Open main menu

Wikipedia β

Port Authority Bus Terminal

The Port Authority Bus Terminal (colloquially known as the Port Authority and in initials as PABT) is the main gateway for interstate buses into Manhattan in New York City. It is owned and operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ). The bus terminal is located in Midtown at 625 Eighth Avenue between 40th Street and 42nd Street, one block east of the Lincoln Tunnel and one block west of Times Square. It is one of three bus terminals operated by the PANYNJ, the others being the George Washington Bridge Bus Station in Upper Manhattan and the Journal Square Transportation Center in Jersey City.

Port Authority Bus Terminal
PABT 42nd&8th.JPG
8th Avenue and West 42nd Street and the world's largest LED mediamesh facade
Location 625 8th Avenue
New York, NY
United States
Coordinates 40°45′24″N 73°59′28″W / 40.75667°N 73.99111°W / 40.75667; -73.99111Coordinates: 40°45′24″N 73°59′28″W / 40.75667°N 73.99111°W / 40.75667; -73.99111
Owned by Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
Platforms 223 gates
Connections New York City Subway:
"1" train"2" train"3" train"7" train "7" express train​​ ​"A" train​ ​"C" train​ ​"E" train"N" train"Q" train"R" train"W" train42nd Street Shuttle at Times Square–42nd Street/Port Authority Bus Terminal
New York City Bus: M11, M20, M34A SBS, M42, M104
Construction
Platform levels 9[1]
Parking 1250 spaces
Other information
Website PABT
History
Opened December 15, 1950
Rebuilt 1963 (parking decks)
1979 (annex)
2007 (seismic retrofit)
Location
PABT is located in Manhattan
PABT
PABT
PABT (Manhattan)
PABT is located in New York City
PABT
PABT
PABT (New York City)

The PABT serves as a terminus and departure point for commuter routes, as well as for long-distance intercity routes, and is a major transit hub for New Jerseyans. The terminal is the largest in the United States and the busiest in the world by volume of traffic,[2] serving about 8,000 buses and 225,000 people on an average weekday and more than 65 million people a year.[3] It has 223 departure gates and 1,250 car parking spaces, as well as commercial and retail space.[4] In 2011, there were more than 2.263 million bus departures from the terminal.[5]

The PABT, opened in 1950 between 8th and 9th Avenues and 40th and 41st Streets, was built to consolidate the many different private terminals spread across Midtown Manhattan. A second wing extending to 42nd Street was added in 1979. Since then, the terminal has reached peak hour capacity, leading to congestion and overflow on local streets. As it does not allow for layover parking, buses are required to use local streets or lots, or return through the tunnel empty. The PANYNJ has been unsuccessful in its attempts to expand passenger facilities through public private partnership and in 2011, it delayed construction of a bus depot annex, citing budgetary constraints. In June 2013, it commissioned an 18-month study that would consider reconfiguration, expansion, and replacement options.[6]

Contents

HistoryEdit

SiteEdit

 
The last of many bus terminals in Midtown, at Old Penn Station. In 1963, Greyhound became the last company to move to the PABT.

Before the PABT was constructed, there were several terminals scattered throughout Midtown Manhattan,[7] some of which were part of hotels. The Federal Writers Project's 1940 publication of New York: A Guide to the Empire State lists the All American Bus Depot on West 42nd, the Consolidated Bus Terminal on West 41st, and the Hotel Astor Bus Terminal on West 45th.[8] The Dixie Bus Center on 42nd Street, located on the ground floor of the hotel of the same name, opened in 1930 and operated until 1959.[9] The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad had coach service aboard ferry to Communipaw Terminal in Jersey City that ran from an elegant bus terminal with a revolving bus platform in the Chanin Building at 42nd and Lexington.[7] Greyhound Lines had its own facility adjacent to Pennsylvania Station and did not move into the PABT until 1963, by which time all long-distance bus service to the city was consolidated at the terminal.[7][10]

The Lincoln Tunnel from Manhattan to New Jersey had opened in 1937. Within a year and a half of the tunnel's opening, five companies were operating 600 interstate bus trips through the tunnel every day.[11] The city opposed letting buses go through Midtown Manhattan because the buses caused congestion.[12] A large bus terminal near the mouth of Lincoln Tunnel was first mandated in December 1939, after the city announced that it would ban commuter buses from driving into congested parts of Midtown. The ban was supposed to go into effect in January 1941.[13] In July 1940, at the request of New York City mayor Fiorello H. La Guardia, the Port Authority started conducting a survey into the causes and effects of intercity and commuter bus traffic in Manhattan.[14] That December, Times Square Terminal Inc. filed an application to build and operate a commuter bus terminal from 41st to 42nd Streets between 8th and 9th Avenues. The $4 million terminal could be built in nine months.[15] Manhattan Borough President Stanley M. Isaacs proposed building a short $600,000 tube between the Lincoln Tunnel and the new terminal.[16] The city approved the construction of the new terminal and connecting tunnel in January 1941.[17] Meanwhile, New York Supreme Court Justice John E. McGeehan blocked La Guardia's proposed bus ban on the grounds that it was unreasonable.[18]

Plans for a bus terminal were delayed because of World War II, which used the resources intended for most projects that were not directly involved in the war effort. In June 1944, the New York state government allocated $180,000 to the Port Authority for studying the feasibility of constructing a bus terminal in Midtown Manhattan.[19] Early the next year, plans for a mid-Manhattan bus terminal were presented to the different bus companies.[20] While most major bus lines agreed to the plan, Greyhound was the only major bus company that opposed the new terminal's construction, since it was already planning on expanding its current terminal near Penn Station.[21]

