube". Modern Railways. London. pp. 42–45.
  65. ^ a b "Final 1960s stock withdrawn from Victoria Line". Rail. Peterborough. 10 August 2011. p. 14.
  66. ^ "Londonist Ltd – Last 1967 Victoria Line Train". YouTube. 3 July 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
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Sources

External linksEdit

Route map:

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