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E (New York City Subway service)

The E Eighth Avenue Local[2] is a rapid transit service in the B Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is blue since it uses the IND Eighth Avenue Line in Manhattan.[3]

"E" train symbol
Eighth Avenue Local
R160A E Train entering World Trade Center.jpg
An E train of R160As arriving at World Trade Center
Map of the "E" train
Note: Dashed line shows late night only service
Dashed pink line shows limited rush hour service to 179th Street
Northern endJamaica Center–Parsons/Archer
Jamaica–179th Street (limited rush hour service)
Southern endWorld Trade Center
Stations20 (daytime weekday service)
22 (daytime weekend service)
32 (late night service)
19 (limited service)
Rolling stock260 R160A/Bs (26 trains)[1]
DepotJamaica Yard
Started serviceAugust 19, 1933; 86 years ago (1933-08-19)
Route map

Down arrow  F   <F> ​ ( E  rush hours)
Jamaica–179th Street
Parsons Boulevard
Down arrow  E 
 J  Z 
Jamaica Center–Parsons/Archer
Sutphin Boulevard–Archer Avenue–JFK
MTA NYC logo.svg AirTrain JFK notext logo.svg
Jamaica–Van Wyck
Briarwood
Kew Gardens–Union Turnpike
75th Avenue
switches to local during
evenings and weekends
Down arrow  M  R 
Forest Hills–71st Avenue
67th Avenue
63rd Drive–Rego Park
Woodhaven Boulevard
Grand Avenue–Newtown
Elmhurst Avenue
Jackson Heights–Roosevelt Avenue
65th Street
Northern Boulevard
46th Street
Steinway Street
36th Street
Queens Plaza
switches to local
during late nights
no regular service via Crosstown
Court Square–23rd Street
Lexington Avenue–53rd Street
Fifth Avenue–53rd Street
7th Avenue–53rd Street
"A" train"B" train"C" train"D" train Uptown & the Bronx via 8th Avenue
50th Street
(Handicapped/disabled access southbound)
42nd Street–Port Authority Bus Terminal Port Authority Bus Terminal
34th Street–Penn Station MTA NYC logo.svg NJ Transit Amtrak
23rd Street
14th Street
West 4th Street–Washington Square
Spring Street
Canal Street
World Trade Center Port Authority Trans-Hudson | Chambers Street
Up arrow  E 
Legend

Lines used by the "E" train
Other services sharing tracks with the "E" train
Unused lines, connections, or service patterns
 E 
Termini of services

Cross-platform interchange

Platforms on different levels

The E operates at all times between Jamaica Center–Parsons/Archer in Jamaica, Queens, and World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan; limited rush hour service originates and terminates at 179th Street[a] instead of Jamaica Center. Daytime service operates express in Queens[b] and local in Manhattan; late night service makes local stops along its entire route.

In its early years, the E train ran along the Rutgers Street Tunnel and IND Culver Line to Brooklyn, though this service pattern stopped by the 1940s. Until 1976, it ran to Brooklyn and Queens via the IND Fulton Street Line and IND Rockaway Line. The E's northern terminal was switched from 179th Street to Jamaica Center with the opening of the IND Archer Avenue Line in 1988. The E is one of the most heavily used services in the subway system, and operates over the operating guidelines during rush hours.

HistoryEdit

ExtensionsEdit

With the opening of the IND Queens Boulevard Line from 50th Street to Roosevelt Avenue on August 19, 1933, E service began, running between Roosevelt Avenue and Hudson Terminal (current World Trade Center station) on the IND Eighth Avenue Line. Because the IND Crosstown Line did not yet fully open, and as the IND Queens Boulevard Line had not yet opened to Jamaica, service ran via the Queens Boulevard Line's local tracks. The E also ran local in Manhattan.[4][5][6] Initially, service ran every four minutes during rush hours and every 12 minutes overnights, with service provided by 3-car trains during rush hours and 2-car trains at other times.[7]