The New York City Board of Estimate approved the construction of the new terminal in January 1947. It was to be built one block south of the aborted Times Square Terminal Inc. site, on the block bounded by 40th and 41st Streets and 8th and 9th Avenues.[22] Plans for the structural design were revised substantially in March 1948, when the Port Authority added a 500-spot parking lot for cars atop the terminal's roof, to be accessed via a series of ramps.[23] The last industrial tenant on the future terminal's site moved away the next month,[24] and the Port Authority hosted a groundbreaking ceremony for the terminal in January 1949.[25]

Original construction and additionsEdit

 
There are ramps to the Lincoln Tunnel, while the lower level of the North Wing connects with a tunnel under 9th Avenue

The original Mid-Manhattan Bus Terminal (now the PABT's South Wing), built in the International Style, was opened on December 15, 1950, as a generic "Port Authority bus terminal".[26] A vertical addition of three parking levels able to accommodate 1,000 cars was completed in 1963.[27] In 2007, the South Wing underwent a seismic retrofit in a $52 million building code-compliance project to reinforce and stabilize it against earthquakes.[28]

Plans to expand the bus station to 42nd Street were floated as early as 1965.[29] The North Wing was opened in 1979.[30] This expansion increased capacity by 50 percent and created a new façade comprising 27 steel X-shaped trusses.[27][31] Based on this façade design, Virtualtourist listed the PABT in 2008 as one of the "World's Top 10 Ugliest Buildings and Monuments".[32]

In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the area in and around the PABT was considered dangerous by police, tourists, and commuters due to high crime, prostitution, vagrant behavior, and inadequate upkeep and law enforcement in the building and nearby Times Square, especially after dark, but this is no longer the case. During 1997, the terminal was the subject of a study, coordinated by Professor Marcus Felson of Rutgers University, which identified strategic changes to the building's design and area supervision with a view to reducing crime and other problems.[1]

Expansion proposalsEdit

Air rightsEdit

The PANYNJ has attempted to further expand the terminal through public–private partnerships by leasing air rights over the North Wing.

In 1999, a 35-story building, to be known as 7 Times Square, was proposed to be constructed over the North Wing and a golf driving range was to be constructed over the South Wing.[33] However, the project was put on hold in 2001 due to a decline in the economy following the dot com bust.[34]

Between 2000 and 2011, the PANYNJ worked with Vornado Realty Trust, who had partnered with the Lawrence Ruben Company.[35] In November 2007, the PANYNJ announced the terms of an agreement in which it would receive nearly $500 million in a lease arrangement for a new office tower that would also provide funds for additional terminal facilities.[36] It would include 1,300,000 square feet (120,000 m2) of commercial space in a new office tower, which was to use the vanity address 20 Times Square, the addition of 60,000 square feet (5,600 m2) of new retail space in the bus terminal, as well as 18 additional departure gates, accommodating 70 additional buses carrying up to 3,000 passengers per hour. New escalators would be installed to help move passengers more quickly between the gate area and the ground floor. Construction was expected to begin in 2009 or 2010 and take four years to complete.[37][38] After an architectural competition, the PANYNJ selected the design by Pritzker Prize-winning architect Richard Rogers from Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners for a 45-story office tower with an overall height of 855 feet (261 m).[39][40][41] The agreement expired in August 2009,[42] and in May 2010, Vornado was given a retroactive extension on the deadline to August 2011.[43] In July 2011, Vornado announced they had found a new partner to partially finance the tower,[35] but in November 2011, the new backers pulled out of the project.[44]

In June 2014, the PANYNJ received a higher price than anticipated for the sale of nearby property, $115 million versus $100 million. The value of air rights above the terminal would be higher than previously appraised, thanks to rising property values in the area surrounding the terminal and an indication of the rising value air rights above the terminal.[45] The agency had intentions to release a request for proposals for air-rights development in 2014-2015.[46]

West Side bus depotEdit

 
Many buses lay over on city streets or make non-passenger bus trips through the Lincoln Tunnel for daytime parking

The Port Authority allows for limited layovers of buses, thus requiring companies to make other arrangements during off-peak hours and between trips. Many park on local streets or parking lots during the day while others make a round-trip without passengers through the Lincoln Tunnel to use facilities in New Jersey.[47] Bus layover parking on city streets is regulated by the NYDOT, which assigns locations throughout the city. In the vicinity of the PABT, these are concentrated on the side streets between 9th and 12th Avenues from 30th Street to 60th Street.[48]

Various studies and news reports have concluded that there is a need for a new bus depot in Midtown.[49][50][51][52] In a joint study by New York City and PANYNJ, it was determined a preferred location for a bus depot was at Galvin Plaza located on 39th to 40th Streets between 10th and 11th Avenues. However, this proposed location for commuter buses would not have capacity for charter buses and tour buses.[49]

The PANYNJ announced considerable toll increases on its crossings between New York and New Jersey in August 2011, citing as one of their reasons the construction of an $800 million "new bus garage connected to the Port Authority Bus Terminal, which will serve as a traffic reliever to the Lincoln Tunnel and midtown Manhattan streets, saving two-thirds of the empty bus trips that must make two extra trips through the tunnel each day."[53] Originally included in the PANYNJ 2007–2016 Capital Plan,[54] construction of the garage was scrapped by the agency in October 2011 after citing budgetary constraints due to an arrangement whereby the toll increases would be incrementally implemented.[47]

In April 2012, the director of the PANYNJ reported that a proposal had been made by developer Larry Silverstein, who has a memorandum of understanding to develop this property at 39th Street near the ramps between the tunnel and the terminal, to construct a bus garage with a residential tower above it.[55][56] This parcel is not large enough to accommodate bus ramps and would require the use of elevators, which seemed to be a new type of application for bus storage.[57] It has not progressed any further.

