Newark Liberty International Airport
Newark Liberty International Airport (IATA: EWR, ICAO: KEWR, FAA LID: EWR), originally Newark Metropolitan Airport and later Newark International Airport, is the primary airport serving the U.S. state of New Jersey. The airport straddles the boundary between the cities of Newark and Elizabeth, the former of which is the most populous city in the state. The airport is owned jointly by the cities of Elizabeth and Newark and leased to and operated by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.
|Newark Liberty International Airport|
|Owner||Newark and Elizabeth, New Jersey|
|Operator||Port Authority of New York and New Jersey|
|Serves||New Jersey, New York Metropolitan Area|
|Location||Newark and Elizabeth, New Jersey|
|Elevation AMSL||18 ft / 5 m|
Newark Airport is located 75 miles (121 km) northeast of Philadelphia, 15 miles (24 km) southwest of New York City, and 5 miles (8.0 km) south of Downtown Newark. It is one of three major airports serving the New York Metropolitan Area, the others being John F. Kennedy and La Guardia in Queens, New York, both of which are also operated by the Port Authority. It also attracts a significant passenger base from the Philadelphia metropolitan area.[a]
Newark serves 50 carriers and is the third-largest hub (after Chicago–O'Hare and Houston–Intercontinental) for United Airlines, which is the airport's largest tenant (operating in all three of Newark's terminals). Newark's second-largest tenant is FedEx Express, whose third-largest cargo hub uses three buildings on two million square feet of airport property. During the 12-month period ending in July 2014, over 68% of all passengers at the airport were carried by United Airlines.
Newark Metropolitan Airport opened October 1, 1928 on 68 acres (28 ha) of reclaimed land along the Passaic River, the first major airport serving passengers in the New York metro area. The Art Deco Newark Metropolitan Airport Administration Building, adorned with murals by Arshile Gorky, was built in 1934 and dedicated by Amelia Earhart in 1935. It served as the terminal until the opening of the North Terminal in 1953. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1979 and is now a museum and Port Authority Police headquarters.
Newark was the busiest commercial airport in the world until LaGuardia Airport opened in December 1939; the March 1939 Official Aviation Guide shows 61 weekday departures on five airlines, but by mid-1940 passenger airlines had all left Newark.
During World War II the field was closed to commercial aviation while it was taken over by the United States Army for logistics operations. In 1945 captured German aircraft brought from Europe on HMS Reaper for evaluation under Operation Lusty were off-loaded at Newark AAF and then flown or shipped to Freeman Field, Indiana or Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland. The airlines returned to Newark in February 1946. In 1948, the city of Newark leased the airport to the Port of New York Authority (now the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey). As part of the deal, the Port Authority took operational control of the airport and began investing heavily in capital improvements, including new hangars, a new terminal and runway 4/22.
The February 1947 C&GS diagram shows 5,940-foot (1,811 m) runway 1, 7,900-foot (2,408 m) runway 6 and 7,100-foot (2,164 m) runway 10.
On December 16, 1951 a Miami Airlines C-46 bound for Tampa lost a cylinder on takeoff from runway 28 and crashed in Elizabeth killing 56. On January 22, 1952 an American Airlines CV-240 crashed in Elizabeth, while on approach to runway 6 killing all 23 aboard and seven on the ground. On February 11, 1952 a National DC-6 crashed in Elizabeth after takeoff from runway 24, killing 29 of 63 on board and four on the ground. Inevitably, the airport was closed for some months; airline traffic resumed later in the year, but the airport's continued unpopularity and the New York area's growing air traffic led to searches for new airport sites. A proposal to build a new airport at what is now the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge was defeated by local opposition.