On January 1, 1936, the IND Sixth Avenue Line opened from West Fourth Street to East Broadway and the E was extended there. E trains no longer served stations on the Eighth Avenue Line south of West Fourth Street.[4][8] On April 8 of the same year, the Sixth Avenue Line was extended through the Rutgers Street Tunnel to Jay Street–Borough Hall, and E trains were extended via this line and the IND Culver Line to Church Avenue, replacing the A train.[4][9] E service was again extended with the opening of the Queens Boulevard Line extension to Kew Gardens–Union Turnpike on December 31, 1936.[10][11]

Express service along Queens Boulevard began on April 24, 1937, coinciding with the extension of the line and E service to 169th Street.[12][13] Express service was inaugurated during rush hours, with E trains making express stops from 71st–Continental Avenues to Queens Plaza. The express service operated between approximately 6:30 and 10:30 a.m. and from 3:00 p.m. to 7:00 p.m.[14] Express service was also provided on Saturdays between 6:30 a.m. and 4:00 p.m.. During rush hours, GG trains were extended to Continental Avenue from Queens Plaza, taking over the local. During non-rush hours local service was provided by EE trains which operated between 169th Street and Church Avenue in Brooklyn.[15][16] The initial headway for express service was between three and five minutes.[17]

On September 12, 1938, nine weekday rush hour trains began terminating at Jay Street in the morning, and four entered service at Smith–Ninth Streets in the evening.[4][7] The 23rd Street–Ely Avenue station opened as an in-fill station on August 28, 1939, and was served by E service during rush hours, and by EE service during other times.[18] Between April 1939 and October 1940, select PM E trains ran to-and-from the Horace Harding Boulevard terminal at the 1939 New York World's Fair, terminating at Hudson Terminal in Manhattan. These trains ran between 8:24 p.m. and 1:30 a.m., when the fair closed for the night. Service ended following the fair.[19][20]

 
Sixth Avenue Subway Will Be Opened to the Public at 12-01 A.M. Sunday, Dec 15, 1940

On December 15, 1940, service on the entire Sixth Avenue Line began. The E was cut back to Broadway–Lafayette Street. South of that station, it was replaced by the F train.[21] On October 24, 1949, the E was extended during rush hours to Broadway–East New York running via Fulton Street Local to allow A trains to run express.[22]

On December 11, 1950, the Queens Boulevard Line's extension to 179th Street opened, and E trains were extended from 169th Street to terminate there. E trains ran express between Queens Plaza and 71st Avenue and local from 71st Avenue to 179th Street.[4][23][24][25]

In 1953, the platforms were lengthened at 75th Avenue and Sutphin Boulevard to 660 feet (200 m) to allow E and F trains to run eleven car trains. The E and F began running eleven-car trains during rush hours on September 8, 1953. The extra train car increased the total carrying capacity by 4,000 passengers. The lengthening project cost $400,000.[26] The operation of eleven-car trains ended in 1958 because of operational difficulties. The signal blocks, especially in Manhattan, were too short to accommodate the longer trains, and the motormen had a very small margin of error to properly platform the train. It was found that operating ten-car trains allowed for two additional trains per hour to be scheduled.[27]

Then, on October 30, 1954, E trains began running to Hudson Terminal during non-rush hours, and began running express in Manhattan during rush hours.[28]

 
Subway Goes To Rockaway

Changes in Brooklyn serviceEdit

On June 28, 1956, the LIRR Rockaway Beach Branch re-opened as the IND Rockaway Line after being converted for subway service[29] and E service was extended from East New York to Rockaway Park or Wavecrest during weekday rush hours. During non-rush hours, service was provided by shuttle service between Euclid and Rockaway Park or Wavecrest.[4]

On September 16, 1956, rush hour E service was cut back to Euclid Avenue when Rockaway service was replaced by the A train. The A and E later switched southern terminals again, and on September 6, 1958, the E began running to the Rockaways during rush hours. During off-peak hours on weekdays, separate shuttles operated to Far Rockaway and Rockaway Park. During weekends and late nights round-robin service operated.[30]:216