In 2014, the PANYNJ made an application for a $230 million grant to the Federal Transit Administration for development of the garage.[46]

Bus Terminal replacement proposalsEdit

Midtown Bus Master PlanEdit

In June 2013, the PANYNJ commissioned an 18-month study that will consider reconfiguration, expansion, and replacement options for the PABT and new bus staging and storage facilities on Manhattan's West Side.[3] The $5.5 million contract awarded to Kohn Pedersen Fox and Parsons Brinkerhoff would look into potential public-private financing, including the sale of air rights and cost-sharing with private bus carriers.[6][58][59]

Bus Terminal Replacement CompetitionEdit

In 2016, the Port Authority invited a number of development teams to propose ideas for replacement of the existing bus terminal.[60]

Art and advertisingEdit

 
George Rhoads's 1983 rolling ball sculpture 42nd Street Ballroom

The Commuters, a sculpture of three weary bus passengers and a clock salvaged from original terminal by George Segal, was unveiled in the main ticket area in 1982.[61] 42nd Street Ballroom, a rolling ball sculpture by George Rhoads on the main floor of the North Wing, was installed in 1983.[62] A statue of Jackie Gleason in the guise of one of his most famous characters, the bus driver Ralph Kramden, stands in front of the main entrance to the original South Wing. The plaque reads, "Jackie Gleason as Ralph Kramden - Bus Driver - Raccoon Lodge Treasurer - Dreamer - Presented by the People of TV Land".[63]

Triple Bridge Gateway is an art illumination installation completed in 2009 by Leni Schwendinger Light Projects underneath the ramps connecting the tunnel and the terminal that is part of the transformation of the 9th Avenue entrance of the South Wing.[64][65][66]

In July 2011, the PABT became home to the world's largest mediamesh, a stainless steel fabric embedded with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for various types of media, art, and advertising imagery. The LED imagery façade covers 6,000 square feet wrapping around the corner of 42nd Street and 8th Avenue.[67][68]

ConfigurationEdit

Information and ticketingEdit

For many years there was no timetable board displaying departures at the PABT; passengers were required to inquire at information booths or ticket counters for schedules and departure gates. In 2015 both the Port Authority and NJ Transit installed screens listing upcoming scheduled departures, though buses are not tracked so delays are not communicated via this method.

Tickets can be purchased on the main level (ground floor) of the South Wing at the main ticket plaza; Greyhound, Trailways and Short Line have additional ticket counters in the terminal.

New Jersey Transit (NJT) maintains a customer service counter at the terminal on the south wing main level (open weekdays).[69] NJT has ticket vending machines (TVM) throughout the terminal. Effective in 2009, passengers boarding NJT buses are required to purchase a ticket before boarding[70] In April 2012, NJT began re-equipping machines that would give change for those paying cash with bills rather than $1 coins.[71] NJT also accepts contactless payment systems, (including since October 2011 Google Wallet) at TVMs and ticket windows.[72]

GatesEdit

 
Escalators and stairs carry passengers to individually enclosed pull-through island platforms at departure gates numbered 200 and up

There are 223 departure gates of either saw-tooth or pull-through island platforms design[1] at PABT. At the Subway Level, or lower level of both wings, Gates 1-85 are predominantly used for long-distance travel and jitneys, and overnight hours (1 a.m. to 6 a.m.) for commuter lines. From 6 a.m. to 1 a.m., during the hours of normal operation, Gates 200–425, numbered to indicate the different boarding areas (100, 200, 300, etc.) within the complex are accessible from the 2nd Floor and serve short-haul commuter lines.[73] Most NJ Transit routes and New Jersey private carrier commuter routes are on the 200, 300, and 400 levels.

Retail and entertainmentEdit

Like other transit hubs, the PABT has undergone a series of renovations to create a mall-like sphere to promote its retail, food, entertainment, and services spaces.[74][75] There are numerous franchise stores—such as Heartland Brewery, Au Bon Pain, Jamba Juice, Starbucks, Hudson News, Duane Reade, GNC, a United States Postal Service branch station, as well as a variety of restaurants and bars throughout the terminal.[76] Frames, a bowling alley (long known as Leisure Time Bowling) occupies a large space on the 2nd floor.[77][78]

CompaniesEdit

Connecting transportEdit

 
Subway entrance and cab stand on 8th Avenue. Extensive underground passageways connect various stations & PABT.

Direct underground passageways connect the terminal with the 1, ​2, ​3​, 7, <7>​​, ​A​, ​C​, ​E​, N, ​Q, ​R, ​W​, and S trains in the New York City Subway at the Times Square – 42nd Street / 42nd Street – Port Authority Bus Terminal station complex.

New York City Transit Manhattan buses, operated by New York City Bus, stop immediately outside the terminal.

