Grantley Adams International Airport

Grantley Adams International Airport (GAIA) (IATA: BGI, ICAO: TBPB) is an international airport at Seawell, Christ Church, Barbados, serving as the country's only port of entry by air.

Grantley Adams
International Airport
  • WMO: 78954[1][2][4]
Airport typePublic
OwnerGovernment of Barbados
OperatorGAIA Inc.[3]
LocationSeawell, Christ Church
Hub forCaribbean Airlines InterCaribbean Airways
Elevation AMSL170 ft / 52 m
Coordinates13°04′29″N 059°29′33″W / 13.07472°N 59.49250°W / 13.07472; -59.49250
A map showing the runway, taxiways and other structures of the airport.
Barbados airport diagram
TBPB is located in Barbados
Location within Barbados
Direction Length Surface
ft m
09/27 11,000 3,353 Asphalt
Statistics (2019)
Passenger change 18-19Increase7.16%
Aircraft movements32,854
Movements change 18–19Decrease1.37%
Source: DAFIF,[4][5] ACI's 2014 World Airport Traffic Report.

The airport is the only designated port of entry for persons arriving and departing by air in Barbados and operates as one of the major gateways to the Eastern Caribbean. It has direct service to destinations in the United States, Canada, Central America and Europe. In 2016, the airport was the eighth-busiest airport in the Caribbean region and the third-busiest airport in the Lesser Antilles after Queen Beatrix International Airport on Aruba and Pointe-à-Pitre International Airport on Guadeloupe. GAIA also remains an important air-link for cruise ship passengers departing and arriving at the Port of Bridgetown,[6] and a base of operations for the Regional Security System (RSS), and the Regional (Caribbean) Police Training Centre.

The airport's former name was Seawell Airport before being dedicated posthumously in honour of the first Premier of Barbados, Sir Grantley Herbert Adams in 1976. The airport is in the Atlantic time zone (UTC−4:00)[7] and is in World Area Code region No. 246 (by the US Department of Transportation). It was a hub for now-defunct Barbadian carriers Caribbean Airways[8] (not to be confused with the currently-as of 2024-operating Caribbean Airlines) and REDjet, the home for the charter carrier West Indies Executive Air, and former home to the flight training school Coconut Airways.

Overview and geography edit

Grantley Adams International Airport lies 12.9 km (8.0 mi) from the centre of the capital city Bridgetown, in an area officially known as Seawell. This is contrary to most information services stating the airport as being inside the capital. Grantley Adams Airport is the main air transportation hub for the Eastern Caribbean.

The terrain is relatively flat and quite suburban. The airport lies in the south-eastern portion of parish of Christ Church, close to the southern tip of the island. The airport has easy access to the ABC Highway/highway 7 heading towards the capital and locations to the north and west coast.

The airport has undergone a multi-phase US$100 million upgrade and expansion by the government, which added a new arrivals hall adjacent to the prior arrivals/departures terminals. Construction was made slightly more complicated because the airport has to remain open for up to 16 hours per day. Its current infrastructure is supposed to meet the needs of Barbados until at least 2015. The phase III construction project, which is yet to be completed will see changes made to the aeroplane parking configuration.[9][needs update]

History edit

Early years edit

Seawell Airport during the 1960s.

The first recorded flight in to Barbados was in 1929 at today's Rockley Golf Course.[10] As far as air transportation at the site of present-day facility, then known as Seawell Airport, history goes back as far as September 1938 when a mail plane from KLM Royal Dutch Airlines landed on the site from Trinidad.[11] At the time there was merely a grassy strip as the runway. The strip was paved some time later and in 1949 the first terminal was built on the site, to replace a shed that was being used. This ushered in the facility being formally known as the Seawell Airport due to the plantation.[citation needed]

During the 1960s the eastern flight-range just south-east of the airport became known as Paragon. This area became the initial base of a 'High Altitude Research Project' known as Project HARP. Project HARP was jointly sponsored by McGill University in Canada and the United States military.[12]

In mid-October, 1983, the civilian international airport became the scene of intense military activity. Then Prime Minister Tom Adams, the son of the airport's eponym, offered use of the facility to the U.S. military as a forward staging and support area for the diverse American aircraft which were deployed from the mainland in Operation Urgent Fury.[13] The airport also became a press center for more than 300 international journalist who had been dispatched by their organizations to report on the surprise multi-national intervention into the neighbouring island of Grenada. The younger Adams played a key leadership role in gathering support among English-speaking Caribbean nations for the operation to restore democracy and the rule of law on Grenada after an internal leadership dispute degraded into political assassination and civilian bloodshed.[13]

Also in 1983, the US-sponsored invasion of Grenada prompted the United States to form another agreement with Barbados. As part of the deal, the US expanded a part of the current airport infrastructure. This prepared Grantley Adams Airport to be used as a base.[14] As part of the plan to maintain for lasting stability in Grenada, the United States assisted in the establishment of the Regional Security System (RSS) at the eastern Grantley Adams flight-range. The RSS was (and still is) a security unit focused on providing security for the Eastern Caribbean.

Grantley Adams International Airport, as it is known today, handles most large aircraft including Boeing 747s. The airport was one of a handful of destinations where British Airways' Concorde aircraft made regularly scheduled flights (and got repairs). The flight time of Concorde from the United Kingdom to Barbados was less than 4 hours.[15] The first Concorde visit to Barbados was in 1977 for the Queen's Silver Jubilee. During the 1980s, Concorde returned for commercial flights to Barbados and thereafter flew to Barbados during the busy winter season. On 17 October 2011, ZA006, a Boeing 787 Dreamliner arrived at BGI for testing. This was followed by a 24 October arrival of the Boeing 747-8 for further high humidity environment testing.

2000–2006 Expansion project edit

The renovated terminal.

Since Grantley Adams International Airport had become a relatively busy airport for such a small island and based on an expected increase in future air traffic[16] the Government of Barbados commenced a US$100 million programme to revamp the airport's infrastructure.[17][18]

Phase I, which is now complete, saw an upgrading of the runways, taxiways, parking aprons, and approach lighting. This phase included the Government of Barbados acquiring private land adjacent to the landing strip to bring the airport into compliance with new international aviation regulations.[17][18]

Phase II (also complete) included adding a new arrivals terminal adjacent to the current building; moving arrivals from the older terminal, renovating the older terminal as a departures facility, and bringing the infrastructure into the new millennium.[17][18]

Expansion after 2006 edit

On 1 June 2007, the Bds$1.7 million Club Caribbean Executive Lounge and Business Centre[19] was opened as an added amenity for business travelers. The centre contains 5,000 sq ft (460 m2) and is on the mezzanine level.[20] The centre is meant to be used by special customers of several airlines at the terminal.[21]

The Phase III expansion had to wait until the completion of the 2007 Cricket World Cup. It envisions the addition of new airport terminal Jetway (gates), new spacious departure lounges much closer to the aeroplanes and air bridges to make connections much easier. Also nearing completion is the expanded duty-free shopping area and restaurants for travelers. In 2010 airport authorities stated that traffic to the airport was up 58%[22] and that a 20-25-year plan[23] was being formed for the facility including an addition to the taxiway and renovation of the cargo facilities up to international standards.

After the expansion project, the airport's arrivals facility was moved to a separate new 70,000-square-foot (6,500 m2) building adjacent to the previous structure. This allowed the departures area to occupy much of the previous shared structure. The new arrivals terminal was built with five large baggage carousels, along with customs and immigration windows.

Facilities edit

Both arrivals and departures terminals
Check-in hall

Terminals edit

Grantley Adams International Airport has two terminal buildings designed to appear as one single continuous structure.

The first structure and oldest is the current departures terminal. This terminal stretches from gates 11–13. Before the 2000–2006 expansion project, the original single terminal building housed both the arrivals and departures facilities. The former layout was divided in two with a few duty-free shops[24] and an open-air area in the middle with trees and other greenery which was open to both halves of the terminal. The new translucent membrane that towers over the airport shows where the old terminal was split in two. Additionally the membrane tent covers the gap between the old and new terminal and gives the appearance of being a single long building.

The new terminal spans gates 1–10. The terminal currently has 23 ground-level gates.[25]

Runway and taxiways edit

The airport is at an elevation of 52 metres (171 ft) above mean sea level.[6][7] It has a single two-mile asphalt paved runway: 09/27 measuring 11,017 by 148 feet (3,358 m × 45 m).[4] The airport has a single east-westerly runway, connected by six taxiway intersections with the aircraft parking area which is adjacent to the main terminals. As a result of the tradewinds that blow from the Atlantic Ocean across Barbados from the east, planes usually land and take-off in an easterly direction. This results in a typical flight path for arriving aircraft along the west coast of Barbados, while departing flights usually fly along the east coast. During some weather disturbances, such as passing hurricanes or tropical systems, planes may take off or land in a westerly direction such as on 29 August 2010.[26]

Navigation edit

TBPB is equipped with VOR/DME[27] and an ILS system. The airport operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.[28]

Airlines and destinations edit

Passenger edit

Aer Lingus Seasonal: Manchester (UK)[29]
Air Canada Toronto–Pearson[30]
Seasonal: Montréal–Trudeau
American Airlines Charlotte, Miami
Seasonal: New York–JFK (begins November 5, 2024),[31] Philadelphia (begins November 9, 2024)[31]
British Airways London–Heathrow[32]
Seasonal: London–Gatwick
Caribbean Airlines Antigua, Castries, Dominica–Douglas-Charles, Georgetown–Ogle,[33] Grenada, Kingston–Norman Manley, Port of Spain, St. Kitts, St. Maarten, St. Vincent–Argyle, San Juan (begins July 14, 2024),[34] Tobago[35]
Cayman Airways Grand Cayman (ends July 3, 2024)[36]
Condor Frankfurt[37]
Seasonal charter: Düsseldorf[38]
Conviasa Caracas[39]
Copa Airlines Panama City–Tocumen[40]
Delta Air Lines Atlanta (begins November 23, 2024),[41] New York–JFK (begins December 21, 2024)[41]
Discover Airlines Seasonal: Frankfurt
Frontier Airlines San Juan (begins July 3, 2024)[42]
InterCaribbean Airways Antigua, Castries, Dominica–Douglas-Charles, Georgetown–Cheddi Jagan, Grenada, Kingston–Norman Manley,[43] St. Kitts, St. Vincent–Argyle[44]
JetBlue Boston, New York–JFK
Maleth-Aero Seasonal charter: London-Gatwick, Manchester (UK)[45]
Mustique Airways Bequia, Canouan
Surinam Airways Georgetown–Cheddi Jagan, Paramaribo1[46]
SVG Air Bequia, Union Island
TUI Airways Seasonal: Birmingham, London–Gatwick, Manchester (UK)
United Airlines Newark, Washington–Dulles
Virgin Atlantic Grenada, London–Heathrow, St. Vincent–Argyle[47]
Seasonal: Manchester (UK)[48]
WestJet Toronto–Pearson[49]

Cargo edit

Besides the arrivals and departures terminals, Grantley Adams International Airport included provisions for a new cargo building in the 2000–06 expansion project. The cargo needs include timely postal services in addition to airline support. The cargo facility is located on the western end of the airport next to the new arrivals building.

Air Cargo Carriers Dominica–Douglas-Charles
Aloha Air Cargo Miami
Ameriflight Aguadilla, San Juan
Amerijet International Miami, Port of Spain, Santo Domingo-Las Americas, St. Maarten, Vieux Fort
DHL Aero Expreso Port of Spain
FedEx Aguadilla

Statistics edit

Annual passenger traffic at BGI airport. See Wikidata query.
Traffic by calendar year. Official ACI Statistics
Passengers Change from previous year Aircraft operations Change from previous year Cargo
(metric tons)
Change from previous year
2008 2,165,125   0.68% 38,986 N.D. 19,479 N.D.
2009 1,939,059  10.44% 34,454  11.62% 21,098   8.31%
2010 1,995,167   2.89% 35,378   2.68% 22,335   5.86%
2011 2,074,654   3.98% 35,452   0.21% 22,720   1.72%
2012 1,967,571   5.16% 34,476   2.75% 22,322   1.75%
2013 1,845,430   6.21% 31,670   8.14% 21,567   3.38%
2014 1,858,176   0.69% 30,247   4.49% 18,852  12.59%
2015 1,966,789   5.84% 30,508   0.87% 14,778  21.61%
2016 2,086,209   6.08% 30,398   0.36% 13,438  9.97%
2017 2,172,603   4.15% 32,352   6.43% 11,721  12.77%
2018 2,194,931   1.02% 33,296   3.0% 10,987  6.7%
2019 2,298,491   7.16% 32,854   1.37% 10,231  7.4%
Source: Airports Council International. World Airport Traffic Reports (2009,[50] 2011,[51] 2012,[52] 2013,[53] 2014[54])

Other facilities edit

The head office of the Barbados Civil Aviation Department is on the airport property.[55] In addition Barbados Meteorological Services,[56] operates a doppler weather radar station at the airport.[57]

Incidents and accidents edit

  • On 6 October 1976, Cubana Flight 455 was bombed and crashed off the coast of Barbados[1] in a terrorist attack by suspected CIA operatives[58] shortly after the plane took off from Barbados. The plane had landed in Barbados and was en route to Havana, Cuba by Kingston, Jamaica. Persons linked to the attack and said to be hired by Luis Posada Carriles had de-planed in Barbados and made plans to fly out of the country a short time later on an alternate flight.[59][60]
  • On 21 March 1981 a Caribbean Airways McDonnell-Douglas DC-10-30 operating a scheduled service from Barbados to London Gatwick suffered tyreburst on takeoff from GAIA, as a result of hitting an uneven patch on the runway. This caused most overhead lockers to open. Rather than returning to Barbados, the flight deck crew decided to continue to London Gatwick. Due to the flight's early arrival over the UK, ATC instructed the flight deck crew to hold for 25 minutes, following which the aircraft landed safely at Gatwick. There were no injuries among the 340 passengers. According to an airline spokesman, the hot rubber from the burst tyres had caused wiring short-circuits. These in turn had affected some flightdeck instruments.[61]
  • In 2010, during the heightened traffic frequency of the tourist season (November through April), a number of chartered airlines and regularly scheduled carriers reported a series of 'bird strikes' on takeoff. These were not serious enough to cause any damage to the aircraft and they continued on to their destinations. After brief investigations, the 'birds' turned out to be small Vesper bats, native to Barbados.[citation needed]
  • On 7 January 2018 a JetBlue Airbus A320 operating flight B6-25 from Boston Logan Airport was descending into Barbados when the crew declared an emergency reporting a fire on board. The aircraft landed safely and Runway 09 was subsequently closed temporarily. Emergency services checked the aircraft, gave their all clear and the aircraft taxied normally to the gate.[62]

Concorde Museum edit

Concorde G-BOAE on display

To the east of the main Grantley Adams Airport is the old Spencers Plantation, part of the new expanded airport grounds and site of the British Airways 8,534 m2 (91,860 sq ft) Concorde museum. The museum features a dedicated hall where one of the retired Concorde aircraft BAC/SNIAS Concorde 212 G-BOAE is now on display as a loan to the Government of Barbados.

On 2 November 1977 G-BOAE was the same aircraft that Queen Elizabeth II traveled flying from GAIA to London Heathrow, England. That occasion was the first visit by Concorde to Barbados.[63]

Awards edit

  • 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004 – The "Caribbean's Leading Airport" – by the World Travel Awards[64]
  • In 2010 Airport Council International (ACI) recognised the airport as one of the best facilities in the region for service excellence. Under the section Caribbean and Latin America, Grantley Adams Airport was ranked as third following: Guayaquil (GYE), Ecuador and Cancún (CUN), Mexico, respectively.[65][66]

See also edit

Notes edit

  • Resources for this airport:
1. ^ Accident history for BGI at Aviation Safety Network
2. ^ Airport Information and Live Flight Tracker for TBPB at FlightAware
3. ^ Aeronautical chart and airport information for BGI at SkyVector
4. ^ Recent weather observations for TBPB at NOAA/NWS
5. ^ Current weather for TBPB at NOAA/NWS
6. ^ "Airport information for TBPB". World Aero Data. Archived from the original on 5 March 2019.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link) Data current as of October 2006. Source: DAFIF.
7. ^ Airport information for TBPB/BGI at Great Circle Mapper. Source: DAFIF (effective October 2006).