On September 8, 1959, the E began running express to Euclid Avenue, while the A became local;[4] however, in 1960, the E train became an express in Brooklyn and was extended to the Rockaways, with some put-ins beginning at Euclid Avenue and later Lefferts Boulevard during rush hours.[4] Some E trains were extended to Lefferts Boulevard on June 6 of that year due to complaints.[4][31] In 1963–1964, the E was extended to the Rockaways during rush hours, with some put-ins beginning at Euclid Avenue and later Lefferts Boulevard.[4]

 
1967–1979 bullet
 
E Train Riders 42nd Street Stations

On March 23, 1970, southbound E trains, during rush hours, began stopping at the lower level of the 42nd Street station.[citation needed]

On January 2, 1973, the E train became the local in Brooklyn again, running to Rockaway Park–Beach 116th Street only.[4][32][33] Finally, on August 27, 1976, E service in Brooklyn was eliminated with all trains terminating at World Trade Center (the local platform). Brooklyn service was replaced by the CC local.[4][34][35]

Until 1986, 2 E trains and 2 F trains started at Continental Avenue in the morning rush hour with the intention to relieve congestion. These trains were eliminated because they resulted in a loading imbalance as these lightly-loaded trains would be followed by extremely crowded trains from 179th Street, which followed an 8-minute gap of E and F service from 179th Street.[36]:51

Archer and 63rd Street changesEdit

On December 11, 1988, the Archer Avenue Lines opened, and E trains were rerouted via this branch, running to Jamaica Center via the Queens Boulevard Line's express tracks. E trains began running express east of Continental Avenue, skipping 75th Avenue and Van Wyck Boulevard at all times,[37][38] with local service to 179th Street replaced by the R, which was extended to 179th Street from Continental Avenue. The R extension allowed F trains to continue running express to 179th Street.[39][40] It was decided to serve Archer with the E as opposed to the F to minimize disruption to passengers who continued to use Hillside Avenue, to maximize Jamaica Avenue ridership and the length of the peak ridership period, which is longer on the F. It was found that most riders using buses diverted to Archer used the E, while passengers on buses to 179th used the F. Having E trains run local between Continental Avenue and Van Wyck Boulevard along was dismissed in order to provide 24 hour express service to the Archer Avenue Line.[41]:55

Two service plans were identified prior to a public hearing on February 25, 1988 concerning the service plan for the new extension. The first would have split rush-hour E service between the two branches, with late night service to 179th Street provided by the R, while the second would have had all E trains run via Archer Avenue and would have extended R locals to 179th Street.[42][41]:9-10 A modified version of the second plan was decided upon. The change in the plan was the operation of some E trains from 179th Street as expresses during the morning rush hour to provide an appropriate level of E service to Archer during the morning rush, to maintain the same level of service to 179th Street while providing express service, and to provide greater choice for riders at the Parsons Boulevard and 179th Street stations on Hillside Avenue. It was decided not to divert some E trains to 179th Street during the afternoon rush hour so that Queens-bound riders would not be confused about where their E train was headed.[41]:9-10

The 1988 changes angered some riders because they resulted in the loss of direct Queens Boulevard Express service at local stations east of 71st Avenue (169th Street, Sutphin Boulevard, Van Wyck Boulevard and 75th Avenue stations). Local elected officials pressured the MTA to eliminate all-local service at these stations.[43] As part of service cuts on September 30, 1990, the R was cut back to 71st–Continental Avenue outside of rush hours. Local service to 179th Street was replaced by F trains, which provided Queens Boulevard Express service, during middays, evenings, and weekends, and local G service during late nights.[44] In 1992, the MTA considered three options to improve service at these local stops, including leaving service as is, having E trains run local east of 71st Avenue along with R service, and having F trains run local east of 71st Avenue replacing R service, which would be cut back to 71st Avenue at all times. The third option was chosen to be tested for six months starting in October or November 1992.[45] The test started on October 26, 1992 and was implemented on a permanent basis six months later, eliminating express service along Hillside Avenue.[46][47]

On March 23, 1997, the E service began stopping at 75th Avenue and Van Wyck Boulevard during evenings, nights and weekends.[citation needed] On August 30, 1997, E service began running local in Queens during late nights. On the same date, late night G service was permanently cut back from 179th Street to Court Square, replaced by F service running local east of Queens Plaza, doubling late night service frequency at Queens Boulevard local stations.[4][48][49]