In the last decade, numerous jitney routes serving Hudson and Passaic counties in Northern New Jersey pick up passengers inside the bus terminal or on the street outside the terminal. Dollar vans operated by Spanish Transportation to Paterson and Community Lines jitneys to Journal Square use platforms on the lower level.[87] Routes to Bergenline Avenue/GWB Plaza, and Boulevard East depart from 42nd Street outside bus terminal's North Wing.[88][89][90][91][92][93]

In 2011, a controversy arose when Megabus, a long-distance carrier using double-decker buses, with the permission of the New York City Department of Transportation, began to use the streets and sidewalk at the terminal. The director of the PANYNJ, citing safety, as well as long-haul companies paying rent to use the terminal, citing unfair competitive advantage, were opposed to the permission to allow the company use of 41st Street directly under the connection between the two wings of the Port Authority.[94] Despite these concerns and complaints, Megabus was initially permitted to stay.[95] However, the permit was withdrawn later that year.[96] Megabus now largely uses street-side stops near the Jacob Javits Convention Center (for pickup) and Penn Station (for drop-off), except for a limited number of routes which use the PABT.[97]

Capacity and overflowEdit

 
The XBL, or exclusive bus lane, on Lincoln Tunnel Helix amid AM rush hour, leads to the PABT.

The PABT is the gateway for most bus and jitney traffic entering Manhattan[98] with more than 190,000 passengers[4] on 6,000 bus trips made through the Lincoln Tunnel and terminal daily.[99] The Lincoln Tunnel Approach and Helix (NJ 495) in Hudson County, New Jersey passes through a cut and descends the Hudson Palisades to the Lincoln Tunnel at the other end of which is the PABT.[100] Starting in 1964, studies were conducted to address the feasibility of an exclusive bus lane (XBL) during the weekday morning peak period.[101] The XBL, first implemented in 1970, serves weekday eastbound bus traffic between 6 a.m. and 10 a.m.[102] The lane is fed by the New Jersey Turnpike at Exits 16E and 17 and New Jersey Route 3. The helix, tunnel, and terminal are owned and operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, the bi-state agency that also implements the 2.5-mile (4.02 km) contra-flow express bus left lane in three westbound lanes. The XBL serves over 1,800 buses and 65,000 bus commuters on regular weekday mornings and is a major component of the morning "inbound" commutation crossing the Hudson River.[102][103][104][105][106] Over 100 bus carriers utilize the Exclusive Bus Lane.[102] As of 2013, New Jersey Transit operates fifty-seven interstate bus routes through the Lincoln Tunnel, as do numerous regional and long-distance companies.[6]