The April 1957 Official Airline Guide showed 144 weekday passenger fixed-wing departures from Newark: 40 Eastern, 19 Capital, 16 American, 14 United, 14 Mohawk, 13 Allegheny, 11 TWA, 8 National, 5 Delta and 4 Braniff. National had a nonstop to Miami, Eastern had nonstops to Miami, New Orleans and Houston, Braniff had a nonstop DC-7C to Dallas and TWA flew nonstop to St Louis; no other nonstops to points west of St. Louis and no international nonstops. (Eastern started a nonstop to Montreal in 1958, probably Newark's first scheduled international nonstop since 1939, though Eastern had nonstops to San Juan in 1951.) Jet airliners arrived in 1961. In 1964, American and TWA started flying nonstop to California, although Newark's longest runway was 7,000 ft (2,100 m) until 1970. TWA's 707 nonstop to Heathrow in 1978 was probably Newark's first trans-Atlantic nonstop.
Late 20th centuryEdit
Through the early 1970s, Newark had a single terminal building located on the north side of the field, by what is now Interstate 78. In the 1970s the airport became Newark International Airport. Present Terminals A and B opened in 1973, although some charter and international flights requiring customs clearance remained at the North Terminal. The main building of Terminal C was completed at the same time, but only metal framing work was completed for the terminal's satellites. It lay dormant until the mid-1980s, when for a brief time the west third of the terminal was equipped for international arrivals and used for some People Express transcontinental flights. Terminal C was finally completed and opened in June 1988.
Underutilized in the 1970s, Newark expanded dramatically in the 1980s. People Express struck a deal with the Port Authority to use the North Terminal as its air terminal and corporate office in 1981 and began operations at Newark that April. It grew quickly, increasing Newark's traffic through the 1980s. Virgin Atlantic began service between Newark and London in 1984, challenging JFK's status as New York's international gateway (but Virgin Atlantic now has more flights at JFK than at Newark). Federal Express (now known as FedEx Express) opened its second hub at the airport in 1986. When People Express merged into Continental in 1987, operations (including corporate office operations) at the North Terminal were reduced and the building was demolished to make way for cargo facilities in the early 1990s. This merger started Continental's and later United Airlines', dominance at Newark Airport.
In late 1996 the monorail opened, connecting the three terminals, the overflow parking lots and garages, and the rental car facilities. A new International Arrivals Facility also opened in Terminal B that year. The monorail was expanded to the new Newark Airport train station on Amtrak's Northeast Corridor line in 2001 and was renamed AirTrain Newark.
After the hijacking and crash of United Airlines Flight 93 in the September 11 attacks in 2001 while en route from Newark to San Francisco, the airport's name was changed from Newark International Airport to Newark Liberty International Airport in 2002. This name was chosen over the initial proposal, Liberty International Airport at Newark, and pays tribute to the victims of the September 11 attacks and to the landmark Statue of Liberty, lying just 7 miles (11 km) east of the airport.
A modern control tower was built in 2002 and opened in 2003. It is the fourth and tallest tower in the airport's history, standing 325 feet (99 m) over the main parking lot. In 2004, Singapore Airlines began the world's longest non-stop scheduled airline route to Newark from Singapore. The service ended on November 23, 2013, however the service is due to be resumed on 11 October 2018.
Continental began flying from Newark to Beijing on June 15, 2005 and to Delhi on November 1, 2005. The airline soon started flights to Mumbai. Continental (now merged with United) has been and continues to be the only U.S. carrier to serve India nonstop from the United States, the third U.S. carrier after United Airlines and Northwest Airlines (now Delta) to serve mainland China nonstop and the only U.S. carrier with nonstop flights to Beijing from the New York City area. On July 16, 2007 Continental announced it would seek government approval for nonstop flights between Newark and Shanghai in 2009. Continental began flights to Shanghai from Newark on March 25, 2009, using Boeing 777-200ER aircraft. Newark was the only New York area airport used by Philippine Airlines (PAL), until financial problems in the late 1990s caused it to terminate this service. In March 2015, PAL resumed service to the New York metropolitan area routing to JFK Airport, and will not return to Newark, following the removal of the Philippines from the air safety blacklist of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). In October 2015, Singapore Airlines announced intentions to resume direct nonstop service between Newark and its main hub at Singapore Changi Airport. For a time, the dates were not yet announced, but the Airbus A350-900ULR used on the flights will be delivered sometime in 2018. On May 30, 2018, Singapore Airlines officially announced that nonstop service between Newark and Singapore will resume on October 11, 2018 using the Airbus A350-900ULR. The flight will once again claim its title as the world's longest non-stop scheduled airline flight.