During the early part of 2000, because of the replacement of track switches at the World Trade Center station, the E was extended to Euclid Avenue at all times except late nights, when it operated to Canal Street.[4][50] Service on the E was again affected by the September 11 attacks in 2001, as its terminal station, World Trade Center, was located at the northeastern corner of the World Trade Center site, so for a time, the E again operated to Euclid Avenue in Brooklyn as the local on the IND Fulton Street Line at all times except late nights, replacing the temporarily suspended C service. On September 24, 2001, C service was restored, and E service was cut back to Canal Street, since World Trade Center would be closed until January 28, 2002.[51]

On December 16, 2001, the connection from the IND 63rd Street Line to the Queens Boulevard Line opened, and F trains were rerouted via this connector to travel between Manhattan and Queens. E service was increased from 12 trains per hour to 15 trains per hour to make up some of the loss of Queens Boulevard Express service running along 53rd Street. These three additional rush hour E trains ran to 179th Street in the PM rush hour, instead of to Jamaica Center, due to its lack of capacity. F service decreased from 18 trains per hour to 15 trains per hour to accommodate these trains.[citation needed]

EE serviceEdit

 
EE bullet

The EE originally ran as an Eighth Avenue local between 71st–Continental Avenues and Chambers Street during off peak hours when the GG didn't run.[16][52] This service was discontinued when the IND Sixth Avenue Line opened on December 15, 1940. However, the EE reappeared on November 26, 1967 when it ran between 71st–Continental Avenues and Whitehall Street via the local tracks of the BMT Broadway Line, replacing the QT and RR.[34][53] This service was discontinued on August 30, 1976, and replaced by the N.[35][54] The route of the EE to Whitehall Street is currently duplicated by the R service.

RouteEdit

Service patternEdit

The following table shows the lines used by the E service, with shaded boxes indicating the route at the specified times:[55]

Line From To Tracks Times
rush hours week­days evenings, week­ends late nights
IND Archer Avenue Line (full line) Jamaica Center–Parsons/Archer Jamaica–Van Wyck all Most trains      
IND Queens Boulevard Line (full line) Jamaica–179th Street Sutphin Boulevard express Limited service N/A N/A N/A
Briarwood 75th Avenue        
local        
Forest Hills–71st Avenue Queens Plaza express      
local        
Court Square–23rd Street Seventh Avenue all      
IND Eighth Avenue Line 50th Street World Trade Center local

Four E trips originate from 179th Street during the a.m. rush hour,[56] three E trips originate from 179th Street during the p.m. rush hour, and four trips terminate at 179th Street during the p.m. rush hour.[57]

StationsEdit

For a more detailed station listing, see the articles on the lines listed above.[2]

Station service legend
  Stops all times
  Stops all times except late nights
  Stops late nights only
  Stops weekdays only
  Stops rush hours in the peak direction only
  Station closed
  Stops rush hours only (limited service not noted on map)
  Stops evenings, late nights, and weekends
Time period details
  Station is compliant with the Americans with Disabilities Act
  ↑ Station is compliant with the Americans with Disabilities Act
in the indicated direction only
  ↓
  Elevator access to mezzanine only
 