References edit

  1. ^ Weather at the Grantley Adams Airport, WeatherCast UK
  2. ^ Station Information Listing, NOAA
  3. ^ S., D. (4 April 2008). "Brancker: Airport board will enhance tourism". Nation Newspaper. Archived from the original on 9 April 2008. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
  4. ^ a b Airport information for TBPB[usurped] from DAFIF (effective October 2006)
  5. ^ Airport information for BGI at Great Circle Mapper. Source: DAFIF (effective October 2006).
  6. ^ B., J. M. (25 January 2011). "Forecast looking good for passenger growth". The Barbados Advocate. Archived from the original on 26 March 2012. Retrieved 25 January 2011. "Our thrust is to take the number of cruise passengers from 700,000 to 1.2 million per year. A significant percentage of these will be part of the Air/Sea and Stay/Cruise programs. Existing facilities at GAIA are already stressed to handle passenger volumes during the 12 to 4 pm period. The new focus of developing the air/sea program will necessitate a suitable review of the airport plant and no doubt this will be addressed in by the master plan," he said.
  7. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes in Christ Church, Barbados". Retrieved 8 May 2020.
  8. ^ Photo: Caribbean Airways,
  9. ^ W., J. (21 June 2007). "Tax 'not too much'". Nation Newspaper. Archived from the original on 26 June 2007. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  10. ^ First International Flight Stone and Plaque, Atlas Obscura
  11. ^ "History of Barbados Aviation". Retrieved 6 June 2015.
  12. ^ Cole, Angela (2 December 2008). "Local knowledge of HARP". Archived from the original on 5 October 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
  13. ^ a b Kukielski, Philip (2019). The U.S. Invasion of Grenada : legacy of a flawed victory. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co. pp. 33–34, 55, 140 and 177–178. ISBN 978-1-4766-7879-5. OCLC 1123182247.
  14. ^ Staff writer (26 September 2010). "Ex-airport boss recalls Cubana crash". Nation Newspaper. Archived from the original on 24 January 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
  15. ^ Greaves-Gabbadon, Sarah, ed. (19 March 2015). "10 Things You Never Knew About Concorde and the Caribbean". Caribbean Journal. Retrieved 10 September 2022.
  16. ^ "Dame Billie: Why fuss about airport expansion?". Nation Newspaper. 11 January 2006. Archived from the original on 19 March 2007. Retrieved 2 June 2006.
  17. ^ a b c S., D. (11 January 2006). "Airport first phase 'ready by April'". Nation Newspaper. Archived from the original on 27 April 2006. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
  18. ^ a b c Selman, Regina (3 February 2006). "Capital works projects on stream for airport". Barbados Advocate. Archived from the original on 8 February 2006.
  19. ^ Staff writer (11 May 2007). "New Executive Lounge at Grantley Adams". The Broad Street Journal. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
  20. ^ Staff writer (10 July 2007). "VIP lounge opens at GAI". CBC. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 19 June 2010. President of the Airlines Association of Barbados, John White says the lounge was refurbished at a cost of 1.7 million Barbados dollars and sits on five thousand square feet of space. He says when completed the lounge will cater to 200 passengers flying first and business class. The lounge has internet connection, PCs , fax machines scanners copying machines full range of drinks and snacks for guests.
  21. ^ Staff writer (2 July 2007). "Airline Association providing new executive lounge at GAIA". Barbados Advocate. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 19 June 2010.
  22. ^ A., C. (8 December 2010). "Cheaper GAIA". Nation Newspaper. Archived from the original on 25 March 2014. Retrieved 9 December 2010. The airport CEO noted the level of transfer passengers through Grantley Adams had risen by 58 per cent.
  23. ^ Staff writer (8 December 2010). "GAIA Master plan". Barbados Advocate. Archived from the original on 26 March 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2010.
  24. ^ "Restaurants and Duty Free Shopping at GAIA". Government of Barbados. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2008.
  25. ^ "GAIA Interactive Map". Archived from the original on 30 July 2012. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
  26. ^ S., E. (30 August 2010). "Winds force take-off change". Nation Newspaper. Archived from the original on 6 November 2013. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
  27. ^ "Adams VOR-DME (BGI)". Retrieved 6 June 2015.
  28. ^ General Information >Plant and Operations, GAIA Inc.
  29. ^ "Aer Lingus extends season on Manchester Airport to Barbados route". Marketing Stockport. 31 October 2023. Retrieved 10 May 2024.
  30. ^ "Air Canada marks 74th anniversary of non-stop flights to Barbados". Caribbean National Weekly. 4 December 2023. Retrieved 10 May 2024.
  31. ^ a b "American Airlines Expands Barbados Service in 4Q24". AeroRoutes. 21 February 2024.
  32. ^ "Barbados First Caribbean Island to Welcome Dreamliner 787-10-Will Increase Airlift From London". St. Kitts & Nevis Observer. 3 April 2024. Retrieved 10 May 2024.
  33. ^ "Caribbean Airlines adding more flights to Antigua, Guyana". Caribbean Journal. 1 July 2023. Retrieved 10 May 2024.
  34. ^ "CARIBBEAN AIRLINES WELCOMES YOU TO PUERTO RICO". Caribbean Airlines Newsroom. 1 May 2024. Retrieved 1 May 2024.
  35. ^ "CAL announces new non-stop service between Tobago, Barbados | Loop Trinidad & Tobago".
  36. ^ "CAL's Barbados flight to end after review of route".
  37. ^ "Condor is Adding Year-Round Flights to Barbados". 15 September 2023.
  38. ^ "Condor Schedules Dusseldorf Long-Haul Charters in NW22". AeroRoutes. 6 July 2022. Retrieved 10 May 2024.
  39. ^ "Conviasa abrirá dos nuevas rutas para este mes de septiembre". (in Spanish). 13 September 2023. Retrieved 22 September 2023.
  40. ^ "Copa Airlines returns to Barbados after two-year hiatus". Loop News. 16 June 2022. Retrieved 10 May 2024.
  41. ^ a b "Delta Adds 4 More Routes to Mexico, Caribbean Beaches Next Winter". 2 February 2024.
  42. ^ "Frontier Airlines Announces New Service from San Juan to Barbados and Santiago, Dominican Republic, Plus Charlotte to Miami". Frontier Newsroom. Retrieved 23 April 2024.
  43. ^ "InterCaribbean announces upcoming launch of non-stop flights between Bridgetown and Kingston". 5 January 2024.
  44. ^ "InterCaribbean Airways | interCaribbean announces new flights from between Barbados St Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines and Dominica".
  45. ^ "Maltese carrier to run P&O Cruises Caribbean charter flights".
  46. ^ "Surinam Airways to fly between Guyana and Barbados". December 2023.
  47. ^ "Virgin Atlantic to launch inter-island flying in the Caribbean". Caribbean Journal. 5 June 2023. Retrieved 10 May 2024.
  48. ^ "Fly greener in 2022: Virgin Atlantic dropping certain planes".
  49. ^ "Westjet clips Barbados from schedule". 14 January 2021.
  50. ^ Airport Council International Archived 11 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine's 2009 World Airport Traffic Report
  51. ^ Airport Council International's 2011 World Airport Traffic Report
  52. ^ Airport Council International's 2012 World Airport Traffic Report
  53. ^ Airport Council International's 2013 World Airport Traffic Report
  54. ^ Airport Council International Archived 6 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine's 2014 World Airport Traffic Report
  55. ^ "PERSONNEL LICENSING ADVISORY CIRCULAR BCAD Document PLAC-06 Archived 6 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine." Barbados Civil Aviation Department. 3 of 13. Retrieved on 13 January 2011. "This PLAC can be purchased from the Barbados Civil Aviation Department, Grantley Adams International Airport, Christ Church, Barbados or downloaded from the BCAD website at< Archived 18 March 2020 at the Wayback Machine>."
  56. ^ "Barbados Meteorological Services". Archived from the original on 30 November 2019. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
  57. ^ "Barbados Met. radar stream online". Archived from the original on 2 December 2019. Retrieved 11 March 2018.
  58. ^ McKinley Jr., James C. (9 January 2011). "Terror Accusations, but Perjury Charges". New York Times. Retrieved 12 February 2011. HOUSTON – An elderly Cuban exile who once worked for the C.I.A. and has been linked to bombings in Havana and the downing of an airliner in the 1970s is scheduled to go on trial this week in a Texas courtroom – not on terrorism charges, but for perjury.
  59. ^ Singh, Rickey (6 October 2010). "Cubana revisited". Nation Newspaper. Retrieved 15 January 2011. THIRTY-FOUR years ago today, terrorists blew up a Cubana passenger aircraft off Barbados, killing all 73 people on board – mostly Cubans, but including 11 Guyanese and five North Koreans – on their way to Havana.
  60. ^ Staff writer (10 January 2011). "Alleged Cubana terrorist goes on trial". Nation Newspaper. French Press. Retrieved 15 January 2011. Many of the 560 filings in the case so far remain sealed – not available to the public – including items related to Posada's CIA history and his taped interview with author Ann Louise Bardach. The US Justice Department attorneys had asked for the seals.
  61. ^ "british aerospace - 1981 - 0928 - Flight Archive". Retrieved 6 June 2015.
  62. ^ "Incident: Jetblue A320 at Bridgetown on Jan 7th 2018, fire on board".
  63. ^ "Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubillee, Barbados 1977, Parliament and Queen's First Flight on Concorde — Craig Burleigh Photography exceptional images of Concorde G-BOAE, Barbados, Caribbean photos, St. Vincent, Trinidad Carnival". Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2015.
  64. ^ Staff writer (2019). "Nominations and awards of GAIA". World Travel Awards. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  65. ^ Staff writer (20 March 2010). "Barbados airport best in the Caribbean". Archived from the original on 23 March 2010. Retrieved 20 March 2010.
  66. ^ Staff writer (16 February 2010). "ASQ Top Performers 2009 – Latin America & Caribbean". Airports Council International. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2011.

Further reading edit

External links edit