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1908 Studebaker limousine with open driver's compartment for the chauffeur and a closed cabin for the passengers
Rolls-Royce Phantom IV Touring limousine, 7 seater for HRH The Prince Regent of Iraq, 1953 coachwork by Hooper
Novelty pink Hummer limousine

A limousine (/ˈlɪməzn/ or /lɪməˈzn/)[1] is a luxury vehicle driven by a chauffeur and with a partition between the driver and the passenger compartment. A limousine with a lengthened wheelbase is called a "stretch limousine".

In some countries, a "limousine service" is a pre-booked hire car with driver, regardless of the type of vehicle.

The word limousine is derived from the name of the French region Limousin, because this covered compartment physically resembled the raised hood of the cloak worn by the shepherds there.[2][3] An alternate etymology has the chauffeur wearing a Limousin-style cloak in the open driver's compartment, for protection from the weather.[4]

In German-speaking countries, a Limousine is simply a sedan, while a lengthened-wheelbase car is called Stretch-Limousine.

Contents

HistoryEdit

 
Winton Six Limousine, 1915, with driver in a compartment separate from the passengers, a distinctive limousine feature

The first automobile limousine, built in 1902, was designed so the driver sat outside under a covered compartment.[5][6] The 1916 definition of limousine by the Society of Automobile Engineers is "a closed car seating three to five inside, with driver's seat outside".[7]

The first “stretch limousine” was created in Fort Smith, Arkansas, around 1928 by a coach company named Armbruster. These cars were primarily used to transport famous “big band” leaders, such as Glenn Miller and Benny Goodman, and their bands and equipment. These early stretch limousines were often called “big band buses”.

Sub-categories of limousines in 1916 were the berline, defined as "a limousine having the driver's seat entirely enclosed", and the brougham, defined as "a limousine with no roof over the driver's seat."[7]

CharacteristicsEdit

The limousine body style has a partition separating the driver from the rear passenger compartment.[4][8] This partition often includes a glass section, which is sometimes openable. Communication with the driver is possible either by opening the window in the partition or by using an intercom system.

To provide extra leg room for the rear passengers, typically limousines are long-wheelbase vehicles. A set of 2 or 3 seats are fitted, as per most other passenger cars, at the rear of the cabin. Limousines may also include seats at the front of the cabin (either permanent seats or fold-out jump seats) which can be forward-facing or rear-facing.

Stretch limousinesEdit

 
Lincoln Town Car stretch limo

Stretch limousines are longer than normal limousines, usually in order to accommodate more passengers.[9] Stretch limousines may have seating along the sides of the cabin.

The first stretch limousine was built in 1928 and stretch limousines were initially used for transporting bands of musicians.

Novelty limousinesEdit

A variety of vehicles have been converted into novelty limousines.[10] They are used for weddings, parties and other social occasions.[11] Another style of novelty limousine are those painted in bright colours, such as purple or pink.[12]

Vehicles converted into novelty stretch limousines include the East German Trabant, Volkswagen Beetle, Fiat Panda, and Citroën 2CV. There are even instances of Corvettes, Ferraris and Mini Coopers being stretched to accommodate up to 10 passengers.

Early variationsEdit

Early variations of the limousine style include the limousine-landaulet, with a removable or folding roof section over the rear passenger seat, and the limousine de-ville, with a solid roof over the rear passengers but a removable or folding roof section over the driver's seat.[13]

United StatesEdit

 
Lincoln Navigator stretch limousine

The last production limousine, by Cadillac, with forward-facing jump seats was in 1987 (with their Fleetwood Series 75 model), the last Packard in 1954, and the last Lincoln in 1939, though Lincoln has offered limousines through their dealers as special order vehicles at times. Several Lincoln Premier cars were also built, one being owned by Elvis Presley. Vehicles of this type in private use may contain expensive audio players, televisions, video players, and bars, often with refrigerators. The President of the United States has ridden in a variety of types of limousine stretching back to 1899.[14]

In the United States the most popular vehicles for stretch limousines conversion are the Lincoln Town Car, Cadillac XTS, Cadillac Escalade, Chrysler 300, Hummer H2, Ford Excursion, and the Lincoln Navigator.

StageEdit

 
Checker Aerobus stage at Glacier National Park

While lacking the separated drivers area required to be considered a limousine, a stage is a type of vehicle with similar usage. It has a design and application is between a sedan and a bus. While a bus will have a central interior aisle for access to seating, a stage has multiple doors that allow access to transverse forward-facing seats. Stages were built by vehicle modification companies, based on sedans (e.g., Chrysler New Yorker, Cadillac DeVille, Checker Aerobus) and station wagons. Some stages included a large rack, running the length of the roof, for carrying the passengers' baggage.

An examples of stage usage is the Glacier National Park, where the stages were referred to as "Jammers" in reference to the nickname of their gear-jamming drivers.[15] Some funeral homes maintain six-door stages to carry the family of the deceased between the church and the cemetery.

United KingdomEdit

 
Division in a 1993 Bentley Turbo R
 
The division in a London cab, black occasional seats folded up to bulkhead

Due to the partition behind the driver, the London black cabs are a type of limousine. The jump seats, also referred to as taxi-tip-seats, usually carry advertising on the underside; the advertisements are visible to the passengers when the tip-seats are not in use.

Current limousine productionEdit

"Limousine service" hire carsEdit

In the U.S., Canada and Australia, "limousine service" (also known as "car service") is the process of pre-booked hire of any car with driver. The car is usually a luxury car, but not necessarily a limousine.

The difference between a limousine service and a taxi service is that limousines are be pre-booked and cannot be not hired on the spot.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/limousine
  2. ^ Dyke, Andrew Lee (1920). Dyke's Automobile and Gasoline Engine Encyclopedia (Twelfth ed.). p. 582. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  3. ^ Ayto, John (2009). Word Origins. A&C Black Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4081-0160-5. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  4. ^ a b The Random House College Dictionary. Random House. p. 777. ISBN 0-394-43600-8. 1. an automobile having a permanently enclosed compartment for from three to five persons, the roof of which projects forward over the driver's seat in front...[< F, special use of limousine long cloak, so called because worn by the shepherds of Limousin, a former province in central France] 
  5. ^ Bromley, Michael L. (2002). "The Origins". Stretching It: The Story of the Limousine. Archived from the original on 14 July 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  6. ^ "limousine (n.)". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  7. ^ a b "What's What in Automobile Bodies Officially Determined". The New York Times. August 20, 1916. Retrieved 27 June 2015. Here it is, with other body types and distinctions, officially determined recently by the Nomenclature Division of the Society of Automobile Engineers 
  8. ^ Haajanen, Lennart W. (2003). Illustrated Dictionary of Automobile Body Styles. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. p. 96. ISBN 0-7864-1276-3. LCCN 2002014546. 
  9. ^ Sfetcu, Nicolae (2014-04-27). The Car Show. Nicolae Sfetcu. 
  10. ^ "Dave's Classic Limousines Pictures: Novelty Limousines". Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  11. ^ Pedersen, Stephanie (2004). KISS guide to planning a wedding. DK Publishers. pp. 195–196. ISBN 978-0-7894-9695-9. 
  12. ^ Naylor, Sharon (2004). 1000 Best Wedding Bargains. Sourcebooks. p. 198. ISBN 978-1-4022-0298-8. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  13. ^ Haajanen 2003, pp. 93, 97.
  14. ^ Huffman, John Pearley (19 January 2009). "The Secret Seven: The Top Presidential Limousines of All Time". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  15. ^ Mulvaney, Tom (2010). Glacier National Park. Arcadia Publishing. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-7385-8080-7. LCCN 2009943323. Archived from the original on 28 November 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015.