JC
 
179
Stations   Subway transfers Connections/Other Notes
Queens
Hillside Avenue Branch (limited rush hour service only)
N/A   Jamaica–179th Street   F   <F>   Q3 bus to JFK Int'l Airport
  Parsons Boulevard F   <F>  
Archer Avenue Branch
  N/A Jamaica Center–Parsons/Archer   J  Z   Q44 Select Bus Service
  Sutphin Boulevard–Archer Avenue–JFK Airport     J  Z   LIRR City Terminal Zone at Jamaica
AirTrain JFK
Q44 Select Bus Service
  Jamaica–Van Wyck  
Queens Boulevard Line (services from 179th Street and Jamaica Center merge)
  | Briarwood   F   <F>   Q44 Select Bus Service
    Kew Gardens–Union Turnpike   F   <F>   Q10 bus to JFK Int'l Airport
  | 75th Avenue F   <F>  
    Forest Hills–71st Avenue   F   <F>  M  R   LIRR City Terminal Zone at Forest Hills
  | 67th Avenue
  | 63rd Drive–Rego Park Q72 bus to LaGuardia Airport
  | Woodhaven Boulevard Q53 Select Bus Service
  | Grand Avenue–Newtown Q53 Select Bus Service
  | Elmhurst Avenue Q53 Select Bus Service
    Jackson Heights–Roosevelt Avenue   7   (IRT Flushing Line)
F   <F>  M  R  
Q47 bus to LaGuardia Airport Marine Air Terminal
Q53 Select Bus Service
Q70 Select Bus Service to LaGuardia Airport
  | 65th Street
  | Northern Boulevard
  | 46th Street
  | Steinway Street
  | 36th Street
    Queens Plaza   M  R  
    Court Square–23rd Street   M  
G   (IND Crosstown Line)
7   <7>  ​ (IRT Flushing Line)
Manhattan
    Lexington Avenue–53rd Street   4  6   <6>   (IRT Lexington Avenue Line at 51st Street)
M  
    Fifth Avenue/53rd Street M  
    Seventh Avenue B  D  
Eighth Avenue Line
    50th Street   ↓ A  C   (IND Eighth Avenue Line) Station is ADA-accessible in the southbound direction only
    42nd Street–Port Authority Bus Terminal   A  C  
1  2  3   (IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line)
7   <7>  ​ (IRT Flushing Line)
N  Q  R  W   (BMT Broadway Line)
S   (42nd Street Shuttle)
at Times Square–42nd Street
Port Authority Bus Terminal
M34A Select Bus Service
    34th Street–Penn Station   A  C   M34/M34A Select Bus Service
Amtrak, LIRR, NJ Transit at Pennsylvania Station
    23rd Street A  C   M23 Select Bus Service
    14th Street   A  C  
L   (BMT Canarsie Line)
M14A/D Select Bus Service
    West Fourth Street–Washington Square   A  C  
B  D  F   <F>  M   (IND Sixth Avenue Line)
PATH at 9th Street
    Spring Street A  C  
    Canal Street A  C  
    World Trade Center [c]   A  C  
2  3   (IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line at Park Place)
N  R  W   (BMT Broadway Line at Cortlandt Street)
PATH at World Trade Center
Hoboken and Jersey City ferries