Despite the XBL to the tunnel, there are often long delays due to congestion caused by the limited capacity of bus lanes for deboarding passengers at the bus terminal, which has reached its capacity.[107] leading to re-routing and overflow on local streets[107][108] In December 2011, the New Jersey Assembly passed a resolution calling upon the PANYNJ to address the issue of congestion.[99] Congestion contributed to a decline of the on-time performance of buses, which was 92 percent in 2012 and 85 percent in the first quarter of 2014.[82] Thomas Duane, representing New York's 29th Senate District which includes the area around the PABT, has also called for reduced congestion in the neighborhood.[109][110] A consortium of regional transportation advocates, the Tri-State Transportation Campaign, have proposed a reconfiguration and expansion of the terminal, a PM west bound XBL, bus stops at other Manhattan locations, and a new bus storage depot.[110] A proposed bus garage in Midtown, so that day-time turnover buses could avoid unnecessarily traveling through the tunnel without passengers, was scrapped by the agency in October 2011.[111][112][113] In May 2012, the commissioner of NJDOT suggested that some NJ Transit routes could originate/terminate at other Manhattan locations, notably the East Side; an arrangement requiring approval of the NYC Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) to use bus stops.[114]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ NJT bus operations make up 70 percent of the terminal’s traffic. Approximately 79,000 NJT riders and another 30,000 commuters on private bus lines use the terminal each morning, arriving from New Jersey, Rockland County and Orange County in the Hudson Highlands and eastern Pennsylvania.[82]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Felson, Marcus; et al. (1996), "Redesigning Hell: Preventing Crime and Disorder at the Port Authority Bus Terminal" (PDF), Preventing Mass Transit Crime. Crime Prevention Studies, Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press, 6, archived (PDF) from the original on September 27, 2011, retrieved July 24, 2011 
  2. ^ "Port Authority Development Team to Build 1.3 Million-Square-Foot Office Tower Above Bus Terminal" (Press release). Port Authority of NY & NJ. November 30, 2007. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved February 5, 2010. 
  3. ^ a b "Port authority board awards contract to conduct comprehensive study and create plan to improve and revitalize bus terminal" (Press release). PANYNJ. June 27, 2013. Archived from the original on July 2, 2013. Retrieved June 28, 2013. 
  4. ^ a b Express Route to Better Bus Service How to Improve Bus Travel Across the Hudson River, and Beyond (PDF) (Report). Tri-State Transportation Campaign. May 2009. Retrieved April 20, 2012. The Port Authority Bus Terminal (PABT), in midtown Manhattan, is the largest and busiest bus passenger facility in the world. Used by both public and private bus carriers, the terminal has 223 bus gates, 1,250 spaces of public parking, along with commercial and retail space. 
  5. ^ Haddon, Heather (September 3, 2012), "Late Starts On N.J. Buses", The Wall Street Journal, archived from the original on February 19, 2015, retrieved September 6, 2012 
  6. ^ a b c Strunsky, Steve (June 27, 2013). "Port Authority looking into expanding, replacing Manhattan bus terminal". The Star-Ledger. Archived from the original on July 1, 2013. Retrieved June 27, 2013. 
  7. ^ a b c Gray, Christopher (November 3, 2011), "A Bus Terminal, Overshadowed and Unmourned", The New York Times, archived from the original on January 6, 2012, retrieved May 29, 2012 
  8. ^ Federal Writers Project (1940), New York A Guide to the Empire State, New York State Historical Association 
  9. ^ "Dixie Bus Depot Closes Its Doors After 29 Years", The New York Times, p. 29, archived from the original on January 15, 2013, retrieved May 29, 2012 
  10. ^ Stengren, Bernard (May 18, 1962), "Greyhound to Move To Port Bus Depot; Greyhound Joins Port's Teminal", The New York Times, archived from the original on January 15, 2013, retrieved May 29, 2012 
  11. ^ "3 MORE BUS LINES GET TUBE PERMITS; Present Service of 600 Trips Daily Through Lincoln Tunnel Will Be Doubled SANCTION GIVEN BY I.C.C. Operation to Start as Soon as Insurance and Safety Requirements Are Met". The New York Times. 1939-03-19. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2018-03-29. Retrieved 2018-03-28. 
  12. ^ "CITY OPPOSES RISE IN BUS TRAVEL HERE; Petition to I.C.C. Protests Grants to Nine Applicants for Service to Midtown". The New York Times. 1939-04-01. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2018-03-29. Retrieved 2018-03-28. 
  13. ^ "INTERSTATE BUSES TO BE BARRED HERE IN CONGESTED ZONES; Mayor Orders Ban Effective on Jan. 1, 1941--To Include Interurban Carriers TERMINALS NEAR TUNNELS Also at Washington Bridge-- Present Midtown Stations Called 'Root of Evil' New Rules to Be Speeded INTERSTATE BUSES TO BE CURBED HERE". The New York Times. 1939-12-11. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2018-03-29. Retrieved 2018-03-28. 
  14. ^ "BUS SURVEY POINTS TO NEW TERMINAL; Port Authority, Acting at the Mayor's Request, Seeks to Provide Facilities PROBLEM INVOLVES TOLLS Operators Argue for Cuts to Counteract Higher Costs Under Traffic Curbs". The New York Times. 1940-07-18. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2018-03-29. Retrieved 2018-03-29. 
  15. ^ "Huge Bus Terminal to Rise on 42d St. at $4,000,000 Cost; Bus Terminal Proposed for the Midtown Tunnel Transients". The New York Times. 1940-12-08. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2018-03-29. Retrieved 2018-03-29. 
  16. ^ "ISAACS OPENS FIGHT FOR CITY BUS TUBE; He Heads Group Asking for $600,000 to Build Tunnel to 42d St. Terminal BUSINESS BEING 'CHOKED' Borough President Declares Traffic Blocks Midtown-- Property Owners Object". The New York Times. 1940-12-17. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2018-03-29. Retrieved 2018-03-29. 
