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Jorge Chávez International Airport

Jorge Chávez International Airport (IATA: LIM, ICAO: SPJC, formerly SPIM), (Aeropuerto Internacional Jorge Chávez), is Peru's main international and domestic airport. It is located in Callao, 11 kilometers (7 mi) from Lima, the nation's capital city and 17 km (11 mi) from Miraflores. Callao, a port city, has integrated transport connections with Lima. During 2017, the airport served 22,025,704 passengers. Historically, the airport was the hub for Compañía de Aviación Faucett and Aeroperú. Now it serves as a hub for many aviation companies. The airport was named after Peruvian aviator Jorge Chávez (1887 - 1910).

Jorge Chávez International Airport

Aeropuerto Internacional Jorge Chávez
Airp0rt lima peru.jpg
Summary
Airport typePublic international
OperatorLima Airport Partners
ServesLima, Peru
LocationCallao, Peru
Hub for
Elevation AMSL34 m / 113 ft
Coordinates12°01′19″S 077°06′52″W / 12.02194°S 77.11444°W / -12.02194; -77.11444Coordinates: 12°01′19″S 077°06′52″W / 12.02194°S 77.11444°W / -12.02194; -77.11444
Websitewww.lima-airport.com
Map
LIM is located in Lima
LIM
LIM
Location of airport in Lima
Runways
Direction Length Surface
m ft
15/33 3,507 11,506 Asphalt
Statistics (2018)
Passengers23,723,193
Freight (tonnes)370,450,587
Aircraft movements178,578
Source: corpac s.a. statistics[1]

Contents

HistoryEdit

 
Lima Airport in 1972 with a SATCO Douglas DC-4 operating an internal flight

Lima's first airport was the Limatambo Airport in San Isidro. It ceased operations in 1960 due to a lack of space and capacity, and was replaced by the Lima-Callao International Airport. In June 1965, the Lima-Callao airport was renamed the "Aeropuerto Internacional Jorge Chávez" after the famous Peruvian aviator, Jorge Chávez Dartnell. In December 1965, the terminal building was officially opened.

When it was in operation, Compañía de Aviación Faucett had its corporate headquarters on the airport grounds.[2]

In 2001, in order to improve and expand its infrastructure, the government of Peru placed the airport under the management of Lima Airport Partners (LAP). LAP is now composed of Fraport and two other minor partners. The air traffic control is managed by the Peruvian Corporation of Airports and Commercial Aviation (CORPAC). The Peruvian government engaged Jaime Malagón, Jerome Jakubik, Paul Slocomb, and Víctor M. Marroquín of Baker and McKenzie international law firm, to oversee the changes.

ExpansionEdit

 
Main terminal

In February 2005, the first phase of a new renovation and expansion project was completed. This included the Peru Plaza Shopping Center and a new concourse. In June 2007, a four-star hotel, Ramada Costa del Sol, opened at the airport.

In January 2009, the second phase of the terminal expansion was commenced. The terminal has 28 gates, 19 with boarding bridges. In August 2009, the LAP announced that in 2010, the airport would have a new Instrument Landing System (ILS CAT III) to help with fog landings.[3] 'Arquitectonica", a Miami-based architectural office and Lima Airport Partners planned a second terminal and expansion of the main terminal.

On October 24, 2018, the Peruvian state delivered all the land for the expansion and modernization of the Jorge Chavez airport to the airport operator "Lima Airport Partners". The estimated investment of 1,200 million USD includes the construction of a new runway, a control tower and a passenger terminal in addition to the existing one. On the other hand, the state will build a new bridge and highway on the current Santa Rosa avenue that will connect directly with the "costa verde" highway. Works will be completed in 4 years, by the beginning of the year 2023, and will allow the transist of 40 millions of passengers per year by 2030. [4] [5] [6]

AccoladesEdit

From 2010 to 2012, the LAP received the annual Best Airport in South America 2010 award from Skytrax.[7][8][9][10][11]

In March 2010, the Sumaq VIP lounge at the airport received its second annual Priority Pass "Lounge of the Year 2010".[12][13][14][15][16]

Transport and facilitiesEdit

Transportation between the airport and the city is provided by taxis, tour buses and vans. Airport Express Lima is the official bus of Jorge Chávez Airport and operates between the airport and Miraflores. Line 2 and Line 4 of the Lima Metro is currently under construction, with an airport rail station terminal expected to be open by 2019.

The airport hosts the Wyndham Costa del Sol hotel which is located adjacent to the control tower and the arrivals exit. The hotel is built with noise canceling panels. The Peru Plaza Shopping Center is located near the passenger terminal in the Grand Concourse area. The food court is located near the entrance of the passenger terminal on the second floor and is always open. There is an ice cream vendor selling some special Peruvian flavours such as Chirimoya and Lucuma.

The airport has various premium lounges in the departures terminal, such as VIP Peru. For passengers in First class, there is an exclusive salon near the gates, the VIP Club.

On 12 May 2009, the airport opened Lima Cargo City, a hub for cargo airlines.

Airlines and destinationsEdit

PassengerEdit

AirlinesDestinations
Aerolíneas Argentinas Buenos Aires–Ezeiza
Aeroméxico Mexico City
Air Canada Rouge Montréal–Trudeau, Toronto–Pearson
Air Europa Madrid
Air France Paris–Charles de Gaulle
American Airlines Dallas/Fort Worth, Miami
ATSA[17] Atalaya, Chachapoyas, Huánuco, Tingo María
Avianca Bogotá
Avianca Costa Rica San José (CR), Santiago de Chile
Avianca Ecuador Guayaquil, La Paz, Quito, Santa Cruz de la Sierra–Viru Viru
Avianca El Salvador San Salvador
Avianca Perú Asunción, Bogotá, Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Cali, Cancún, Cuzco, Havana, Medellín–JMC, Mexico City, Miami, Montevideo, Orlando, Porto Alegre, Punta Cana, Rio de Janeiro–Galeão, San Salvador, São Paulo–Guarulhos, Santiago de Chile
Avior Airlines Caracas[18]
British Airways Seasonal: London-Gatwick[19]
Copa Airlines Panama City
Delta Air Lines Atlanta
Estelar Latinoamerica Caracas
Gol Transportes Aéreos São Paulo–Guarulhos (begins December 12th, 2019)[20]
Iberia Madrid
Interjet Cancún (begins June 17, 2019),[21] Mexico City
JetBlue Fort Lauderdale
JetSmart Santiago
KLM Amsterdam
LATAM Argentina Buenos Aires–Ezeiza
LATAM Brasil Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, São Paulo–Guarulhos
LATAM Chile Los Angeles, New York–JFK, Santiago de Chile
LATAM Colombia Bogotá
LATAM Ecuador Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Guayaquil, Quito
LATAM Paraguay Asunción
LATAM Perú Antofagasta, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Barcelona, Bogotá, Brasília (begins November 14, 2019),[22] Buenos Aires–Ezeiza, Cajamarca, Calama (begins July 2, 2019),[23] Cali, Cancún, Cartagena, Chiclayo, Córdoba, Cuzco, Foz do Iguaçu, Guayaquil, Havana, Ilo, Iquitos, Jaén, Jauja, Juliaca, La Paz, Los Angeles, Madrid, Medellín–JMC, Mendoza, Mexico City, Miami, Montego Bay (begins December 2, 2019),[24] Montevideo, New York–JFK, Orlando, Piura, Pucallpa, Puerto Maldonado, Punta Cana, Quito, Rio de Janeiro–Galeão, Rosario, Salta, San José (CR), San Miguel de Tucumán, Santa Cruz de la Sierra–Viru Viru, Santiago de Chile, São Paulo–Guarulhos, Tacna, Talara, Tarapoto, Trujillo, Tumbes
Peruvian Airlines Arequipa, Chiclayo (begins May 10, 2019), Cuzco, Ilo, Iquitos, Jauja, La Paz, Piura, Pucallpa, Tacna, Tarapoto
Plus Ultra Líneas Aéreas Madrid
Sky Airline Arequipa, Cuzco, Iquitos (begins July 25, 2019),[25][26] Piura, Pucallpa, Santiago, Tarapoto, Trujillo
Spirit Airlines Fort Lauderdale
Star Perú Cajamarca, Chiclayo, Cuzco, Iquitos, Pucallpa, Tarapoto
United Airlines Houston–Intercontinental, Newark
Viva Air Colombia Bogotá
Viva Air Perú Arequipa, Bogotá, Cajamarca, Cartagena (begins June 7, 2019),[27][28] Chiclayo, Cuzco, Iquitos, Jaén, Juliaca (begins July 11, 2019), Medellín–JMC, Piura, Tacna, Talara, Tarapoto
Wayraperú Huánuco

CargoEdit

AirlinesDestinations
Atlas Air Miami
Avianca Cargo Bogotá, Medellin-Córdova, Miami
Cielos Airlines Buenos Aires-Ezeiza, Mexico City, Miami, Quito
KF Cargo Miami
Korean Air Cargo Campinas Viracopos, Los Angeles, Miami, Seoul-Incheon
LATAM Cargo Brasil Campinas Viracopos, Miami
LATAM Cargo Chile Miami
LATAM Cargo Colombia Rio de Janeiro-Galeão
LATAM Cargo Mexico Campinas Viracopos, Mexico City
Lufthansa Cargo Frankfurt
Martinair Quito
Northern Air Cargo Miami
Qatar Airways Cargo Campinas Viracopos, Doha
Sky Lease Cargo Amsterdam, Campinas Viracopos, Ciudad del Este, Bogotá, Buenos Aires-Ezeiza, Caracas, Manaus, Medellin, Montevideo, Quito, Rio de Janeiro-Galeão, Santiago de Chile
UPS Airlines Miami

StatisticsEdit

FiguresEdit

Annual Statistics
Year 2018 (Jan-Nov) 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005
Passenger Traffic 21,708,430 22,046,042 19,286,158 17,575,919 16,170,135 14,908,772 13,330,290 11,904,553 10,278,493 TBD TBD TBD TBD TBD
YoY Growth%   14.07%   9.03%   8.69%   8.45%   11.84%   11.70%   15.82%   17.00% TBD TBD TBD TBD TBD TBD
Cargo (Tons) 308,372,263 TBD 350,844 335,223 321,174 293,675 286,600 271,800 232,400 239,100 225,400 196,900 177,100 171,500
YoY Growth% 308,372,263 TBD 350,844 335,223 321,174 293,675 286,600 271,800 232,400 239,100 225,400 196,900 177,100 171,500

Busiest routesEdit

Busiest international routes from/to Lima (LIM) in January-December 2018 [29]
Rank Airport Passengers Airline(s)
1   Santiago de Chile, Chile   1,654,378 Avianca Costa Rica, Avianca Perú, JetSmart, LATAM Chile, LATAM Perú, Sky Airline
2   Bogotá, Colombia   839,947 Avianca, Avianca Perú, LATAM Perú, Viva Air Colombia
3   Buenos Aires-Ezeiza, Argentina   883,845 Avianca Perú, Aerolíneas Argentinas, LATAM Argentina, LATAM Ecuador, LATAM Perú
4   Miami, United States   881,406 American Airlines, Avianca Perú, LATAM Perú
5   Madrid, Spain   663,714 Air Europa, Iberia, LATAM Perú, Plus Ultra Líneas Aéreas
6   Mexico City, Mexico   630,495 Aeroméxico, Avianca Perú, Interjet, LATAM Perú
7   Panama City-Tocumen, Panama   511,965 Copa Airlines
8   Sao Paulo-Guarulhos, Brazil   506,918 Avianca Perú, LATAM Brasil, LATAM Perú
9   Cancún, Mexico   421,325 Avianca Perú, LATAM Perú
10   Quito, Ecuador   399,307 Avianca Ecuador, LATAM Ecuador, LATAM Perú, TAME
11   Punta Cana, Dominican Republic   285,775 Avianca Perú, LATAM Perú
12   Amsterdam, Netherlands   283,094 KLM
13   Los Angeles, United States   282,022 LATAM Chile, LATAM Perú
14   San Salvador, El Salvador   215,839 Avianca El Salvador, Avianca Perú
15   Montevideo, Uruguay   213,186 Avianca Perú, LATAM Perú
16   La Paz, Bolivia   200,961 Avianca Ecuador, LATAM Perú, Peruvian Airlines
17   Havana, Cuba   186,326 Avianca Perú, LATAM Perú
18   Guayaquil, Ecuador   174,820 Avianca Ecuador, LATAM Ecuador, LATAM Perú
19   Paris-Charles de Gaulle, France   172,383 Air France
20   New York-JFK, United States   172,866 LATAM Chile, LATAM Perú
21   Atlanta, United States   148,713 Delta Airlines
22   Fort Lauderdale, United States   145,545 JetBlue Airways, Spirit Airlines
23   Santa Cruz de la Sierra-Viru Viru, Bolivia   144,765 Avianca Ecuador, LATAM Perú
24   Houston-Intercontinental, United States   143,766 United Airlines
25   Rio de Janeiro–Galeão, Brazil   143,700 Avianca Perú, LATAM Perú
26   San José, Costa Rica   126,431 Avianca Costa Rica, LATAM Perú
27   Asunción, Paraguay   121,882 Avianca Perú, LATAM Paraguay
28   Córdoba, Argentina   121,832 LATAM Perú
29   Dallas-Fort Worth, United States   120,643 American Airlines
30   Toronto-Pearson, Canada   120,610 Air Canada Rouge
31   Mendoza, Argentina   109,484 Avianca Perú, LATAM Perú
32   Rosario, Argentina   101,990 LATAM Perú
33   Orlando, United States   100,983 Avianca Perú, LATAM Perú
34   Cartagena, Colombia   92,525 LATAM Perú
35   Newark, United States   85,269 United Airlines
36   Medellín-JMC, Colombia   84,356 Avianca Perú, LATAM Perú
37   Porto Alegre, Brazil   83,946 Avianca Costa Rica, Avianca Perú
38   Barcelona, Spain   80,730 LATAM Perú
39   Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil   79,989 LATAM Perú
40   London-Gatwick, United Kingdom   50,701 British Airways
41   Tucumán, Argentina   49,367 LATAM Perú
42   Montréal-Trudeau, Canada   44,412 Air Canada Rouge
43   Salta, Argentina   40,552 LATAM Perú
44   Antofagasta, Chile   36,872 LATAM Perú
45   Cali, Colombia   35,927 Avianca Perú
47   Caracas, Venezuela   30,997 Avior Airlines, Estelar Latinoamerica
46   Barcelona, Venezuela   29,453 Avior Airlines
48   Washington-Dulles, United States   26,675 LATAM Perú

Accidents and incidentsEdit

  • November 27, 1962: Varig Flight 810, a Boeing 707-441 registration PP-VJB flying from Rio de Janeiro-Galeão to Jorge Chávez International Airport, after initiating an overshoot procedure at the suggestion of the control tower because it was too high, proceeded to start another approach when it crashed into La Cruz peak, 8 miles from the airport. Possibly there was a misinterpretation of navigation instruments. All 97 passengers and crew aboard died.[30][31]
  • May 8, 1964: an Argentine Air Force Douglas C-54 registration T-47 flying from Buenos Aires to Jorge Chávez International Airport crashed into a sand dune during approach in poor visibility conditions, killing 46 of 49 people on board.[32]
  • December 1985: a bomb planted by the Maoist Shining Path insurgent movement, exploded in the parking lot and killed five people, including a child.[33]
  • August 6, 1986: an explosion of unknown origin occurred at a restroom in the domestic terminal.[34]
  • December 8, 1987: a Peruvian Navy Fokker 27-400M registration AE-560 flying from Pucallpa to Jorge Chávez International Airport chartered by the Alianza Lima football team crashed into the Pacific Ocean shortly before landing. A malfunctioning cockpit indicator made the crew believe that the landing gear was not properly deployed and locked, so they requested the control tower allow the plane to make a low pass for a visual check by ground personnel. After receiving the confirmation that the landing gear was down, the aircraft circled the airport for another attempt to land, but plunged into the ocean instead, killing all on board except the pilot.[35]
  • March 10, 1989: an Aero Condor Britten-Norman BN-2A Islander registration OB-1271 flying from Nazca to Jorge Chavez International Airport crashed into a building during approach killing all on board, apparently due to fuel exhaustion.[36]
  • January 25, 1991: a car bomb placed by the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA), killed two Peruvians and wounded several others. The attack occurred in a context of condemnation, by left-wing armed groups and political movements, of Operation Desert Storm; minutes after the attack, the US Embassy in Lima was attacked with an RPG by the MRTA.[37]
  • July 24, 1992: five American Airlines employees, charged with cleaning and baggage loading duties, were wounded by a bomb. This happened during the weekend in which Shining Path enforced a 48-hour nationwide "armed strike" that aimed at paralyzing, among other services, public transportation.[38][39]
  • January 22, 1993: three bullets hit the right side of the fuselage of American Airlines Flight 917 (inbound from Miami) while either landing or taxing on the runway after landing. There were no casualties and damage to the plane was minimal. Despite Shining Path (SP) claiming responsibility for the attack, a subsequent investigation failed to identify the actual assailants. Airport authorities reportedly stated that the source of the shots was accidental, originating in a security guard working in the perimeter.[40] The incident, occurring in the context of a decade-long leftist insurgency against the Peruvian state, happened in the midst of a surge of terrorist attacks and assassinations during that month which also targeted US interests and businesses.[41]
  • October 25, 1993: Months after the shooting of Flight 917, the cargo office of American Airlines suffered moderate property damage after the explosion of a bomb, placed under a minibus parked near the departure terminal. Shining Path involvement was suspected.[42]
  • April 15, 1995: an Imperial Air Tupolev Tu-134A-3 registration OB-1553 flying from Cusco to Jorge Chavez International Airport suffered a tyre failure after departure. The crew decided to continue the flight to Lima, but the left main landing gear did not extend during landing. There were no fatalities, but the aircraft was damaged beyond repair.[43]
  • October 2, 1996: Flight 603, an AeroPerú Boeing 757-23A registration N52AW flying the Miami-Lima-Santiago, Chile route crashed into the Pacific Ocean some minutes after its take off from Jorge Chávez International Airport, killing all on board. The accident investigation found that masking tape was accidentally left over the static ports during maintenance, rendering the airspeed indicator, altimeter and vertical speed indicator unreliable.[44]
  • On October 11, 2013 an Airbus A320 (registration N492TA) from Taca Airlines, made an emergency landing at 8:20am Local Time. The pilot declared an emergency due to smoke in the cockpit. The aircraft was en route from Jorge Chávez International Airport to El Salvador International Airport, San Salvador, El Salvador. There were 31 passengers plus crew on board. The aircraft landed safely.[45]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Statistics. "CORPAC S.A." www.corpac.gob.pe.
  2. ^ PDFarchive. "Flightglobal/view/1995/1995". www.flightglobal.com.
  3. ^ "Peru this Week". Archived from the original on 18 September 2009. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  4. ^ http://tnews.com.pe/vizcarra-hace-entrega-de-terrenos-en-jorge-chavez-y-asegura-anunciadas-inversiones/
  5. ^ https://rpp.pe/economia/economia/aeropuerto-jorge-chavez-cuando-podras-disfrutar-de-la-ampliacion-del-aeropuerto-jorge-chavez-noticia-1158957
  6. ^ https://gestion.pe/economia/ampliacion-jorge-chavez-permitira-transito-40-millones-pasajeros-2030-nndc-248041
  7. ^ Lima Airport: Best Airport in South America 2010 Archived 2010-12-22 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ El Comercio (4 June 2015). "Jorge Chávez es el Aeropuerto Líder en Sudamérica 2010, según "The Wall Street Journal"". EL COMERCIO. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  9. ^ "Airline Rating and Reviews – Airport Rating and Reviews – Seat Reviews". Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  10. ^ World Travel Awards 2012 Archived 2012-04-22 at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ "Aeropuerto Jorge Chávez fue elegido el mejor de Sudamérica por cuarta vez". Perú.com. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  12. ^ "Airport Lounge Access Worldwide – Priority Pass". Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  13. ^ "VIP Club". Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  14. ^ "Priority Pass Lounge of the Year 2010 – Recent News of Interest – Priority Pass". Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  15. ^ El Comercio (4 June 2015). "La sala vip del aeropuerto Jorge Chávez fue elegida la mejor del mundo por viajeros". EL COMERCIO. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  16. ^ El Comercio (4 June 2015). "Conozca la sala vip del aeropuerto Jorge Chávez, la mejor del mundo". EL COMERCIO. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  17. ^ Atsa Airlines. "Descubriendo juntos el Perú". www.atsaairlines.com.
  18. ^ C.A., Avior Airlines,. "Avior Airlines, C.A. - Noticias". www.aviorair.com (in Spanish).
  19. ^ 2018, UBM (UK) Ltd. "British Airways removes Lima NW17 schedule". Routesonline.
  20. ^ https://tnews.com.pe/gol-anuncia-vuelo-lima-sao-paulo-a-partir-del-proximo-12-de-diciembre/
  21. ^ https://tnews.com.pe/interjet-iniciara-vuelos-directos-entre-lima-y-cancun-el-17-de-junio/
  22. ^ "Latam Airlines anuncia três voos internacionais partindo de Brasília". UOL. 30 April 2019. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  23. ^ http://tnews.com.pe/latam-volara-directo-entre-lima-y-montego-bay-a-partir-del-1-de-julio/
  24. ^ https://tnews.com.pe/latam-posterga-inicio-de-vuelos-directos-entre-lima-y-jamaica-para-el-2-de-diciembre/
  25. ^ http://tnews.com.pe/sky-airline-iniciara-vuelos-a-siete-destinos-nacionales-a-partir-del-proximo-15-de-abril/
  26. ^ https://elcomercio.pe/economia/negocios/sky-airline-peru-low-cost-a320-airbus-aerolineas-costo-chile-lima-mtc-operara-rutas-aereas-siete-destinos-pais-noticia-605613
  27. ^ https://www.valoraanalitik.com/2019/03/11/viva-air-lanzo-tiquetes-para-su-nueva-ruta-cartagena-lima/
  28. ^ Liu, Jim. "Viva Air Peru adds Cartagena service from June 2019". Routesonline. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  29. ^ "https://www.mtc.gob.pe/transportes/aeronautica_civil/estadistica/pasajeros.html"
  30. ^ Harro Ranter (27 November 1962). "ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 707-441 PP-VJB Lima-Callao International Airport (LIM)". Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  31. ^ Germano da Silva, Carlos Ari César (2008). "Back course". O rastro da bruxa: história da aviação comercial brasileira no século XX através dos seus acidentes 1928-1996 (in Portuguese) (2 ed.). Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS. pp. 217–222. ISBN 978-85-7430-760-2.
  32. ^ Harro Ranter (8 May 1964). "ASN Aircraft accident Douglas C-54A-DO (DC-4) T-47 Lima International Airport (LIM)". Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  33. ^ America (1989). Terrorist Group Profiles. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 9781568068640.
  34. ^ Thomas, Andrew R. (2008). Aviation Security Management [3 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9780313346538.
  35. ^ Harro Ranter (8 December 1987). "ASN Aircraft accident Fokker F-27 Friendship 400M AE-560 Lima-Jorge Chavez International Airport (LIM)". Archived from the original on 5 August 2009. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  36. ^ Harro Ranter (10 March 1989). "ASN Aircraft accident IRMA/Britten-Norman BN-2A Islander OB-T-1271 Lima". Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  37. ^ Organization/20308.pdf. "Documents" (PDF). www.state.gov.
  38. ^ Mickolus, Edward F.; Simmons, Susan L. (1997). Terrorism, 1992-1995: A Chronology of Events and a Selectively Annotated Bibliography. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9780313304682.
  39. ^ Shining Path Rebels Flaunt. "Their Power With Strike In Peru". tribunedigital-sunsentinel.
  40. ^ Peruvian rebels bomb Coca-Cola plant,. "Kill mayoral candidates; shots fired at American Airlines jet)". UPI.
  41. ^ Organization/19813.pdf. "Documents" (PDF). www.state.gov.
  42. ^ ibid; p.11
  43. ^ Harro Ranter (15 April 1995). "ASN Aircraft accident Tupolev 134A-3 OB-1553 Lima-J Chavez International Airport (LIM)". Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  44. ^ Harro Ranter (2 October 1996). "ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 757-23A N52AW Lima, Peru". Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  45. ^ "INAC". Retrieved 4 June 2015.

External linksEdit

  Media related to Jorge Chávez International Airport at Wikimedia Commons