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Limited rush hour service to Manhattan originates at 179th Street during a.m. and p.m. rush hours; service from Manhattan terminates at 179th Street during p.m. rush hours only. Signs are located above the express tracks at Kew Gardens–Union Turnpike and Parsons Boulevard, showing that trains skip 169th Street. Part of one of these signs can be seen in this 2004 photo at Parsons Boulevard Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  2. ^ During weekday rush hours and middays, E trains skip 75th Avenue and Briarwood; at all other times, E trains serve these two stops.
  3. ^ Chambers Street–World Trade Center are actually counted as two separate stations by the MTA. The E train terminates at World Trade Center while the A and ​C trains have through service at Chambers Street.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Subdivision 'B' Car Assignments: Cars Required June 24, 2018" (PDF). The Bulletin. Electric Railroaders' Association. 61 (7): 16. July 2018. Retrieved November 8, 2018.
  2. ^ a b "E Subway Timetable, Effective April 28, 2019" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved May 31, 2019.
  3. ^ http://web.mta.info/developers/resources/line_colors.htm
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Bolden, Eric. "NYCT Line by Line History". www.erictb.info. Retrieved June 17, 2016.
  5. ^ "New Subway Links Running Smoothly; Exact Schedules Maintained on First Day's Operation of Queens Tubes". The New York Times. August 20, 1933. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  6. ^ "Two Subway Units Open at Midnight; Links in City-Owned System in Queens and Brooklyn to Have 15 Stations. Trains Tested on Routes Full Staffs Operate Them on Schedule Minus Passengers -- Celebrations Planned". The New York Times. August 18, 1933. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  7. ^ a b Oszustowicz, Eric (March 2006). "A History of the R-1 to R-9 Passenger Car Fleet" (PDF). The Bulletin. Electric Railroaders' Association. 49 (3).
  8. ^ "La Guardia Opens New Subway Link; Warmly Praises Delaney as He Puts $17,300,000 Line on East Side Into Service. Seeks Wider Home Rule Hints at Ceremony That City Will Again Attempt to End Transit Board's Powers. The Mayor Opens a New Line of the City Subway System. La Guardia Opens New Subway Link". The New York Times. January 2, 1936. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  9. ^ "Two Subway Links Start Wednesday; City Will Begin Operating Fulton Street Line and Extension to Jay Street. Mayor to Make Trip Entire System With Exception of Sixth Av. Route to Be Finished Early Next Year". The New York Times. April 6, 1936. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  10. ^ Scramble is Mild at subway opening Few Turn out at 7 AM in Kew Gardens to be first new station
  11. ^ Scramble is Mild at subway opening Few Turn out at 7 AM in Kew Gardens to be first new station
  12. ^ "Subway Link Opens Soon: City Line to Jamaica Will Start About April 24" (PDF). The New York Times. March 17, 1937. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
  13. ^ "Trial Run to Jamaica on Subway Tomorrow: Section From Kew Gardens to 169th Street Will Open to Public in Two Weeks" (PDF). The New York Times. April 9, 1937. Retrieved June 30, 2015.
  14. ^ "Trains Testing Jamaica Link Of City Subway". The Brooklyn Daily Eagle. April 10, 1937. p. 3. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
  15. ^ "Jamaica Will Greet Subway". The New York Sun. April 23, 1937. p. 8. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
  16. ^ a b "New Subway Link to Jamaica Opened; La Guardia, City Officials and Civic Groups Make Trial Run on 10-Car Train". The New York Times. April 25, 1937. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  17. ^ "Transit Link Open Today; 8th Ave. Line Extended to Jamaica—Celebration Arranged". The New York Times. April 24, 1937. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 4, 2016.
  18. ^ * "Subway Station Opens Aug. 28" (PDF). The New York Times. August 5, 1939. Retrieved October 4, 2015.
  19. ^ "How to Get To The Fair Grounds; by Subway". The New York Times. April 30, 1939. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
  20. ^ "New Subway Spur Is Ready to Open: First Train to Start Four Minutes Before the Fair Officially Begins". The New York Times. April 17, 1939. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
  21. ^ "The New Subway Routes". The New York Times. December 15, 1940. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 20, 2016.
  22. ^ "IND Faster Service Will Start Sunday" (PDF). The New York Times. October 20, 1949. Retrieved February 20, 2016.
  23. ^ "PWA Party Views New Subway Link: Queens Section to Be Opened Tomorrow Is Inspected by Tuttle and Others" (PDF). The New York Times. December 30, 1936. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
  24. ^ "New Subway Link Opening in Queens" (PDF). The New York Times. December 12, 1950. Retrieved June 30, 2015.
  25. ^ "Subway Link Opens Monday" (PDF). The New York Times. December 6, 1950. Retrieved June 30, 2015.
  26. ^ Ingalls, Leonard (August 28, 1953). "2 Subway Lines to Add Cars, Another to Speed Up Service" (PDF). New York Times. Retrieved January 25, 2016.
