List of railway electrification systems

This is a list of the power supply systems that are, or have been, used for tramway and railway electrification systems.

Note that the voltages are nominal and vary depending on load and distance from the substation.

Many modern trams and trains use on-board solid-state electronics to convert these supplies to run three-phase AC induction motors.

Tram electrification systems are listed here.

Key to the tables belowEdit

  • Volts: voltage or volt
  • Current:
  • Conductors:
    • overhead line or
    • conductor rail, usually a third rail to one side of the running rails. Conductor rail can be:
      • top contact: oldest, least safe, most affected by ice, snow, rain and leaves. Protection boards are being installed on most top contact systems, which increases safety and reduces these affections.
      • side contact: newer, safer, less affected by ice, snow, rain and leaves
      • bottom contact: newest, safest, least affected by ice, snow, rain and leaves

Systems using standard voltagesEdit

Voltages are defined by two standards: BS EN 50163[1] and IEC 60850.[2]

Overhead systemsEdit

600 V DCEdit

Country Location Name of system Notes
Many tram systems This voltage is mostly used by older tram systems worldwide but by a few modern ones as well. See List of tram systems by gauge and electrification.
  Germany Trossingen Trossingen Railway
  Hungary Budapest Budapest Metro Line M1
  Japan Chōshi, Chiba Chōshi Electric Railway
Kyoto, Kyoto Eizan Electric Railway
Kanagawa Enoshima Electric Railway
Matsuyama, Ehime Iyotetsu Takahama Line
Shizuoka, Shizuoka Shizuoka Railway
  Romania Sibiu county Sibiu-Răşinari Narrow Gauge Railway Part of the former Sibiu tram line
  Spain Madrid Madrid Metro lines 1, 4, 5, 6 and 9. In process to be converted to 1500 V
  United Kingdom Crich, England National Tramway Museum
  United States Boston Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Green and Mattapan Lines, the at-grade section of Blue Line northeast of Airport station
Cleveland RTA Rapid Transit Red line heavy rail

750 V DCEdit

Country Location Name of system Notes
Many tram systems This voltage is used for most modern tram and light rail systems. See List of tram systems by gauge and electrification
  Austria Upper Austria Local lines of Stern & Hafferl Also listed as having 1500  and 600 V lines
Rhine / Lake Constance Internationale Rheinregulierungsbahn Construction railway for the regulation works of the river Rhine near its outfall into Lake Constance, now preserved. The river forms the border between Austria and Switzerland, and the railway operated in both countries.
  Germany Karlsruhe to Bad Herrenalb with a branch to Ittersbach Albtalbahn Railway of the Upper Rhine
  Italy Genoa Genoa Metro
  Japan Hamamatsu, Shizuoka Enshū Railway
Hakone, Kanagawa Hakone Tozan Railway Line Between Hakone-Yumoto and Gōra
Ehime Iyotetsu Yokogawara Line and Gunchū Line
Yokkaichi, Mie Yokkaichi Asunarou Railway Utsube Line, Hachiōji Line
Mie Sangi Railway Hokusei Line
  Mexico Mexico City STC Line A
  Netherlands The Hague, Zoetermeer, Rotterdam and adjacent cities Randstadrail
Rotterdam Rotterdam Metro North of Capelsebrug station overhead wires
  Philippines Metro Manila Manila LRT Line 1 (Manila Light Rail Transit System) Between Baclaran and Roosevelt
Manila MRT Line 3 (Manila Metro Rail Transit System) Between North Avenue and Taft Avenue
  Switzerland Canton of Aargau Menziken–Aarau–Schöftland railway line
  Republic of China (Taiwan) New Taipei New Taipei Metro: all Light Rail lines
  Turkey Adana Adana Metro
Istanbul Istanbul Metro Line M1

1200 V DCEdit

Country Location Name of system Notes
  Cuba HavanaMatanzas and branches Ferrocarriles Nacionales de Cuba Originally (and still known as) the Hershey Electric Railway
  Germany Lusatia 900 mm (2 ft 11+716 in) gauge mining railways in the lignite district
  Spain Barcelona, Catalonia Barcelona Metro Uses an overhead conductor rail/beam system
PalmaSóller, Majorca Sóller Railway [3]
  Switzerland Canton of Bern / canton of Solothurn Aare Seeland mobil (ASm) [4][5]
Dietikon, canton of ZürichWohlen, canton of Aargau Bremgarten-Dietikon-Bahn
ZürichEsslingen, canton of Zürich Forchbahn Forchbahn proper only; Forchbahn trains access their Zürich terminus via the Zürich tram network, which is electrified at 600 V DC. The rolling stock is equipped to run off both voltages.
Frauenfeld, canton of ThurgauWil, canton of St. Gallen Frauenfeld-Wil-Bahn
MeiringenInnertkirchen, canton of Bern Meiringen–Innertkirchen Bahn
ZürichUetliberg, canton of Zürich Sihltal Zürich Uetliberg Bahn Uetliberg line only – uses an offset overhead line and pantograph to allow running on track shared with the AC-electrified Sihltal line[6]
  United States Los AngelesInland Empire, California Pacific Electric Upland–San Bernardino 600 V in city limits

1500 V DCEdit

Country Location Name of system Notes
  Argentina Buenos Aires Buenos Aires Metro Lines A, C, D, E and H
Tren de la Costa Suburban line
  Australia Melbourne Melbourne Suburban Railways
Sydney Sydney Trains
Sydney Metro Except Western Sydney Airport line, which will use 25 kV 50 Hz AC[7]
  Brazil São Paulo São Paulo Metro Lines 4 and 5
  Bulgaria Sofia Sofia Metro Line 3 Gorna Banya – Hadzhi Dimitar
  Canada Montreal Réseau express métropolitain Incl. Deux-Montagnes line that was built by CNoR in 1918 as 2400 V DC, converted to 3000 V DC in the 1980s, converted to 25 kV 60 Hz in 1995 by ARTM, being converted to light-metro standard and 1500 V DC
Ottawa O-Train Confederation Line only; the Trillium Line is diesel LRT.
  China Beijing Beijing Subway Lines 6, 14 and 16
Changchun Changchun Rail Transit Lines 1 and 2
Changsha Changsha Metro
Changzhou Changzhou Metro
Chengdu Chengdu Metro Except lines 17, 18 and 19
Chongqing Chongqing Rail Transit Lines 1, 4, 5, 6, 10 and Loop Line
Dalian Dalian Metro
Dongguan Dongguan Rail Transit
Fushun Fushun Electric Railway
Fuzhou Fuzhou Metro
Guangzhou Guangzhou Metro Except Lines 4, 5, 6, 14 and 21, but overhead wires installed in depots.
Guiyang Guiyang Metro
Hangzhou Hangzhou Metro
Harbin Harbin Metro
Hefei Hefei Metro
Hohhot Hohhot Metro
Jinan Jinan Metro
Lanzhou Lanzhou Metro
Nanchang Nanchang Metro
Nanjing Nanjing Metro
Nanning Nanning Metro
Ningbo Ningbo Rail Transit Line 4 uses third rail for returning current
Shanghai Shanghai Metro Except Lines 16 and 17, but overhead wires installed in the depot for line 16.
Shenyang Shenyang Metro
Shenzhen Shenzhen Metro Except Lines 3 and 6, but overhead wires installed in the depot for line 6.
Shijiazhuang Shijiazhuang Metro
Suzhou Suzhou Metro
Tianjin Tianjin Metro Lines 5, 6 and 9 only
Ürümqi Ürümqi Metro
Wuhan Wuhan Metro Line 6 only
Xi’an Xi'an Metro
Xiamen Xiamen Metro
Xuzhou Xuzhou Metro
Zhengzhou Zhengzhou Metro
  Colombia Medellín Medellín Metro Lines A and B
  Czech Republic TáborBechyně Czech Railway Infrastructure Administration (SŽDC) Tábor – Bechyně line only
  Dominican Republic Santo Domingo Santo Domingo Metro
  Egypt Cairo Cairo Metro Line 1[8][9]
  France Société Nationale des Chemins de fer (SNCF) 25 kV AC used on new high speed lines (TGV) and in the north (see below)
  Hong Kong Hong Kong Mass Transit Railway Except East Rail line and Tuen Ma line which use 25 kV 50 Hz AC (see below) and the light rail which uses 750 V DC
  Hungary Budapest Budapest Cog-wheel Railway Converted from 550 V DC (city trams nominal voltage at that time) during the 1973 reconstruction.
  Indonesia Jakarta KRL Jabodetabek

Jakarta MRT

Yogyakarta-Solo KRL Commuterline Yogyakarta–Solo
  Ireland Dublin Dublin Area Rapid Transit
  Italy Rome Rome Metro Line A, Line B, Line Roma-Ostia Lido
  Japan Japan Railways (JR) lines Most electrified lines in Kantō, Chūbu, Kansai, Chūgoku, and Shikoku (except Shinkansen and Hokuriku region)
Most private railway lines See Railway electrification in Japan for more details including excpetions
Most subway lines
  South Korea Seoul National Capital Area Seoul Subway Except Korail Subway Line (except Line 3)
(see below)
Busan Busan Subway
Daegu Daegu Subway
Daejeon Daejeon Subway
Gwangju Gwangju Subway
Incheon Incheon Subway Line 1
  Mexico Mexico City STC Line 12
Monterrey Sistema de Transporte Colectivo Metrorrey
  Netherlands Nederlandse Spoorwegen – Dutch Railways (NS) 25 kV AC used on high speed lines and freight line Betuweroute (see below); The existing 1500V DC lines will be converted to 3kV DC.
  New Zealand Wellington Wellington suburban Except Wairarapa Line beyond Upper Hutt. Since 2011, the nominal voltage was 1600 V but with the same tolerances as 1500 V (i.e. 1300–1800 V), making it backwards-compatible with 1500 V rolling stock. Since May 2016 the operating voltage was increased to 1700 V DC following the full introduction of the Matangi EMUs.
  Philippines Metro Manila Manila MRT Makati Intra-city Subway (Line 5) and Metro Manila Subway (Line 9) only. Line 7 uses 750 V DC third rail.
Metro Manila
Manila LRT Line 2 only. Line 1 uses 750 V DC.
Metro Manila
Central Luzon
Philippine National Railways North–South Commuter Railway
  Portugal Lisbon, Oeiras and Cascais Linha de Cascais To be converted to 25kV AC.[10]
  Singapore Singapore Mass Rapid Transit North East Line, operated by SBS Transit
  Slovakia Tatra Mountains in the area of Poprad Tatra Electric Railway
  Spain Catalonia Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya
Madrid ADIF Only Cercedilla-Cotos line
Mallorca Serveis Ferroviaris de Mallorca
North coast (Asturias-Leon-Cantabria-Basque Country) FEVE
Basque Country Euskotren Trena
Valencian Community Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat Valenciana
  Sweden Stockholm Roslagsbanan
  Switzerland AigleLeysin, canton of Vaud Chemin de fer Aigle–Leysin (AL)
Aigle, VaudChampéry, canton of Valais Chemin de fer Aigle–Ollon–Monthey–Champéry (AOMC)
AigleLes Diablerets, canton of Vaud Chemin de fer Aigle–Sépey–Diablerets (ASD)
InterlakenLauterbrunnen / Grindelwald, canton of Bern Berner Oberland Bahn (BOB)
Canton of Jura Chemins de fer du Jura (CJ) Metre gauge lines only
LausanneBercher, canton of Vaud Chemin de fer Lausanne–Échallens–Bercher (LEB)
NyonLa Cure, canton of Vaud Chemin de fer Nyon-St-Cergue-Morez (NStCNM) Converted in the 1980s from 2200 V DC
Vitznau / GoldauRigi Rigi Bahnen (VRB/ARB)
WilderswilSchynige Platte, canton of Bern Schynige Platte Bahn (SPB)
LiestalWaldenburg, canton of Basel-Country Waldenburgerbahn (WB)
LauterbrunnenGrindelwald, canton of Bern Wengernalpbahn (WAB)
  Turkey Bursa Bursaray
Istanbul Istanbul Metro Except lines M1, M2 and M6
  United Kingdom Newcastle, Sunderland, Gateshead and Tyneside Tyne & Wear Metro Light rail
  United States Chicago Metra Electric District
Maryland Purple Line Light rail under construction
Northern Indiana & Chicago South Shore Line
Seattle Central Link Light rail

3 kV DCEdit

Country Location Name of system Note
  Belgium Belgium National Railways (SNCB) National standard. 25 kV AC used on high speed lines and some lines in the south (see below).
  Brazil Rio de Janeiro SuperVia Trens Urbanos
  Brazil São Paulo Companhia Paulista de Trens Metropolitanos
  Chile Empresa de los Ferrocarriles del Estado
  Czech Republic Czech Railway Infrastructure Administration (SŽDC) Northern part of network only (approx. the Děčín – Praha – Ostrava route). The system change stations are Kadaň-Prunéřov, Beroun, Benešov u Prahy, Kutná Hora hl.n., Svitavy, Nezamyslice, Nedakonice. The southern part uses 25 kV 50 Hz (see below).
The 3 kV system is to be phased out in favour of 25 kV AC.[11]
  Estonia Tallinn Elron Commuter rail only
  Georgia Georgian Railways In fact 3,300 V
  Italy Rete Ferroviaria Italiana 25 kV AC used on new high speed lines (see below)
  North Korea Korean State Railway National standard
  Latvia Latvian Railways Commuter rail only, to be converted to 25 kV AC, in order to connecting to Russia, Belarus and Lithuania
  Morocco ONCF National standard
  Netherlands ProRail Planned
  Poland Polish State Railways National standard. Broad-gauge lines will use 25 kV AC[12]
Warsaw and suburbs Warszawska Kolej Dojazdowa 600 V DC until 27 May 2016
  Russia Russian Railways New electrification use only 25 kV AC (see below), except Moscow Central Circle and other interconnection lines in Moscow, and 2 interconnection lines (Veymarn line and Kamennogorsk line) in St. Petersburg. Sverdlovsk railway and West Siberian railway to be converted to 25 kV AC.
  Slovakia Slovak Republic Railways (ŽSR) Northern main line (connected to Czech Republic and Poland) and eastern lines (around Košice and Prešov), conversion to 25 kV AC planned,[11] and the broad gauge line between Košice and the Ukraine border (it will remain 3 kV until new broad gauge line construction, then convert to 25 kV AC), planned new broad gauge line is supposed to use 25 kV AC. Currently, the part north and east of the station Púchov uses 3 kV DC, the rest uses 25 kV 50 Hz (see below).
  Slovenia Slovenian Railways National standard
  South Africa Transnet Freight Rail; Metrorail National standard; also 25 kV AC (see below) and 50 kV AC used
  Spain Administrador de Infraestructuras Ferroviarias 25 kV AC used on high speed lines (AVE) (see below)
  Ukraine Ukrainian Railways In east (Donetsk industrial zone), in west (west from L'viv – connecting to Slovakia and Poland), to be converted to 25 kV AC[13] (see below)

15 kV AC, 16+23 Hz / 16.7 HzEdit

Country Location Name of system Notes
  Austria ÖBB National standard. Planned new high speed lines will near the border use 25 kV AC: Innsbruck-Italy and broad gauge to Ukraine
  Germany German National Railways National standard
  Norway Norwegian National Rail Administration
  Sweden Swedish Transport Administration
  Switzerland Canton of Bern BLS
Central Switzerland and Bernese Highlands Zentralbahn
Canton of Vaud Chemin de fer Bière-Apples-Morges (BAM)
Canton of Zürich Sihltal Zürich Uetliberg Bahn Sihltal line only; shares track with the 1200 V DC electrified Uetliberg line that uses an offset overhead line and pantograph to allow such sharing
Swiss Federal Railways

25 kV AC, 50 HzEdit

Country Location Name of system Notes
  Argentina Buenos Aires Roca Line ConstituciónEzeiza
Constitución – Alejandro Korn
Constitución – Bosques
Constitución – La Plata
  Australia Brisbane, North Coast line, Blackwater and Goonyella coal railways Queensland Rail
Perth Transperth
Adelaide Adelaide Metro Seaford and Flinders lines electrified, Gawler line electrification in progress
Sydney Sydney Metro Western Sydney Airport line only[7]
  Belarus National standard
  Belgium Belgium National Railways (NMBS/SNCB) High-speed lines and some other lines. The rest of the network is 3 kV DC (see above)
  Bosnia and Herzegovina
  Botswana Proposed line to Namibia
  Bulgaria Bulgarian State Railways
  China China Railway Corporation National standard
Beijing Beijing Subway Daxing Airport Line only
Chengdu Chengdu Metro Lines 17, 18 and 19 only
Wenzhou Wenzhou Rail Transit
  Croatia Croatian Railways Lines Zagreb-Rijeka and Rijeka-Šapjane formerly used 3kv DC traction
  Czech Republic Czech Railway Infrastructure Administration (SŽDC) Southern lines only (linking Karlovy Vary – Cheb – Plzeň – České Budějovice – Tábor – Jihlava – Brno – Břeclav – Slovakia), northern lines use 3 kV DC (see above)
  Denmark Banedanmark National standard, excluding Copenhagen S-train
  Djibouti Addis Ababa–Djibouti Railway Ethiopian Railway Corporation
  Ethiopia Addis Ababa–Djibouti Railway Ethiopian Railway Corporation
  Finland National standard
  France North and new lines SNCF A number of lines also electrified with 1.5 kV (see above)
  Germany Harz Rübelandbahn
  Greece Hellenic Railways Organisation National standard
  Hong Kong Kowloon, New Territories Mass Transit Railway East Rail and Tuen Ma lines All other lines except the light rail use 1,500 V DC (see above)
  Hungary Hungarian State Railways and Raaberbahn
  India Indian Railways Entire IR network uses the current system since 2016.
Mumbai Mumbai Suburban Railway Conversion from 1.5 kV DC to the current system was completed in 2012 (for Western line[14]) and 2016 (for Central line[15][16][17]) respectively
Mumbai Mumbai Metro (Line 1)
Chennai (Madras) Chennai Metro
Delhi Delhi Metro
  Iran Planned
  Israel Israel Railways Construction contract awarded in December 2015.[18] Initial test runs began December 2017.
  Italy Rete Ferroviaria Italiana (Italian Railways Network) New high-speed lines only, other lines use 3 kV DC (see above)
  Japan Kantō (northeast of Tokyo), Tōhoku, and Hokkaido regions JR East Tohoku Shinkansen, Joetsu Shinkansen, and Hokuriku Shinkansen (sections between TokyoKaruizawa, and between JōetsumyōkōItoigawa)
JR Hokkaido Hokkaido Shinkansen
25 kV AC 60 Hz in some areas (see below).
  Laos Boten–Vientiane railway
  Latvia Latvian Railways Eastern lines only (planned)
  Lithuania Kena — Kaunas and Lentvaris — Trakai Lithuanian Railways (LG) Electrification of Naujoji Vilnia – Kena —

Gudogai (BCh) route for Vilnius – Minsk (Belarus) services is established on 2017. Further Kaunas – Klaipeda and Kaunas – Kybartai corridors electrification will follow projects.