In June 2008 flight caps were put in place to restrict the number of flights to 81 per hour. The flight caps, in effect until 2009, were intended to be a short-term solution to Newark's congestion. The FAA has since embarked on a seven-year-long project to reduce congestion in all three New York area airports and the surrounding flight paths.
Newark is a major hub for United Airlines (Continental Airlines before the 2010–12 merger). United has its Global Gateway at Terminal C, having completed a major expansion project that included a new, third concourse and a new Federal Inspection Services facility. With its Newark hub, United has the most service of any airline in the New York area. On March 6, 2014 United opened a new 132,000-square-foot (12,300 m2), $25 million hangar on a 3-acre (1.2 ha) parcel to accommodate United's wide body aircraft during maintenance. In 2015, the airline announced plans to leave JFK altogether and streamline its transcontinental operations at Newark. On July 7, 2016, the United States Department of Transportation announced that Newark was one of ten cities to first operate flights to José Martí International Airport in Havana, Cuba.
In 2016, the Port Authority approved and announced a redevelopment plan to build a new Terminal A to replace the existing, which opened in 1973. The new Terminal A is expected to cost around $2.3 billion, and will include a new parking garage, 33 gates, and a walkway to connect the Airtrain station, parking garage, and terminal. It is expected to be completed by 2022.
- 4L/22R: 11,000 by 150 feet (3,353 m × 46 m) Asphalt/concrete, grooved
- 4R/22L: 10,000 by 150 feet (3,048 m × 46 m) Asphalt, grooved
- 11/29: 6,726 by 150 feet (2,050 m × 46 m) Asphalt, grooved
- Helipad H1: 40 by 40 feet (12 m × 12 m) concrete
Runway 11/29 is one of the three runways built during World War II. In 1952 Runways 1/19 and 6/24 were closed and a new Runway 4/22 (now 4R/22L) opened at a length of 7,000 ft (2,100 m) After 1970 this runway was extended to 9,800 feet (3,000 m), shortened for a while to 9,300 ft (2,800 m) and finally reached its present length by 2000. Runway 4L/22R opened in 1970 at a length of 8,200 ft (2,500 m) and was extended to its current length by 2000.
Runway 4L/22R is primarily used for takeoffs while 4R/22L is primarily used for landings and 11/29 is used by smaller aircraft or when there are strong crosswinds on the two main runways. Newark's parallel runways (4L and 4R) are 950 feet (290 m) apart, the fourth smallest separation of major airports in the U.S., after San Francisco International Airport, Los Angeles International Airport and Seattle-Tacoma International Airport.
Unlike the other two major New York-area airports, JFK and La Guardia, which are located directly next to large bodies of water (Jamaica Bay and the East River, respectively) and whose runways extend at least partially out into them, Newark Liberty, while located just across Interstate 95 from Newark Bay and not far from the Hudson River, does not directly front upon either body of water, so the airport and its runways are completely land-locked.
Newark Liberty has three passenger terminals. Terminal A and Terminal B were completed in 1973 and have four levels. Ticket counters are on the top floor, except for the second-floor Wow Air, Aer Lingus, Virgin Atlantic, and Delta Air Lines counters and first-floor British Airways, OpenSkies, and Spirit Airlines counters in Terminal B. Gates and shops are on the third floor. Baggage carousels (both A and B) are on the second floor (B also has some on the first floor) and Terminal B has an international arrivals lounge on that floor too. Finally, short-term parking and ramp operations (restricted areas) are on the ground floor.