  27. ^ "16-Point Plan Can Give Boro Relief NOW". Long Island Star–Journal. August 10, 1962. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
  28. ^ "Bronx to Coney Ride In New Subway Link" (PDF). The New York Times. October 18, 1954. Retrieved February 20, 2016.
  29. ^ Freeman, Ira Henry (June 28, 1956). "Rockaway Trains to Operate Today" (PDF). The New York Times. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
  30. ^ ERA Headlights. Electric Railroaders Association. 1956.
  31. ^ "Some "E" Trains Were Extended To Lefferts Boulevard". The New York Division Bulletin. Electric Railroaders' Association. 3 (2): 1. June 1960 – via Issu.
  32. ^ "Subway Schedules In Queens Changing Amid Some Protest". The New York Times. January 2, 1973. p. 46. Retrieved March 20, 2010.
  33. ^ "Changes Set for Jan. 2 Praised" (PDF). The New York Times. November 25, 1972. Retrieved January 25, 2016.
  34. ^ a b Fischler, Stan; Friedman, Richard (May 23, 1976). "Subways" (PDF). The New York Times. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
  35. ^ a b "Service Adjustment on BMT and IND Lines Effective 1 A.M. Monday, Aug. 30". Flickr. New York City Transit Authority. August 1976. Retrieved October 23, 2016.
  36. ^ "Archer Avenue Corridor Transit Service Proposal". New York City Transit Authority, Operations Planning Department. August 1988. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  37. ^ Johnson, Kirk (December 9, 1988). "Big Changes For Subways Are to Begin". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 6, 2016.
  38. ^ Alternatives Analysis/Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Queens Subway Options Study. United States Department of Transportation, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Urban Mass Transit Administration. May 1990. Retrieved August 13, 2016.
  39. ^ Polsky, Carol (December 11, 1988). "New Subway Line Finally Rolling Through Queens". Newsday.
  40. ^ "Archer Avenue Extension Opens December 11". Welcome Aboard: Newsletter of the New York City Transit Authority. New York City Transit Authority. 1 (4): 1. 1988.
  41. ^ a b c "Archer Avenue Corridor Transit Service Proposal". New York City Transit Authority, Operations Planning Department. August 1988. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  42. ^ "Archer Opens Dec. 11 Excerpts From TA Plan". Notes from Underground. Committee For Better Transit. 18 (11, 12). January and February 1988. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  43. ^ "Service Change Monitoring Report Six Month Evaluation of F/R Queens Boulevard Line Route Restructure" (PDF). www.laguardiawagnerarchive.lagcc.cuny.edu. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. April 1993. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  44. ^ "Service Changes September 30, 1990" (PDF). subwaynut.com. New York City Transit Authority. September 30, 1990. Retrieved May 1, 2016.
  45. ^ "Van Wyck Blvd Station" (PDF). www.laguardiawagnerarchive.lagcc.cuny.edu. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. May 1992. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  46. ^ "October 1992 New York City Subway Map". Flickr. New York City Transit Authority. October 1992. Retrieved October 30, 2016.
  47. ^ "Service Change Monitoring Report Six Month Evaluation of F/R Queens Boulevard Line Route Restructure" (PDF). www.laguardiawagnerarchive.lagcc.cuny.edu. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. April 1993. Retrieved December 28, 2018.
  48. ^ "Starting August 30, there will be changes in late-night service along Queens Boulevard". New York Daily News. September 2, 1997. Retrieved September 30, 2018.
  49. ^ "Review of the G Line" (PDF). mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. July 10, 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 26, 2015. Retrieved August 2, 2015.
  50. ^ Donohue, Pete (January 21, 2000). "C you later, riders told Track work will shut Eighth Ave. line". New York Daily News. Retrieved January 8, 2019.
  51. ^ "WTC subway stop on E train line reopens". The Journal News. White Plains, New York. January 29, 2002. Retrieved March 8, 2019.
  52. ^ Danzig, Allison (September 7, 1939). "International Array of Stars Ready for Opening of U.S. Title Tennis Today; Four Australians Stay for Tourney Quist, Bromwich, Hopman and Crawford Get Permission to Play at Forest Hills Riggs Among Favorites Hopes to Avenge Setback in Davis Cup Event--British Women to Seek Honors". The New York Times. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
  53. ^ Perlmutter, Emanuel (November 16, 1967). "Subway Changes To Speed Service: Major Alterations in Maps, Routes and Signs Will Take Effect Nov. 26" (PDF). The New York Times. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
  54. ^ Burks, Edward C. (August 14, 1976). "215 More Daily Subway Runs Will Be Eliminated by Aug. 30". The New York Times. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
  55. ^ "Subway Service Guide" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. September 2019. Retrieved September 22, 2019.
  56. ^ "E train southbound". Trip Planner+. Retrieved October 30, 2016.
  57. ^ "E train northbound". Trip Planner+. Retrieved October 30, 2016.

External linksEdit