  Luxembourg Chemins de fer luxembourgeois (CFL) National standard
  Malaysia Padang BesarKL SentralGemas KTM ETS (run through West Coast railway line), Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad Under construction: Hat Yai (in Thailand) – Padang Besar (to be opened by 2020) and GemasJohor Bahru (to be opened by 2022)
Bukit MertajamPadang Regas and ButterworthPadang Besar KTM Komuter Northern Sector, Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad
Batu CavesPulau Sebang/Tampin, Tanjung MalimPort Klang and KL SentralTerminal Skypark KTM Komuter Central Sector (Seremban Line, Port Klang Line and Skypark Link), Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad
KL SentralKLIA2 Express Rail Link (KLIA Ekspres and KLIA Transit)
  Montenegro Belgrade–Bar railway and Nikšić–Podgorica railway Railways of Montenegro
  Morocco Kenitra–Tangier high-speed rail line ONCF Casablanca–Kenitra section of high-speed rail remains at 3 kV DC[19]
  Namibia Proposed line to Botswana
  Netherlands HSL-Zuid high speed line and Betuweroute freight line Nederlandse Spoorwegen 1.5 kV DC used on the rest of the network (see above)
  New Zealand Auckland Auckland suburban 77 km between Swanson and Papakura; first service 28 April 2014
Central North Island North Island Main Trunk 411 km between Palmerston North and Hamilton
  North Macedonia Makedonski Železnici
  Poland Hrubieszów Broad Gauge Metallurgy Line (LHS) A section from the border to Hrubieszów will be electrified in conjunction with the electrification of the connecting border – Izov – Kovel line in Ukraine.[20] The reminder sections will follow.
  Portugal Portuguese Railways (CP) Except the Linha de Cascais (1500 V DC)
  Romania Caile Ferate Romane
  Russia Russian Railways National standard used for new electrification; some areas still use 3 kV DC (see above)
  Serbia Serbian Railways
  Slovakia Slovak Republic Railways (ŽSR) South-western lines only (around Bratislava, Kuty, Trencin, Trnava, Nove Zamky, Zvolen) and the rest of the network (except narrow gauge lines), currently 3 kV DC, to follow (see above)
  South Africa Transnet Freight Rail, Gautrain Also 3 kV DC (see above) and 50 kV 50 Hz used.
  Spain ADIF Alta Velocidad High-speed lines only, other lines use 3 kV DC (see above)
  Thailand Bangkok Suvarnabhumi Airport Link
  Tunisia [21]
  Turkey Turkish State Railways (TCDD) National standard
  United Kingdom Network Rail Except Southern region and Merseyrail and Northern Ireland
  Ukraine Ukrainian Railways National standard, in most of the west; also 3 kV DC in the east (see above)
  Zimbabwe GweruHarare National Railways of Zimbabwe (NRZ) De-energised in 2008. May be renewed in the future.[22]

25 kV AC, 60 HzEdit

Country Location Name of system Notes
  Japan Kantō (west of Tokyo), Chūbu, Kansai, Chūgoku, and Kyushu regions Tōkaidō-Sanyō Shinkansen
Hokuriku Shinkansen (sections between KaruizawaJōetsumyōkō, and between ItoigawaKanazawa)
Kyushu Shinkansen
25 kV AC 50 Hz in eastern Japan (see above)
  Saudi Arabia Haramain high-speed railway Saudi Railways Organization Renfe and Adif will operate the trains and manage the line until 2030
  South Korea Korail All Korail freight/passenger lines except Seoul subway Line 3 which is 1.5 kV DC (see above)
Seoul Shinbundang line
Incheon, Seoul A'REX
  Mexico Greater Mexico City Ferrocarril Suburbano de la Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México [23]
State of Mexico Toluca–Mexico City commuter rail Under construction. Expected end of 2022
Yucatán Peninsula Tren Maya Under construction. About 40% of the route to be electrified [24]
  Republic of China (Taiwan) Taiwan Railways Administration National standard
Western Taiwan Taiwan High Speed Rail
  United States New Jersey Morris & Essex Lines, New Jersey Transit Former 3,000 V DC system
Aberdeen-Matawan to Long Branch, New Jersey North Jersey Coast Line, New Jersey Transit Converted in 1978 from Pennsylvania Railroad 11 kV 25 Hz system to the 12.5 kV 25 Hz on the Rahway-Matawan ROW and 12.5 kV 60 Hz electrification extended to Long Branch in 1988. The Matawan-Long Branch voltage converted from 12.5 kV 60 Hz system to the 25 kV 60 Hz in 2002.
New York to Boston Northeast Corridor (NEC), Amtrak Electrified in 2000; see Amtrak's 60 Hz traction power system
Denver Denver RTD Opened in 2016; separate 750 V DC system for light rail
San Francisco Peninsula Caltrain Under construction, expected by 2024; see Electrification of Caltrain
New Mexico Navajo Mine Railroad
Texas Texas Utilities, Monticello & Martin Lake see E25B and Internet reference[25]

Conductor rail systemsEdit

600 V DC conductorEdit

All systems are third rail unless stated otherwise. Used by some older metros.

Country Location Name of system Notes
  Argentina Buenos Aires Urquiza Line Federico Lacroze-General Lemos
  Canada Toronto Toronto subway Only on subway lines
  Greece Athens EIS/ISAP used between 1904 and 1985
  Italy Turin Superga Rack Railway
  Japan Tokyo Tokyo Metro Ginza Line and Marunouchi Line
Nagoya, Aichi Nagoya Municipal Subway Higashiyama Line and Meijō Line
  Sweden Stockholm Stockholm Metro 650 V, Green and Red Lines
  United Kingdom Glasgow Glasgow Subway
  United States Boston Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Red and Orange Lines, the subway part of the Blue Line southwest of Airport station
Chicago Chicago "L" elevated and subway lines
Staten Island Staten Island Railway
New York City metro area PATH
Philadelphia Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority Broad Street Line
Bay Lake, Florida Walt Disney World Monorail System

750 V DC conductorEdit

Conductor rail systems have been separated into tables based on whether they are top, side or bottom contact. Used by most metros outside Asia and the former Eastern bloc.

Bottom contactEdit
Country Location Name of system Notes
  Algeria Algiers Algiers Metro
  Austria Vienna Vienna U-Bahn
  Brazil São Paulo São Paulo Metro Except Lines 4 and 5
  China Beijing Beijing Subway Capital Airport Line only
Kunming Kunming Metro Except Line 4
Tianjin Tianjin Metro Lines 2 and 3 only
Wuhan Wuhan Metro Lines 1, 2, 3 and 4 only
  Czech Republic Prague Prague Metro
  Denmark Copenhagen Copenhagen Metro
  Egypt Cairo Cairo Metro Line 2 and Line 3
  Finland Helsinki Helsinki Metro
  Germany Berlin Berlin U-Bahn Lines from U5 to U9 (large profile). Negative polarity.
Hamburg Hamburg U-Bahn
Munich Munich U-Bahn
Nuremberg Nuremberg U-Bahn
  India Bangalore Namma Metro
Kochi Kochi Metro
  South Korea Busan Busan-Gimhae Light Rail Transit
  Malaysia Klang Valley Klang Valley Integrated Transit System LRT & MRT (Ampang, Sri Petaling, Kelana Jaya and Sungai Buloh–Kajang lines), and KL Monorail to be used on Bandar Utama–Klang and Sungai Buloh–Serdang–Putrajaya lines
  Netherlands Amsterdam Amsterdam Metro including line 51 north of Station Zuid
Rotterdam Rotterdam Metro North of Capelsebrug station overhead wires
  Norway Oslo Oslo T-bane
  Poland Warsaw Warsaw Metro
  Romania Bucharest Bucharest Metro
  Singapore Singapore Mass Rapid Transit North South line, East West line, Circle line and Thomson-East Coast line operated by SMRT Trains