  17. ^ "CITY ENTERS DEAL FOR BUS TERMINAL; Will Build Link to Lincoln Tunnel From Private Depot at 42d St. and 8th Ave". The New York Times. 1941. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2018-03-29. Retrieved 2018-03-29. 
  18. ^ "MIDTOWN BUS BAN IS VOIDED BY COURT; Order Excluding Interstate and Interurban Lines Held in Excess of Police Power MIDTOWN BUS BAN IS VOIDED BY COURT". The New York Times. 1941-02-19. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2018-03-29. Retrieved 2018-03-29. 
  19. ^ "BUS PROJECT HERE IS AIDED BY STATE; Planning Board Allots $180,000 for Port Authority Plans for $9,000,000 Terminal TRAFFIC STUDY APPROVED $35,000 for Preliminary Plans for Parking Facilities at Tunnel Plazas Allowed". The New York Times. 1944-06-07. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2018-03-29. Retrieved 2018-03-29. 
  20. ^ "BUS LINES GET PLAN FOR UNION STATION; Port Authority Project to Cost $13,000,000 Has Full Backing of 13, Support of Others Another Plea to Greyhound". The New York Times. 1945-03-13. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2018-03-29. Retrieved 2018-03-29. 
  21. ^ "Mayor Urges Bus Depot Be Built Despite Opposition of Greyhound; Most Other Lines Have Approved Big Union Terminal, He Is Told--Warns He Will Fight Any 'Special Privilege'". The New York Times. 1945-11-21. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2018-03-29. Retrieved 2018-03-29. 
  22. ^ Conklin, William R. (1947-01-31). "NEW BUS TERMINAL IS APPROVED HERE; TO COST $17,500,000; Board of Estimate Sanctions Port Authority Project for Block West of Times Square SETBACK FOR GREYHOUND Completed Building Promised in Two Years--Mayor Hails Action as 'Good Beginning' EFFECT OF PORT AUTHORITY BUS TERMINAL ON MIDTOWN TRAFFIC NEW BUS TERMINAL IS APPROVED HERE Board of Estimate Sanctions $17,500,000 Project West of Times Square Area". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2018-03-29. Retrieved 2018-03-29. 
  23. ^ Ingraham, Joseph C. (1948-03-22). "Roof Parking for 500 Cars Added to Bus Terminal Plan; Port Authority to Spend Extra $1,000,000 for New Facility -- 400 Tenants Still on Site Delay Start on Building BUS TERMINAL PLAN ADDS ROOF GARAGE". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2018-03-30. Retrieved 2018-03-30. 
  24. ^ "BUS TERMINAL AGREEMENT; Last Industrial User Will Quit Site of Proposed Structure". The New York Times. 1948-04-09. Archived from the original on 2018-03-30. Retrieved 2018-03-30. 
  25. ^ "A NOTABLE GROUND-BREAKING". The New York Times. 1949-01-28. Archived from the original on 2018-03-30. Retrieved 2018-03-30. 
  26. ^ The New York Times (1950-12-16). "NEW BUS TERMINAL HAS SMOOTH START; COMING INTO THE NEW BUS TERMINAL". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2018-03-30. Retrieved 2018-03-30. 
  27. ^ a b Port Authority Bus Terminal History "History of the Port Authority Bus Terminal" Check |url= value (help). PANYNJ. Archived from the original on June 3, 2012. Retrieved May 29, 2012. 
  28. ^ Dunlap, David W. (November 16, 2007), "What's Shaking at the Port Authority", The New York Times, archived from the original on May 29, 2012, retrieved May 29, 2012 
  29. ^ Fowler, Glenn (January 22, 1965), "Article 3 -- No Title; Bus Terminal Planning Annex, With McGraw-Hill Office Space", The New York Times, archived from the original on January 15, 2013, retrieved May 29, 2012 
  30. ^ Guide to Civil Engineering Projects In and Around New York City (2nd ed.). Metropolitan Section, American Society of Civil Engineers. 2009. pp. 79–80. 
  31. ^ "New York Architecture Images- Port Authority Bus Terminal". Nyc-architecture.com. Archived from the original on 2014-06-26. Retrieved 2014-06-05. 
  32. ^ "Travel Picks: 10 top ugly buildings and monument". Reuters. November 14, 2008. Archived from the original on October 6, 2010. Retrieved September 17, 2009. 
  33. ^ Bagli, Charles V. (October 1, 1999). "Tower to Rise Above Port Authority Terminal". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 23, 2009. Retrieved July 25, 2009. 
  34. ^ Bagli, Charles V. (April 25, 2007). "Port Authority Is Reviving Plans for Bus Station Tower". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 5, 2015. Retrieved July 25, 2009. 
  35. ^ a b Staff (July 15, 2011). "Chinese Developer Pledges up to $700 million with Vornado Realty Trust for Port Authority Tower". The Real Deal. Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved May 25, 2012. 
  36. ^ Bagli, Charles V. (November 30, 2007). "Tower Planned Atop Port Authority Bus Terminal in New Wave of Development". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 5, 2015. Retrieved July 25, 2009. 
  37. ^ Dunlap, David W. (July 25, 2008). "Designs Unveiled for Tower Above Port Authority Bus Terminal". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 13, 2017. Retrieved July 25, 2009. 
  38. ^ "RENDERINGS RELEASED FOR PLANNED OFFICE TOWER ABOVE PORT AUTHORITY BUS TERMINAL'S NORTH WING" (Press release). Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. July 24, 2008. Archived from the original on June 10, 2011. Retrieved January 7, 2011. 
  39. ^ "20 Times Square". Skyscraper Page. Archived from the original on October 18, 2011. Retrieved January 7, 2011. 
  40. ^ Dunlap, David W. (November 17, 2008). "For a Tower Atop the Buses, the British Are Coming". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 9, 2011. Retrieved January 7, 2011. 
  41. ^ "Richard Rogers Gets Port Authority Nod, Rendering Revealed". Curbed - New York City. November 17, 2008. Archived from the original on July 25, 2011. Retrieved January 7, 2011. 
  42. ^ Brown, Eliot (July 22, 2009). "Short Authority! Vornado's Bus Tower Pulling Out". The New York Observer. Archived from the original on January 11, 2010. Retrieved September 27, 2010. 
  43. ^ Brown, Eliot (May 18, 2010). "Vornado Given More Time—Again—to Build Bus Terminal Tower". The New York Observer. Archived from the original on July 25, 2010. Retrieved January 7, 2011. 
  44. ^ Bagli, Charles (November 14, 2011). "Plan for Bus Terminal Tower Is Dropped". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 28, 2016. Retrieved May 25, 2012. 
  45. ^ Higgs, Larry (June 26, 2014). "Port Authority land deal could benefit bus terminal". Asbury Park Press. Retrieved 2014-06-30. 