Terminal C, designed by Grad Associates and completed in 1988, has two ticketing levels, one for international check-in and one for domestic check-in. The main terminal building for Terminal C was built alongside Terminals A and B in the 1970s, but lay dormant until People Express Airlines took it over as a replacement for the former North Terminal when the airline's hub there outgrew the old facility. Upon opening, Terminal C had 41 gates, one departures level, one arrivals level, and an underground parking garage. The gates, and food and shopping outlets are located on a mezzanine level between the two check-in floors.
Terminal A handles only domestic and Canadian flights served by JetBlue, Southwest, Air Canada, Air Canada Express, Alaska Airlines, American Airlines, American Eagle; and some United Express (i.e., ultra-short haul) flights.
Terminal B exclusively handles foreign carriers; and also handles flights to the Caribbean through JetBlue and other smaller carriers, Delta Airlines, Delta Connection, Elite Airways, Allegiant Airlines, and Spirit Airlines flights, and some of United's international flights.
From 1998 to 2003, Terminal C was rebuilt and expanded in a $1.2 billion program known as the Continental Airlines Global Gateway Project. The project, which was designed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, doubled the available space for outbound travelers as the former baggage claim/arrivals hall was remodeled and turned into a second departures level. Probably most significant was the addition of International Concourse C-3, a spacious and airy new facility with capacity for a maximum of 19 narrowbody aircraft (or 12 widebody planes). Completion of this new concourse increased Terminal C's mainline jet gates to 57. Concomitant with Concourse C-3 is a new international arrivals facility. Also included in the project: a 3,400-space parking garage constructed in front of the terminal, a new airside corridor connecting Concourses C-1, C-2 and C-3, a new President's Club (now called United Club) lounge between C-2 and C-3, and all-new baggage processing facilities, including reconstruction of the former underground parking area into a new baggage claim and arrivals hall.
In 2008, Terminal B was renovated to increase capacity for departing passengers and passenger comfort. The renovations included expanding and updating the ticketing areas, building a new departure level for domestic flights and building a new arrivals hall. Plans are also in place to expand Terminal A by adding a new parking garage and radically expanding the size of the first concourse to add new gates, ticketing, baggage and security areas.
Each terminal has three concourses: Terminal A, for instance, is divided into concourses A1, A2 and A3. Gate numbering starts in Terminal A with Gate A10 and ends in Terminal C with Gate C139. Wayfinding signage throughout the terminals was designed by Paul Mijksenaar, who also designed signage for LaGuardia and JFK Airports.
Terminal A is the only terminal that has no immigration facilities: flights arriving from other countries cannot use Terminal A (except countries with US customs preclearance), although some departing international flights use the terminal.
Following the business model of the Port Authority's other facilities, in some cases entire terminals are operated by terminal operators and not by the Port Authority directly. At Newark Liberty, Terminal A and Terminal C are operated by United Airlines. Terminal B is the only passenger terminal directly operated by the Port Authority.
In January 2012, Port Authority executive director Patrick Foye said $350 million would be spent on Terminal B, addressing complaints by passengers that they cannot move freely. That renovation is currently underway. Foye also said a new Terminal A may be built.
Further developments were made in Terminal B when the Port Authority installed new LED fixtures in 2014. The LED fixtures developed by Sensity Systems, use wireless network capabilities to collect and feed data into the software that can spot long lines, recognize license plates, and identify suspicious activity and alert the appropriate staff.
In November 2014, airport amenity manager OTG announced a new $120 million renovation plan for terminal C that includes installing 6,000 iPads and 55 new restaurants headed by celebrity chefs, with the first new restaurants opening in summer of 2015 and the whole project completed in 2016.
The airport has 121 gates in the three terminals. Terminal A has 29 gates, Terminal B has 24 gates, and Terminal C has 68 gates.
A monorail system (AirTrain) connects the terminals with Newark Liberty International Airport Station. The station provides direct rail connections to any station along New Jersey Transit's Northeast Corridor Line or North Jersey Coast Line, including regional transit hubs such as Newark Penn Station, Secaucus Junction and New York Penn Station where transfers are available to any rail line in northern New Jersey or Long Island, New York. Amtrak also serves the station with Northeast Regional and Keystone Service trains excluding Acela Express. A $5.50 fee for the AirTrain is included with rail ticket purchases, with the exception of children 11 and younger and customers using monthly passes with the airport as the origin or destination.