Downtown line operated by SBS Transit

  Republic of China (Taiwan) Kaohsiung Kaohsiung Mass Rapid Transit
Taipei Taipei Metro
TaoyuanTaipei Taoyuan Metro
  Turkey Ankara Ankara Metro
Istanbul Istanbul Metro Lines M2 and M6 only
Izmir Izmir Metro
  United Kingdom London Docklands Light Railway
  United States New York City Metro-North Railroad
Side contactEdit
Country Location Name of system Notes
  Canada Montreal Montreal Metro (guide bars, see DC, four-rail below)
  Chile Santiago Santiago Metro
  France Paris Paris Métro (Rubber tired) Positive (and sometimes negative) polarity on guide bars.
See DC, four-rail below.
Lyon Lyon Métro
Marseille Marseille Métro
Lille Lille Métro
Rennes Rennes Métro
Toulouse Toulouse Métro
  Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong International Airport
Automated People Mover (APM)
Mitsubishi "Crystal Mover" system using two power rails (positive and negative) with side collection.
  Indonesia Palembang Palembang Light Rail Transit Palembang Light Rail Transit and Greater Jakarta Light Rail Transit are operated by Kereta Api Indonesia. Jakarta Light Rail Transit is operated by Jakarta Propertindo (Jakpro).
Jakarta Jakarta Light Rail Transit
Greater Jakarta Light Rail Transit
  Japan Sapporo, Hokkaido Sapporo Municipal Subway Namboku Line
  Singapore Singapore Light Rail Transit Sengkang LRT Line and Punggol LRT Line operated by SBS Transit
Singapore Sentosa Express Sentosa Express operated by SDC
  United States Las Vegas Las Vegas Monorail
Top contactEdit
Country Location Name of system Notes
  China Beijing Beijing Subway Capital Airport Line use bottom contact
Tianjin Tianjin Metro Line 1 only
  France Paris Paris Métro (Conventional metro)
  Germany Berlin Berlin U-Bahn Lines from U1 to U4 (small profile)
  Greece Athens Athens Metro Line 1 was 600 V before 1985.
  Hungary Budapest Budapest Metro Except line M1, which is 600 V DC with overhead lines.
  India Kolkata Kolkata Metro
  Japan Osaka, Osaka Osaka Metro Except the Sakaisuji Line, Nagahori Tsurumi-ryokuchi Line, and the Imazatosuji Line, which are 1,500 V DC with overhead lines.
Suita, Osaka
Toyonaka, Osaka
Kita-Osaka Kyuko Railway
Higashiosaka, Osaka
Ikoma, Nara
Nara, Nara
Kintetsu Keihanna Line
Yokohama, Kanagawa Yokohama Municipal Subway Blue Line (Line 1 and Line 3) only
  North Korea Pyongyang Pyongyang Metro based on fleet of cars from Beijing and Germany
  South Korea Yongin Everline
  Portugal Lisbon Lisbon Metro
  Puerto Rico San Juan Tren Urbano
  Sweden Stockholm Stockholm Metro Nominal voltage 650 V, subway 3 (blue line) 750 V. Subway 1 and 2 will change in the long term to 750 V.
  United Kingdom Liverpool Merseyrail
London Northern City Line access to City (Moorgate)
London Suburban electrification of the LNWR Suburban Network formerly four-rail out of Euston and Broad Street, curtailed, upgraded and standardised
Southern England Southern Region of British Railways and successors 660 V system upgraded and expanded
London, England Waterloo and City line Upgraded by Railtrack to 750V prior to sale to London Underground
  United States Atlanta, Georgia MARTA
Los Angeles, California Los Angeles Metro Rail B and D Lines
Miami, Florida Metrorail
New York City and Long Island
East River Tunnels shared with Amtrak
Long Island Rail Road Central, Greenport, and Oyster Bay branches not electrified; Montauk Branch not electrified east of Babylon; Port Jefferson Branch not electrified east of Huntington
Philadelphia, PA PATCO Speedline
Puerto Rico Tren Urbano
Washington, D.C. Washington Metro
within the Hudson and East River Tunnels as well as under Manhattan
Northeast Corridor
within the Hudson Tunnel into Manhattan New Jersey Transit
Type Country Location Name of system Notes
See note   China Tianjin Tianjin Metro Top contact in Line 1, bottom contact in Lines 2 and 3

1200 V DC conductorEdit

All systems are third rail and side contact unless stated otherwise.

Country Location Name of system Notes
  Germany Hamburg Hamburg S-Bahn 15 kV  16.7 Hz AC with overhead line in part of network.
  United Kingdom Manchester Bury Line Dismantled 1991, converted to Manchester Metrolink tramway (750 V DC overhead)

Systems using non-standard voltagesEdit

Overhead systemsEdit

DC voltageEdit

Voltage Country Location Name of system Notes
120   United Kingdom Seaton, Devon Seaton Tramway Half scale trams. Operated 1969-now. Substations have battery banks for back up.
250   United States Chicago Chicago Tunnel Company operated 1906–1959
525   Switzerland Lauterbrunnen Bergbahn Lauterbrunnen-Mürren
550   Hong Kong Hong Kong Island Hong Kong Tramways
  Isle of Man Isle of Man Manx Electric Railway including Snaefell Mountain Railway
  India Kolkata Trams in Kolkata
  United States Bakersfield, California Bakersfield and Kern Electric Railway operated 1888–1942
Fresno, California Fresno Traction Company operated 1903–1939
Phoenix, Arizona Phoenix Street Railway operated 1888–1948[26]
650   United States Buffalo, New York Buffalo Metro Rail
El Paso, Texas El Paso Streetcar
Pittsburgh Pittsburgh Light Rail
  Switzerland Basel Basel Trams (BVB/BLT)
700   Switzerland BexCol de Bretaye, Vaud Chemin de fer Bex-Villars-Bretaye
800   Poland Tricity Szybka Kolej Miejska (Tricity) Operated 1951–1976. Converted to 3,000 V DC in 1976.
825   United States Portland, Oregon MAX, TriMet Light rail sections west of NE 9th Avenue & Holladay Street utilize a 750 V system
850   Switzerland CapolagoMonte Generoso, Ticino Ferrovia Monte Generoso (MG)
900 Fribourg Gruyere – Fribourg – Morat
Montreux Montreux-Oberland Bernois
1,000   Italy
St Moritz, canton of GraubündenTirano, Lombardy Rhätische Bahn (RhB) Bernina line only; remainder of system electrified at 11 kV AC, 16 2⁄3 Hz. The Bernina line is an international line linking Switzerland (St. Moritz) with Italy (Tirano)
  Hungary Budapest Budapest Commuter Rail and Rapid Transit (BHÉV) [27]
1,100   Argentina Buenos Aires Buenos Aires Metro (Subterráneos de Buenos Aires) Only Line A (converted to 1,500 V DC with La Brugeoise trains replaced by new rolling stock in 2013)
1,250   Switzerland Canton of Bern Regionalverkehr Bern-Solothurn (RBS) All lines except tram line 6 between Bern and Worb, which is electrified at 600 V DC[28]
1,350   Italy
Domodossola, PiedmontLocarno, canton of Ticino Domodossola–Locarno railway line (FART / SSIF [de]) International railway between Italy (Domodossola) and Switzerland (Locarno)
  Switzerland LuganoPonte Tresa, canton of Ticino Ferrovia Lugano–Ponte Tresa (FLP)
1,650   Denmark Copenhagen Copenhagen S-train Suburban rail network in Copenhagen
  Italy Rome Rome–Giardinetti railway Isolated Italian metre gauge line.
2,400   Germany Lausitzer work line of the Lausitzer Braunkohle coal company
  Poland Konin Konin Coal Mine[29]
Turek PAK KWB ADAMÓW[29] mine closed in February 2021, the railway will be dismantled[30]
  France Grenoble Chemin de fer de La Mure −1,200 V, +1,200 V two wire system from 1903 to 1950. 2,400 V since 1950.[31]
  United States Montana Butte, Anaconda and Pacific Railway electrified 1913–1967, dismantled in favor of diesel power
3,500   United Kingdom Manchester Bury – Holcombe Brook operated 1913–1918
6,000   Russia experiments in the late 1970s (3,000 V DC lines)

AC voltageEdit

Voltage Frequency Country Location Name of system Notes
3,300 15 Hz   United States Tulare County, California Visalia Electric Railroad 1904–1992
25 Hz   United States Napa and Solano Counties, California San Francisco, Napa and Calistoga Railway 1905–1937
5,500 16+23 Hz   Germany Murnau Ammergau Railway 1905–1955, after 1955 15 kV, 16.7 Hz
6,250 50 Hz   United Kingdom London, Essex, Herts Great Eastern suburban lines Great Eastern suburban lines from Liverpool Street London, 1950s–c1980 (converted to 25 kV)
  United Kingdom Glasgow Glasgow suburban lines Sections of the North Clyde Line and Cathcart Circle Line from 1960-1970s
6,300 25 Hz   Germany Hamburg Hamburg S-Bahn Operated with AC 1907–1955. Used both AC and DC (1,200 V 3rd rail) 1940–1955.
6,500 25 Hz   Austria Sankt Pölten Mariazellerbahn
6,600   Norway Orkdal Thamshavnbanen
6,600 50 Hz   Germany Cologne Lowland Hambachbahn and Nord-Süd-Bahn transports lignite from open-pit mines to powerplants. Owned by RWE.
6,700 25 Hz   United Kingdom Morecambe branch line Lancaster to Heysham 1908–1951
Converted to 25 kV 50 Hz as a test bed for the future main line electrification system
South London line London Victoria to London Bridge 1909–1928
Converted to 660 V (later 750 V) DC third-rail supply
8 kV 25 Hz   Germany Karlsruhe Alb Valley Railway 1911–1966, today using 750 V DC
10 kV   Netherlands The HagueRotterdam Hofpleinlijn from 1908, in 1926 converted to 1,500 DC, In 2006 replaced by 750 V DC light rail
10 kV 50 Hz   Russia industrial railways at quarries Russian Railways operated from 1950s at coal and ore quarries
  Ukraine Ukrainian Railways
  Kazakhstan some private industrial railways in Kazakhstan
11 kV 16+23 Hz   Switzerland Graubünden Rhätische Bahn (RhB) Except the Bernina line, which is electrified at 1,000 V DC
Matterhorn-Gotthard-Bahn (MGB) formerly Furka Oberalp Bahn (FO) and BVZ Zermatt-Bahn
50 Hz   France Saint-Gervais-les-Bains Mont Blanc Tramway
11 kV 25 Hz   United States Pennsylvania Railroad
All lines now 12 kV 25 Hz or 12.5 kV 60 Hz
See Railroad electrification in the United States
  United States Washington Cascade Tunnel Converted from three-phase 6600 V 25 Hz in 1927, dismantled 1956
  United States Colorado Denver and Intermountain Railroad dismantled c. 1953[32]
12 kV 16+23 Hz   France lines in Pyrenees Chemin de fer du Midi most converted to 1,500 V 1922–23; Villefranche-Perpignan diesel 1971, then 1,500 V 1984
12 kV 25 Hz   United States Washington, DCNew York City Northeast Corridor (NEC), Amtrak 11 kV until 1978
Harrisburg, PA to Philadelphia, PA Keystone Corridor, Amtrak 11 kV until 1978
Philadelphia SEPTA Regional Rail system only; 11 kV until 1978
12 kV 25 Hz   United States Rahway to Aberdeen-Matawan, New Jersey North Jersey Coast Line, New Jersey Transit 1978–2002 (11 kV until 1978). Converted to 25 kV 60 Hz
12.5 kV 60 Hz   United States Pelham, NY-New Haven, CT New Haven Line, Metro-North Railroad, Amtrak 11 kV until 1985
16 kV 50 Hz   Hungary Budapest–Hegyeshalom railway Budapest to Hegyeshalom Kandó system 1931–1972, converted to 25 kV 50 Hz
20 kV   Germany Freiburg Höllentalbahn Operated 1933–1960. Converted to 15 kV 16+23 Hz.
  France Aix-les-BainsLa Roche-sur-Foron Société Nationale des Chemins de fer (SNCF) Operated 1950–1953. Converted to 25 kV 50 Hz.
20 kV 50 Hz   Japan most electrified JR/the third sector lines in Hokkaidō and Tōhoku JR East, JR Hokkaidō, and others
60 Hz most electrified JR/the third sector lines in Kyūshū and Hokuriku region JR Kyūshū and others
50 kV 50 Hz   South Africa Northern Cape, Western Cape Sishen–Saldanha railway line opened in 1976 and hauls iron ore
60 Hz   Canada British Columbia Tumbler Ridge Subdivision of BC Rail (Now Canadian National Railway) Opened in 1983 to serve a coal mine in the northern Rocky Mountains. No longer in use.
  United States Arizona Black Mesa and Lake Powell Railroad First line to use 50 kV electrification when it opened in 1973. This was an isolated coal-hauling short line; no longer in use.
60 Hz   United States Utah Deseret Power Railroad Formerly Deseret Western Railway. This is an isolated coal-hauling short line.