  46. ^ a b Rubinstein, Dana (April 1, 2014). "Port plans for 42nd Street bus terminal tower take shape". Crains. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-05. 
  47. ^ a b Boburg, Shawn; Rouse, Karen (October 3, 2011). "Cut in toll hike killed funds for $800M garage, PA says". The Record. Archived from the original on October 4, 2011. Retrieved December 3, 2011. 
  48. ^ "Authorized Bus Layover Locations in Manhattan" (PDF). NYCDOT. November 1, 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 28, 2012. Retrieved May 28, 2012. 
  49. ^ a b Daly, William H.; Rappaport, William (December 2010). Midtown Tour and Charter Bus Parking Initiative (PDF) (Report). Mayor’s Midtown Citizens Committee. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 23, 2016. Retrieved May 28, 2012. 
  50. ^ "New Report and Website Offer Speedier Bus Commute Across the Hudson River - Report calls for Port Authority to prioritize bus trips for 100 million annual passengers". Tri-State Transportation Campaign. May 14, 2009. Archived from the original on November 14, 2012. Retrieved April 20, 2012. 
  51. ^ Chernetz, Janna (April 28, 2011). "NJ Transportation Funding Plan Would Shortchange Bus Riders". Mobilizing the Region. Tri-State Transportation Campaign. Archived from the original on April 30, 2011. Retrieved April 29, 2011. 
  52. ^ Grossman, Andrew (April 19, 2011). "Bus Terminal Hits Limit". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on June 11, 2015. Retrieved April 29, 2011. 
  53. ^ "Faced with constrained capacity due to historic economic recession, coupled with billions in WTC and post 9-11 security costs, and unprecedented need for infrastructure overhaul, Port Authority proposes toll and fare increase" (Press release). PANYNJ. August 5, 2011. Archived from the original on July 5, 2012. Retrieved May 28, 2012. 
  54. ^ Duane, Tom (January 20, 2011). "letter to Christopher Ward, Director PANYNJ". Archived from the original on July 20, 2011. Retrieved December 3, 2011. 
  55. ^ Chaban, Matt (April 26, 2012). "Silverstein Beats Vornado to the Port Authority Punch Again, Proposes New Bus Terminal on West 39th Street". The New York Observer. Archived from the original on May 9, 2012. Retrieved May 28, 2012. 
  56. ^ Smerd, Jeremy (April 25, 2012). "'Provocative' proposal made for new bus garage". Crain's New York Business. Archived from the original on April 3, 2017. Retrieved May 28, 2012. 
  57. ^ Rubenstein, Dana (May 1, 2012). "Can special elevators spare Manhattan-bound buses that pointless trips back to New Jersey?". Capital New York. Archived from the original on June 4, 2012. Retrieved May 28, 2012. 
  58. ^ Goldmark, Alex (June 27, 2013). "NYC's Port Authority Bus Terminal Could Get Replaced". Transportation Nation. WNYC. Archived from the original on July 1, 2013. Retrieved June 28, 2013. 
  59. ^ Fleigneheimer, Matt (June 27, 2013). "Port Authority to Consider Bus Terminal Renovation". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 15, 2018. Retrieved June 28, 2013. 
  60. ^ "Port Authority of NY & NJ Bus Terminal Competition -". www.pabtcompetition.com. 
  61. ^ "Sculptor George Segal's Model Commuters Are a Study in Terminal Patience". People Magazine. June 7, 1982. Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved May 29, 2012. 
  62. ^ "42nd Street Ballroom restoration". Technicalcalcurator. Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved May 29, 2012. 
  63. ^ "Ralph Kramden Statue". Roadside America. Archived from the original on July 26, 2012. Retrieved May 29, 2012. 
  64. ^ "Triple Bridge Gateway". Mondo ARC. May 2009. Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 
  65. ^ "Triple Bridge Gateway". Society for Environmental Graphic Design. Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 
  66. ^ "Triple Bridge". Enlighten Magazine. March 13, 2009. Archived from the original on December 29, 2012. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 
  67. ^ Del Percio (July 31, 2011). "That's a Wrap: Port Authority Unveils Translucent LED Bus Terminal Advertising Installation". greenbuildingsnyc.com. Archived from the original on December 31, 2011. Retrieved May 29, 2012. 
  68. ^ Meinhold, Bridgette (July 15, 2011). "NYC Port Authority Bus Terminal Now Boasts World's Largest LED Media Facade". Inhabitat. Archived from the original on January 17, 2013. Retrieved May 29, 2012. 
  69. ^ "New Jersey Transit". Njtransit.com. Archived from the original on 2014-07-01. Retrieved 2014-06-05. 
  70. ^ "NJ Transit Introduces New Procedure to Speed Boarding at Port Authority Bus Terminal" (Press release). New Jersey Transit. September 17, 2009. Archived from the original on April 10, 2012. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 
  71. ^ Frassinelli, Mike (April 18, 2012). "NJ Transit changes the way they handle change: Pilot program trades coins for bills". The Star-Ledger. Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 
  72. ^ "Go Contactless!". New Jersey Transit. Archived from the original on June 5, 2012. Retrieved June 4, 2012. 
  73. ^ "Terminal Map". PABT. PANYNJ. Archived from the original on June 3, 2012. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 
  74. ^ Pincus, Adam (August 31, 2011). "The 'malling' of Manhattan A historic amount of large-scale retail is coming to NYC". The Real Deal. Archived from the original on August 21, 2012. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 
  75. ^ "Port Authority Bus Terminal". Public Spaces Project. Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 
  76. ^ "Retail Map". PABT. PANYNJ. Archived from the original on June 3, 2012. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 
  77. ^ Kleinfeld, N.R> (January 4, 2010). "True Economic Barometer? How about Bowling". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 13, 2012. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 
  78. ^ "Best bowling alleys Where to master that 7-10 split". Time Out. April 4, 2012. Archived from the original on June 10, 2012. Retrieved May 30, 2012. 
  79. ^ "Carriers & Routes - Port Authority Bus Terminal - The Port Authority of NY & NJ". www.panynj.gov. Archived from the original on 2017-12-11. 