The AirTrain monorail also connects the terminals with parking lots, parking garages, and rental car facilities at no cost.
NJT buses operate northbound local service to Irvington, Downtown Newark and Newark Penn Station, where connections are available to the PATH rapid transit system and rail lines. The go bus 28 is a bus rapid transit line to Downtown Newark, Newark Broad Street Station and Bloomfield Station. Southbound service travels to Elizabeth, Lakewood, Toms River and intermediate points.
Olympia Trails operates express buses to Port Authority Bus Terminal, Bryant Park and Grand Central Terminal in Manhattan and Super-Shuttle, Go Airport Shuttle and Go-link operate shared taxi services.
Private limousine, car service, and taxis also provide service to/from the airport. Taxis serving the airport charge a flat rate based on destination. For trips to/from New York, fares are set by the New York City Taxi and Limousine Commission.
The airport is served directly by U.S. Route 1/9, which provides connections to Route 81 and Interstate 78, both of which have interchanges with the New Jersey Turnpike (Interstate 95) at exits 13A and 14, respectively. Northbound, Route 1/9 becomes the Pulaski Skyway which connects to the Holland Tunnel which links Jersey City with Lower Manhattan.
The airport operates short and long term parking lots with shuttle buses and monorail access to the terminals.
Airlines and destinationsEdit
|1||Orlando, Florida||1,045,000||JetBlue, Southwest, Spirit, United|
|2||San Francisco, California||947,800||United, Virgin America|
|3||Fort Lauderdale, Florida||858,100||JetBlue, Southwest, Spirit, United|
|4||Los Angeles, California||805,470||United, Virgin America|
|5||Chicago–O'Hare, Illinois||711,390||American, United|
|6||Atlanta, Georgia||665,740||Delta, United|
|7||Houston–Intercontinental, Texas||542,970||Spirit, United|
|8||Boston, Massachusetts||528,530||JetBlue, United|
|9||Charlotte, North Carolina||504,530||American, United|
|10||Denver, Colorado||478,950||Southwest, United|
|1||London–Heathrow||917,473||5.8%||Air India, British Airways, United, Virgin Atlantic|
|2||Tel Aviv–Ben Gurion||507,378||1.8%||El Al, United|
|3||Toronto–Pearson||439,922||3.2%||Air Canada, United|
|4||Toronto–Billy Bishop||406,084||4.3%||Porter Airlines|
|7||Paris–Charles de Gaulle||359,748||1.4%||Delta, La Compagnie, United|
|8||Mumbai||357,892||1.5%||Air India, United|
|9||Hong Kong||349,769||0.9%||Cathay Pacific, United|
|11||Beijing–Capital||267,896||51.0%||Air China, United|
|14||Lisbon||240,892||2.4%||TAP Portugal, United|
|18||Dublin||214,429||49.9%||Aer Lingus, United|
As of 2012, United Airlines flies 72% of all passengers at Newark.
Newark Airport, along with LaGuardia and Kennedy airports, uses a uniform style of signage throughout the airport properties. Yellow signs direct passengers to airline gates, ticketing and other flight services; green signs direct passengers to ground transportation services and black signs lead to restrooms, telephones and other passenger amenities. New York City traffic reporter Bernie Wagenblast provides the voice for the airport's radio station and curbside announcements, as well as the messages heard onboard AirTrain Newark and in its stations.
The airport has the IATA designation EWR, rather than a designation that begins with the letter 'N' because the designator of "NEW" is already assigned to Lakefront Airport in New Orleans, LA, and because the Department of the Navy uses three-letter identifiers beginning with N for its purposes. The airport has no official area to view flight traffic, but the IKEA of Elizabeth (located on the East side of the New Jersey Turnpike) may be used as an unofficial vantage point for aircraft both departing and landing.