Three-phase AC voltageEdit

Two wiresEdit
Voltage Current Country Location Name of system Notes
725 50 Hz,   Switzerland ZermattGornergrat, canton of Valais Gornergratbahn
750 40 Hz, 3Ø BurgdorfThun Burgdorf-Thun Bahn Operated 1899–1933
converted to 15 kV 16+23 Hz in 1933
800 60 Hz, 3Ø   Brazil Rio de Janeiro Corcovado Rack Railway
1125 50 Hz, 3Ø   Switzerland Interlaken Jungfraubahn
3600 15 Hz, 3Ø   Italy Northern Italy Valtellina Electrification 1902–1917
50 Hz, 3Ø   France Saint-Jean-de-Luz to Larrun Chemin de Fer de la Rhune
3600 16 Hz, 3Ø   Italy
Simplon Tunnel 1906–1930
3600 16+23 Hz, 3Ø   Italy operated 1912–1976 in Upper Italy (more info needed)
Porrettana railway FS 1927–1935
3600 16+23 Hz, 3Ø   Italy Trento/Trient to Brenner Brenner Railway 1929–1965
5200 25 Hz, 3Ø   Spain AlmeriaGergal 1911–1966?
6600 25 Hz, 3Ø   United States Cascade Tunnel Great Northern Railway (U.S.) 1909–1929
10 kV 45 Hz, 3Ø   Italy RomaSulmona FS 1929–1944[33]
Three wiresEdit
Voltage Current Country Location Name of system Notes
3000 V 50 Hz   Germany Kierberg Zahnradbahn Tagebau Gruhlwerk rack railway (0.7 km)
operated 1927–1949
10000 V Berlin-Lichterfelde (de) test track (1.8 km);
variable voltage and frequency;
trial runs 1898–1901
14 kV
(See notes)
38 Hz – 48 Hz
(See notes)
ZossenMarienfelde test track (23.4 km);
trial runs 1901–1904

variable voltage between 10 kV and 14 kV and frequency between 38 Hz and 48 Hz.

50 Hz   Russia Ship elevator of Krasnoyarsk Reservoir length: 1.5 km, 9000 mm gauge

Conductor rail systems (DC voltage)Edit

Conductor rail systems have been separated into tables based on whether they are top, side or bottom contact.

Top contact systemsEdit

Voltage Type Country Location Name of system Notes
50 See notes   United Kingdom Brighton Volk's Electric Railway Volk's Railway prior to 1884
(current fed through running rails)
110 third rail Claims to be the world's oldest operational electric railway
160 Volk's Railway between 1884 and 1980s
100 fourth rail Beaulieu Beaulieu Monorail (National Motor MuseumBeaulieu Palace House) current fed by 2 contact wires
180 See notes   Germany Berlin-Lichterfelde Siemens streetcar Current fed through the running rails
Operated 1881–1891
200 third rail   United Kingdom Southend Southend Pier Railway Until 1902[34]
250 Hythe, Hampshire Hythe Pier Railway
  United States Chicago, Illinois Chicago Tunnel Company Morgan Rack

1904, revenue service 1906–1908

300   Georgia New Athos Cave Railway
400   Germany Berchtesgaden Berchtesgaden Salt Mine Railway
440   United Kingdom London Post Office Railway Disused by post office since 2003[35] Now small section near Mount Pleasant operated as tourist attraction with battery powered stock[36]

150 V was used in station areas to limit train speed

550   Argentina Buenos Aires Buenos Aires Metro (Subterráneos de Buenos Aires) Only Line B
625   United States New York City New York City Subway
630 Philadelphia SEPTANorristown High Speed Line
fourth rail   United Kingdom London London Underground Supplied at +420 V and −210 V (630 V total).
650 See notes Euston to Watford DC Line Third rail with fourth rail bonded to running rail

To enable London Underground trains to operate between Queens Park and Harrow & Wealdstone. Similar bonding arrangements are used on the North London Line between Richmond and Gunnersbury and one the District Line between Putney Bridge and Wimbledon.

660 third rail Southern Railway & London & South Western Railway some areas up to 1939, original standard, mostly upgraded to 750 V (except for sections that operate with LUL stock).
700   United States Baltimore, Maryland Baltimore Metro SubwayLink
800   Germany Berlin Berlin S-Bahn discontinued, today 750 V
825   North Korea Pyongyang Pyongyang Metro uses old 750 V Berlin U-Bahn rolling stock
1000   United States San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit [37]
1500   France Chambéry – Modane Culoz–Modane railway used between 1925 and 1976, today overhead wire

Side contact systemsEdit

All third rail unless otherwise stated.

Voltage Country Location Name of system Notes
700   China Shanghai Shanghai MetroPujiang line Central guide rail for rubber-tyred Bombardier Innovia APM 300
850   France Martigny Ligne de Saint Gervais - Vallorcine
1200   United Kingdom Manchester Bury Line Dismantled 1991, converted to Manchester Metrolink tramway (750 V DC overhead)
  Germany Hamburg Hamburg S-Bahn Since 1940. Used both third rail DC (1200 V) and overhead line AC (6.3 kV 25 Hz) until 1955. Also uses German standard 15 kV AC 16 2/3 Hz overhead electrification on the section between Neugraben and Stade on line S3, opened in December 2007.

Bottom contact systemsEdit

All third rail unless otherwise stated.

Voltage Country Location Name of system Notes
650   Canada Vancouver SkyTrain Expo Line (1985) and Millennium Line (2006). Linear induction.
700   United States New York Metro-North Railroad Hudson and Harlem Lines, southern part of New Haven Line. Original New York Central Railroad electrification scheme to Grand Central Terminal.
Philadelphia SEPTAMarket-Frankford Line Originally 600 V, raised to 700 V
825   Bulgaria Sofia Sofia Metro Lines 1 and 2
  Russia Moscow Moscow Metro Nominal voltage: 825 V; allowed range: 550 V – 975 V[38]
Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg Metro
Kazan Kazan Metro
Nizhny Novgorod Nizhny Novgorod Metro
Novosibirsk Novosibirsk Metro
Samara Samara Metro
Yekaterinburg Yekaterinburg Metro
  Ukraine Kyiv Kyiv Metro FSU underground systems share the same standard[39]
Dnipro Dnipro Metro
Kharkiv Kharkiv Metro
830   Argentina Buenos Aires Mitre Line Retiro – José León Suárez
Retiro – Bartolomé Mitre
Retiro – Tigre
OnceMoreno Sarmiento Line
850   France Villefranche Ligne de Cerdagne Often referred to as the "Yellow Train"
  Austria Vienna Wiener Lokalbahn
900   Belgium Brussels Brussels Metro
1500   China Beijing Beijing Subway Line 7 only
Guangzhou Guangzhou Metro Lines 4, 5, 6, 14 and 21 only. Overhead wires in depots; all trains are equipped with pantographs
Kunming Kunming Metro Line 4 only
Qingdao Qingdao Metro
Shanghai Shanghai Metro Lines 16 and 17 only. Overhead wires in depot of Line 16, all trains on Line 16 have pantographs for depot use.
Shenzhen Shenzhen Metro Lines 3 and 6 only. Overhead wires in depot of Line 6, all trains on Line 6 have pantographs for depot use.
Wuhan Wuhan Metro Lines 7, 8, 11 and Yangluo Line only
Wuxi Wuxi Metro

Conductor rail systems (AC voltage)Edit

Voltage Current Contact Country Location Name of system Notes
500 50 Hz, 1Ø bottom   Australia Gold Coast, Queensland Sea World Monorail Operated 1986–2021
Oasis Shopping Centre Operated 1989–2017
Sydney, New South Wales Sydney Monorail Operated 1988–2013
600 50 Hz, 3Ø side   China Guangzhou Guangzhou MetroAPM Line
  Singapore LRTBukit Panjang line [40]
  Japan Saitama New Shuttle
Tokyo Nippori-Toneri Liner
60 Hz, 3Ø Kobe, Hyōgo Kobe New Transit
Osaka Osaka MetroNankō Port Town Line
Kansai International AirportWing Shuttle
  Taiwan Taoyuan Taoyuan International AirportSkytrain

Special or unusual typesEdit

DC, plough collection from conductors in conduit below trackEdit

DC, one ground-level conductorEdit

DC, two-wireEdit

DC, power from running railsEdit

DC, four-railEdit

Voltage Type Contact system Name of system Location Country Notes
750 guide bars lateral to both guide bars (one guide connected to running rail) Paris Metro Paris France rubber-tyred lines only
Lateral (positive) and top of running rails (negative) contact Montreal Metro Montreal Canada rubber-tyred lines
Mexico City Metro Mexico City Mexico rubber-tyred lines
Third and fourth rail lateral (positive) and top (negative) contact Milan Transportation System Milan Italy metro (only line 1)
Top contact London Underground London United Kingdom Transport for London[41]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ BS EN 50163 (2007).
  2. ^ IEC 60850 (2007).
  3. ^ Sóller Website
  4. ^ Schweers+Wall (2012), p. 11.
  5. ^ Schweers+Wall (2012), p. 19.
  6. ^ "Bahn S4/S10" [Railway S4/S10] (in German). SZU. Retrieved 2011-09-01.
  7. ^ a b "Chapter 7: Project description – operation" (PDF). Sydney Metro – Western Sydney Airport. Retrieved 2021-10-25.
  8. ^ Barrow, Keith (14 March 2014). "Cairo to order new trains for metro Line 1". International Railway Journal. Simmons-Boardman Publishing Inc. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  9. ^ "Cairo Metro Tender for New Rolling Stock". MENA RAIL POST. MENA RAIL POST. 16 March 2014. Archived from the original on 23 January 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2015.
  10. ^ 2020-07-23T08:00:00. "AC conversion planned in Cascais line upgrade". Railway Gazette International. Retrieved 2021-07-27.
  11. ^ a b Vosman, Quintus (4 January 2017). "Czechs to switch to 25kV ac electrification". International Railway Journal.
  12. ^ Michał Szymajda (17 January 2020). "Szybka linia kolejowa "Y" przez CPK ma być gotowa do 2030 roku" [High-speed 'Y' railway line through CPK should be completed by 2030]. Rynek Lotniczy (in Polish). Retrieved 5 February 2020.
  13. ^ Railway Gazette International April 2008, p 240
  14. ^ "Western Railway sets stage for AC system". Times of India. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  15. ^ "From May 5, faster Central Railway with AC power". Times of India. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  16. ^ "Soon, faster trains on Kalyan-LTT route". Times of India. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  17. ^ "Central Railway plans DC/AC switch in May". Times of India. Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  18. ^ "Israel Railways awards USD 500m electrification contract to Spanish SEMI". Think Railways. Retrieved 17 January 2016.
  19. ^ "Africa's first high speed line inaugurated". Railway Gazette International. 16 November 2018. Retrieved 14 December 2018.
  20. ^ "Electrification to increase Ukraine – Poland iron ore export capacity". Railway Gazette International. 8 May 2021. In conjunction with the UZ scheme, Poland has agreed to electrify its 3 km section of the route from the border to Hrubieszów.
  21. ^ New 25kv electrification in Tunisia Railways Africa
  22. ^ Kazunga, Oliver (1 March 2018). "Electrification of NRZ rail network set for 2nd phase". The Chronicle.
  23. ^ "Espacio del Viajero: Conoce los Trenes" (in Spanish). Mexico City: Ferrocarriles Suburbanos. Retrieved 24 May 2011. Alimentación (Vcc. catenaria): 25000, 60 Hz
  24. ^ "Proyecto Tren Maya: Electrificación" (in Spanish). Mexico: Fonatur. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
  25. ^ "TXU – Monticello Line". 1999-11-02. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
  26. ^ McGraw Electric Railway List August, 1918. Trade Investigation and Directory Department of the Electric Railway Journal. 1918.
  27. ^ "Railway Technical Info – Hungary". Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  28. ^ Schweers+Wall (2012), p. 66.
  29. ^ a b
  30. ^ "Na odkrywce Adamów wydobyto ostatnią tonę węgla. Kopalnia zakończyła definitywnie działalność" [Last tonne of coal from Adamów pit. Mine definitely closed.]. (in Polish). 19 February 2021.
  31. ^ "ERS – Presentation, La Mure". Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  32. ^ "National Register of Historic Places Registration Form" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved 22 September 2020.
  33. ^ Cacozza, Marco (August 2016). "Three-Phase Electrification: An Italian Story". Today's Railways Europe #248. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  34. ^ "Southend Pier Railway".
  35. ^ Karslake, Colin. "Unofficial MailRail Website – Home". Retrieved 10 April 2018.
  36. ^ "Mail Rail".
  37. ^ "BART System Facts". San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District. Retrieved 2014-02-05.
  38. ^ "Rules of technical operation of undergrounds of the Russian Federation (Правила технической эксплуатации метрополитенов Российской Федерации)" (PDF) (in Russian). International Metro Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-10-10. Retrieved 2017-11-30.
  39. ^ "Structures, devices and rolling stock of underground (Сооружения, устройства и подвижной состав метрополитена)" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2017-09-19. Retrieved 2017-11-30.
  40. ^ Japan Railway & Transport 18 (PDF). p. 28. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  41. ^ "Tube | Transport for London". Transport for London. Retrieved 2013-04-22.


External linksEdit