  80. ^ "Kennedy Boulevard – Port Authority". jerseyjitneys.info. 3 January 2014. Archived from the original on 26 October 2017. 
  81. ^ "Martz Trailways". martztrailways.com. Archived from the original on 2012-06-18. 
  82. ^ a b Strunsky/, Steve (June 30, 2014). "Trying to end the long, hot wait for a new Port Authority Bus Terminal". The Star-Ledger. Archived from the original on July 7, 2014. Retrieved 2014-07-01. 
  83. ^ "Port Authority to JFK". NY Airport Service. Archived from the original on May 27, 2012. Retrieved May 25, 2012. 
  84. ^ "Port Authority to LGA". NY Airport Service. Archived from the original on November 19, 2011. Retrieved May 25, 2012. 
  85. ^ "Newark Airport Express". Coach USA. Archived from the original on May 25, 2012. Retrieved May 25, 2012. 
  86. ^ "Interactive New York Sightseeing Experience". The Ride. Archived from the original on 2017-12-12. 
  87. ^ "Jitney Buses of New Jersey". Jitney Buses of New Jersey. Archived from the original on 2017-05-21. 
  88. ^ Smith, Stephen (September 17, 2010). "North Jersey jitneys take off". Market Urbanism. Archived from the original on April 19, 2012. Retrieved April 30, 2012. 
  89. ^ "Hudson County Jitney Study". NJTPA. 2010-. Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved April 20, 2012.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  90. ^ Urbitran Associates (November 2007). "Final Report" (PDF). Hudson County Bus Circulation and Infrastructure Study. NJTPA. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 15, 2013. Retrieved April 20, 2012. 
  91. ^ New Jersey Transit; et al. (November 2009). "Executive Summary" (PDF). Final Report Jersey City Local Bus Study. NJT. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 15, 2011. Retrieved April 20, 2012. 
  92. ^ Knafo, Saki (October 5, 2008). "A Glut of Buses at the Crossroads of the World". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 20, 2016. Retrieved April 30, 2012. 
  93. ^ Duane, Thomas K. (October 12, 2008). "New Bus Rules and New Yorkers Who Point the Way: Putting The Brakes On Buses That Clog Up the Streets". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 16, 2013. Retrieved April 30, 2012. 
  94. ^ Smerd, Jeremy (April 24, 2012). "Port Authority chief slams Megabus' free rid". Crain's New York. Archived from the original on April 3, 2017. Retrieved May 25, 2012. 
  95. ^ "City Lets Megabus Stay Under Bus Terminal Despite Port Authority Objections". CBS Local. May 8, 2012. Archived from the original on June 4, 2012. Retrieved May 25, 2012. 
  96. ^ Massey, Daniel (June 7, 2012). "Megabus booted from choice parking spot". Crain's New York. Archived from the original on April 3, 2017. Retrieved July 28, 2014. 
  97. ^ "New York, NY". Megabus mobile website. Retrieved July 28, 2012. 
  98. ^ "Port Authority Bus Terminal History". Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Archived from the original on January 28, 2011. Retrieved March 7, 2011. 
  99. ^ a b Boburg, Shawn (December 7, 2011). "Lawmakers urge PA to reduce bus delays". The Record (Bergen County). Bergen County. Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved December 14, 2011. 
  100. ^ Roberts, Richard; Baer, Frederic S. (May 1987). "Improving Trans-Hudson Bus Access" (PDF). ITE Journal. Institute of Transportation Engineers. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved April 20, 2012. 
  101. ^ New York, New York (USA) Bus Lanes and Limited-Stop Service (PDF). TCRP Report 90 (Report). 1. Transit Cooperative Research Program/FTA. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved April 20, 2012. 
  102. ^ a b c "The Lincoln Tunnel Exclusive Bus Lane". Port Authority of New York & New Jersey. 2009. Archived from the original on March 26, 2012. Retrieved April 4, 2012. 
  103. ^ "Route 495 Exclusive Bus Lane: A 20-year Success Story". World Transit Research. Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved April 4, 2012. 
  104. ^ "Lincoln Tunnel HOT Lane Feasibility Study" (PDF). Port Authority of New York & New Jersey. 2009. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved April 4, 2012. 
  105. ^ Anderson, Steve. "NJ 495 Freeway". Eastern Roads. Archived from the original on 2009-02-28. Retrieved 2009-02-11. 
  106. ^ "Lincoln Tunnel Exclusive Bus Lane Enhancement Study" (PDF). Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 27, 2008. Retrieved February 13, 2009. 
  107. ^ a b Grossman, Andrew (April 19, 2011). "Bus Terminal Hits Limit". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on June 11, 2015. Retrieved April 29, 2011. 
  108. ^ Chernetz, Janna (April 28, 2011). "NJ Transportation Funding Plan Would Shortchange Bus Riders". Tri-State Transportation Campaign. Archived from the original on April 30, 2011. Retrieved April 29, 2011. 
  109. ^ Duane, Tom (January 20, 2011). "letter to Christopher Ward, Director PANYNJ". Archived from the original on July 20, 2011. Retrieved December 3, 2011. 
  110. ^ a b "New Report and Website Offer Speedier Bus Commute Across the Hudson River Report calls for Port Authority to prioritize bus trips for 100 million annual passengers". Tri-State Transportation Campaign. May 14, 2009. Archived from the original on November 14, 2012. Retrieved April 20, 2012. 
  111. ^ Boburg, Shawn; Rouse, Karen (October 2, 2011). "Cut in toll hike killed funds for $800M garage, PA says". The Record (Bergen County). Bergen County. Archived from the original on October 4, 2011. Retrieved December 3, 2011. 
  112. ^ "Port Authority Scraps Bus Garage, Cites Money Issues". WNBC New York. October 3, 2011. Archived from the original on October 26, 2011. Retrieved April 30, 2012. 
  113. ^ Cichowski, John (October 7, 2011). "Road Warrior: Delaying bus garage expansion is senseless". The Record. Bergen County. Archived from the original on October 4, 2013. Retrieved October 8, 2013. 
  114. ^ Rouse, Karen (May 9, 2012). "NJ DOT commissioner proposes bypassing Manhattan bus terminal for some routes". The Record. Bergen County. Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved May 9, 2012. 

External linksEdit