Within the Newark Liberty International Airport complex is a Marriott hotel, the only hotel located on airport property. Shuttle vans operate between the hotel and terminals because the Marriott is not serviced by the monorail and there is no official walking route to the terminals, despite the Marriott's immediate proximity to the main parking lot between the terminals.
Accidents and incidentsEdit
- On March 17, 1929, a Colonial Western Airlines Ford Tri-Motor suffered a double engine failure during its initial climb after takeoff, failed to gain height, and crashed into a railroad freight car loaded with sand, killing 14 of the 15 people on board. At the time, it was the deadliest aviation accident in American history.
- On December 16, 1951, a Miami Airlines C-46 Commando (converted for passenger use) lost a cylinder on takeoff from Runway 28 and crashed in Elizabeth, New Jersey, killing 56.
- On January 22, 1952, American Airlines Flight 6780, a Convair 240, crashed in Elizabeth on approach to Runway 6, killing 30.
- On February 11, 1952, National Airlines Flight 101, a Douglas DC-6, crashed in Elizabeth after takeoff from runway 24, killing 33.
- On April 18, 1979, a New York Airways commuter helicopter on a routine flight to LaGuardia Airport and John F. Kennedy International Airport plunged 150 feet (46 m) into the area between Runways 4L/22R and 4R/22L, killing three passengers and injuring 15. It was later determined the crash was due to a failure in the helicopter's tail rotor.
- On July 31, 1997, FedEx Flight 14, a McDonnell Douglas MD-11, crashed while landing after a flight from Anchorage International Airport. The No. 3 engine contacted the runway during a rough landing which caused the aircraft to flip upside down, after which it was destroyed by fire. The two crewmembers and three passengers escaped uninjured.
- On September 11, 2001, Newark International Airport was the starting point of United Airlines Flight 93, a Boeing 757 that was hijacked as a part of the September 11 attacks, the flight was crashed into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania.
- On January 10, 2010, United Airlines Flight 634, an Airbus A319, made an emergency landing after the aircraft's right main landing gear failed to deploy. No passengers or crew members were injured during the landing. The aircraft sustained substantial damage in the accident.
- On January 21, 2013, ExpressJet Flight 4480, marketed as United Express 4480, from Rochester, New York, was landing when several rear tires blew. The plane veered onto a taxiway, but did not strike anything. The plane was carrying eight passengers and five crew members. No one was hurt.
- On May 1, 2013, Scandinavian Airlines Flight 908, an A330-300 that was cleared for takeoff, collided with an ExpressJet Embraer ERJ-145 aircraft on the taxiway. The ERJ-145 lost its tail in the accident.
- On May 18, 2013, a malfunctioning landing gear forced US Airways Flight 4560 to make a belly landing. None of the passengers or crew were injured.
- Newark Liberty International Airport is an airport of firsts: the first major airport in the New York metropolitan area, the first with a control tower and now the area's busiest. Sandwiched between the New Jersey Turnpike, U.S. Routes 1 and 9, and I-78, the airport handles more flights (though not as many passengers) as John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK), despite being 40 percent of JFK's land size. The airport serves as a hub for United Airlines, among 50 other scheduled carriers. The City of Newark built the airport on 68 acres (28 ha) of marshland in 1928 and the Army Air Corps operated the facility during World War II. After the Port Authority took it over in 1948, an instrument runway, a terminal building, a control tower and an air cargo center were added. The airport's original 1935 central terminal building is a National Historic Landmark. Newark Liberty employs more than 24,000 people
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Newark Liberty International Airport.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Newark Liberty International Airport.|
- Newark Liberty International Airport (official site)
- "World's Busiest Airport" Popular Mechanics, May 1937
- Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) No. NJ-133, "Newark International Airport"
- How To Get To Newark Airport
- Aviation: From Sand Dunes to Sonic Booms, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary
- (PDF), effective July 19, 2018
- Resources for this airport: