Deutsche Lufthansa AG (German pronunciation: [ˌdɔʏtʃə ˈlʊfthanzaː ʔaːˈɡeː]), commonly shortened to Lufthansa, is the flag carrier of Germany.[12] When combined with its subsidiaries, it is the second-largest airline in Europe in terms of passengers carried.[13][14] Lufthansa is one of the five founding members of Star Alliance, the world's largest airline alliance, formed in 1997.[15][16]

Deutsche Lufthansa AG
Lufthansa Logo 2018.svg
IATA ICAO Callsign
LH DLH LUFTHANSA
Founded6 January 1953; 69 years ago (1953-01-06)[note 1]
Commenced operations1 April 1955; 67 years ago (1955-04-01)
Hubs
Frequent-flyer programMiles & More
AllianceStar Alliance
Subsidiaries
Fleet size277
Destinations220
Parent companyLufthansa Group
Traded as
ISINDE0008232125
HeadquartersCologne, Germany
Key people
Founders
RevenueIncrease 16.81 billion (2021)[6]
Operating incomeIncrease €−90 million (2021)[6]
Net incomeIncrease €−2.19 billion (2021)[6]
Total assetsIncrease €42.54 billion (2021)[6]
Total equityIncrease €4.49 billion (2021)[6]
Employees107,643 (2021)[6]
Websitelufthansa.com

Besides its own services, and owning subsidiary passenger airlines Austrian Airlines, Swiss International Air Lines, Brussels Airlines, and Eurowings (referred to in English by Lufthansa as its Passenger Airline Group), Deutsche Lufthansa AG owns several aviation-related companies, such as Lufthansa Technik and LSG Sky Chefs, as part of the Lufthansa Group. In total, the group has over 700 aircraft, making it one of the largest airline fleets in the world.[17][18]

Lufthansa's registered office and corporate headquarters are in Cologne.[19] The main operations base, called Lufthansa Aviation Center, is at Lufthansa's primary hub at Frankfurt Airport,[20][21] and its secondary hub is at Munich Airport where a secondary Flight Operations Centre is maintained.[22]

The company was founded as Luftag in 1953 by staff of the former Deutsche Luft Hansa that had been politically connected to the government of Nazi Germany and dissolved after World War II. Luftag continued the traditional branding of the German flag carrier by acquiring the Luft Hansa name and logo.

HistoryEdit

1950s: Post-war (re-)formationEdit

Revenue Passenger-Kilometers, scheduled flights only, in millions
Year Traffic
1955 78
1960 1,284
1965 3,785
1969 6,922
1971 8,610
1975 13,634
1980 21,056
1989 36,133
1995 61,602
2000 94,170
Source: ICAO Digest of Statistics for 1955, IATA World Air Transport Statistics 1960-2000
 
Lufthansa's first aircraft, a Convair 340 (type pictured), was delivered in August 1954.

Lufthansa traces its history to 1926 when Deutsche Luft Hansa A.G. (styled as Deutsche Lufthansa from 1933 onwards) was formed in Berlin.[3] DLH, as it was known, was Germany's flag carrier until 1945 when all services were terminated following the defeat of Nazi Germany; it has since been demonstrated that Deutsche Luft Hansa relied on the use of forced labor and housed forced laborers on the site of Tempelhof airport.[23][24] In an effort to create a new national airline, a company called Aktiengesellschaft für Luftverkehrsbedarf (Luftag),[1] was founded in Cologne on 6 January 1953, with many of its staff having worked for the pre-war Lufthansa; this included Kurt Weigelt, a Nazi convicted of war crimes, who served on the board on the new Lufthansa, and Kurt Knipfer, a member of the Nazi party from 1929 who led Luft Hansa from 1933 to 1945.[25][26]

West Germany had not yet been granted sovereignty over its airspace, so it was not known when the new airline could become operational. Nevertheless, in 1953 Luftag placed orders for four Convair CV-340s and four Lockheed L-1049 Super Constellations and set up a maintenance base at Hamburg Airport.[1][2] On 6 August 1954, Luftag acquired the name and logo of the liquidated Deutsche Lufthansa for DM 30,000 (equivalent to €41000 today),[2] thus continuing the tradition of a German flag carrier of that name.

 
Lufthansa Lockheed L-1049G Super Constellation operating a transatlantic scheduled service from Hamburg to Montreal and Chicago in May 1956

On 1 April 1955 Lufthansa won approval to start scheduled domestic flights,[2] linking Hamburg, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Cologne, and Munich.[27] International flights started on 15 May 1955, to London, Paris, and Madrid,[27][28] followed by Super Constellation flights to New York City from 1 June of that year,[27] and across the South Atlantic from August 1956. In August 1958 fifteen Lufthansa 1049Gs and 1649s left Germany each week to Canada and the United States, three 1049Gs a week flew to South America, three flew to Tehran and one to Baghdad. In parallel, the airline also initiated a marketing campaign to sell itself and West Germany. The challenges involved encouraging travelers to consider visiting the country in the wake of World War II, as well as offering services to other nations via the Frankfurt airport hub. More specifically, Lufthansa's efforts shaped and reflected the development of a modern form of consumerism and advertising through the sale of air travel. By 1963, the airline, initially limited in its public relations efforts, had become a major purveyor of West Germany's image abroad.[29]

The special status of Berlin meant that Lufthansa was not allowed to fly to either part of Berlin until German reunification in 1990. Originally thought to be only a temporary matter (and with intentions to move the airline's headquarters and main base there once the political situation changed),[1] the Division of Germany turned out to be longer than expected, which gradually led to Frankfurt Airport becoming Lufthansa's primary hub.

East Germany tried to establish its airline in 1955 using the Lufthansa name, but this resulted in a legal dispute with West Germany, where Lufthansa was operating. East Germany instead established Interflug as its national airline in 1963, which coincided with the East German Lufthansa being shut down.[30]

1960s: Introduction of jetlinersEdit

 
In 1960, Lufthansa joined the jet age with the Boeing 707. The image shows a 707 at Hamburg Airport in 1984, shortly before the type was retired.
 
A Lufthansa Boeing 727-100 approaching Heathrow Airport in 1978

In 1958 Lufthansa ordered four Boeing 707s and started jet flights from Frankfurt to New York City in March 1960. Boeing 720Bs were later bought to back up the 707 fleets. In February 1961 Far East routes were extended beyond Bangkok, Thailand, to Hong Kong and Tokyo. Lagos, Nigeria, and Johannesburg, South Africa were added in 1962.

Lufthansa introduced the Boeing 727 in 1964 and that May began the Polar route from Frankfurt to Tokyo via Anchorage. In February 1965 the company ordered twenty-one Boeing 737s that went into service in 1968. Lufthansa was the first customer for the Boeing 737 and was one of four buyers of the 737-100s (the others were NASA, Malaysia-Singapore Airlines, and Avianca – while the NASA airframe was the first built, it was the last delivered and originally intended for delivery to Lufthansa). Lufthansa was the first foreign launch customer for a Boeing airliner.

1970s–1980s: The wide-body eraEdit

The wide-body era for Lufthansa started with a Boeing 747 flight on 26 April 1970. It was followed by the introduction of the DC-10-30 on 12 November 1973, and the first Airbus A300 in 1976. In 1979 Lufthansa and Swissair became launch customers for the Airbus A310 with an order for twenty-five aircraft.

The company's fleet modernization programme for the 1990s began on 29 June 1985, with an order for fifteen Airbus A320s and seven Airbus A300-600s. Ten Boeing 737-300s were ordered a few days later. All were delivered between 1987 and 1992. Lufthansa also bought Airbus A321, Airbus A340, and Boeing 747-400 aircraft.

In 1987 Lufthansa, together with Air France, Iberia, and Scandinavian Airlines, founded Amadeus, an IT company (also known as a GDS) that would enable travel agencies to sell the founders and other airlines' products from a single system.

Lufthansa adopted a new corporate identity in 1988. The fleet was given a new livery, while cabins, city offices, and airport lounges were redesigned.

1990s–2000s: Further expansionEdit

 
Lufthansa was the launch customer of the Boeing 737, the best-selling jet airliner for long time until replaced by Airbus A320 in late 2019.[31] The image shows an original 737-100 at Hannover Airport in 1968.
 
Lufthansa operated the high-capacity Airbus A300-600 on domestic and European routes until 2009. The image shows an aircraft of that type on final approach at Frankfurt Airport in 2003.

On 28 October 1990, 25 days after reunification, Berlin became a Lufthansa destination again. On 18 May 1997, Lufthansa, Air Canada, Scandinavian Airlines, Thai Airways International, and United Airlines formed Star Alliance, the world's first multilateral airline alliance.

At the beginning of 1995, Lufthansa made some structural changes aimed at creating independent operating companies of the aviation group, such as Lufthansa Technik, Lufthansa Cargo and Lufthansa Systems. Three new companies who joined later in the Lufthansa Group were LSG Sky Chefs, Condor and Lufthansa CityLine.[32]

In 1999, Lufthansa participated in the German Business Foundation initiative addressing class action lawsuits against German companies for World War II-era misdeeds, including the use of forced labor, by reportedly paying 10s of millions German marks.[33] The same year, Lufthansa commissioned the scholar Lutz Budrass to investigate the use of forced labor by its predecessor company, Deutsche Luft Hansa, during World War II; it declined to publish Dr. Budrass's resulting study for more than a decade.[33]

In 2000, Air One became a Lufthansa partner airline and nearly all Air One flights were code-shared with Lufthansa until Alitalia purchased Air One. Lufthansa has a good track record for posting profits, even in 2001, after 9/11, the airline suffered a significant loss in profits but still managed to stay 'in the black'. While many other airlines announced layoffs (typically 20% of their workforce), Lufthansa retained its current workforce.[34]

On 6 December 2001, Lufthansa announced an order for 15 Airbus A380 superjumbos with 10 more options, which was confirmed on 20 December. The A380 fleet would be used for long-haul flights from Frankfurt exclusively.

In June 2003, Lufthansa opened Terminal 2 at Munich's Franz Josef Strauß Airport to relieve its main hub, Frankfurt, which was suffering from capacity constraints. It is one of the first terminals in Europe partially owned by an airline.

On 17 May 2004, Lufthansa became the launch customer for the Connexion by Boeing in-flight online connectivity service.[35]

In autumn 2003, the implementation of a new sales strategy initiated by then-incumbent Executive Vice President Thierry Antinori to make the company fit for the digital era led to the abolition of commission payments for travel agencies and led to a revolution in the German travel business with many travel agencies disappearing from the market on the one hand, and the rise of new digital distribution platforms on the other hand.[36]

On 22 March 2005, Swiss International Air Lines was purchased by Lufthansa's holding company. The acquisition included the provision that the majority shareholders (the Swiss government and large Swiss companies) be offered payment if Lufthansa's share price outperforms an airline index during the years following the merger. The two companies will continue to be run separately.

On 6 December 2006, Lufthansa placed an order for 20 Boeing 747-8s, becoming the launch customer of the passenger model. The airline is also the second European airline to operate the Airbus A380 (after Air France). The first A380 was delivered on 19 May 2010, while the first 747-8 entered service in 2012.[37]

In September 2008, Lufthansa Group announced its intent to purchase a stake in Brussels Airlines (SN). In June 2009, the EU Commission granted regulatory approval and Lufthansa acquired 45% of SN.[38] In September 2016, Lufthansa announced it would purchase the remainder of Brussels Airlines for €2.6 million euros.[39] The transaction was completed in early January 2017.[40] The decision was partially taken after the Brussels airport bombings of March 2016, which caused SN to lose almost €5 million per day until 3 April.

In September 2009, Lufthansa purchased Austrian Airlines with the approval of the European Commission.[41]

On 11 June 2010, Airbus A380 service between Frankfurt and Tokyo (Narita) started.[42]

2010s: Belt-tighteningEdit

 
A Boeing 747-8I and Airbus A380-800 of Lufthansa at Frankfurt Airport. The A380 and 747-8, together with the Airbus A350, formed the backbone for Lufthansa's long-haul routes in the 2010s.

After a loss of 381 million euros in the first quarter of 2010 and another 13 million loss in the year 2011 due to the economic recession and restructuring costs, Deutsche Lufthansa AG cut 3,500 administrative positions or around 20 percent of the clerical total of 16,800.[43] In 2012, Lufthansa announced a restructuring program called SCORE to improve its operating profit. As a part of the restructuring plan, the company started to transfer all short-haul flights outside its hubs in Frankfurt, Munich, and Düsseldorf to the company's re-branded low-cost carrier Germanwings.[44]

In September 2013, Lufthansa Group announced its biggest order, for 59 wide-body aircraft valued more than 14 billion euros at list prices. Earlier in the same year, Lufthansa placed an order for 100 next-generation narrow-body aircraft.[45]

The group has had a long-standing dispute with the Vereinigung Cockpit union which has demanded a scheme in which pilots can retire at the age of 55, and 60% of their pay be retained, which Lufthansa insists is no longer affordable. Lufthansa pilots were joined by pilots from the group's budget carrier Germanwings to stage a nationwide strike in support of their demands in April 2014 which lasted three days. The pilots staged a six-hour strike at the end of the summer holidays in September 2014, which caused the cancellation of 200 Lufthansa flights and 100 Germanwings flights.[46]

During the course of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, part of the fleet was branded "Fanhansa".[47]

In November 2014, Lufthansa signed an outsourcing deal worth $1.25 billion with IBM that will see the US company take over the airline's IT infrastructure services division and staff.[48]

In June 2015, Lufthansa announced plans to close its small long-haul base at Düsseldorf Airport for economic reasons by October 2015. At the time, the base consisted of two Airbus A340-300s rotating between Newark and Chicago. As a result, service to Chicago from Düsseldorf was first made seasonal, suspended for the winter 2015 season, and then canceled altogether.[49] Service to Newark, however, was initially maintained. From the winter 2015 schedule through the end of the winter 2016 schedule, Düsseldorf was served by aircraft which also flew the Munich-Newark route. The Düsseldorf-Newark route ended on 30 November 2018, which was operated with an Airbus A330-300 aircraft.[50] Their base was officially closed in March 2019.[51][52]

On 22 March 2016, Lufthansa ended Boeing 737-500 operations.[53] The airline's last Boeing 737 (a 737-300) was retired on 29 October 2016, after a flight from Milan to Frankfurt. Lufthansa operated the 737 in several variants for almost 50 years, the first aircraft having been delivered on 27 December 1967.[54]

On 4 December 2017, Lufthansa became the first European airline to receive the Skytrax 5 star certification.[55] As stated by Skytrax, a key factor in the positive rating was the announcement of a new Business Class cabin and seating that was expected to be introduced in 2020.[56] While this makes Lufthansa the 10th airline to be holding this award, in reality the 5th star was given to a product that was supposed to be introduced two years after the evaluation.[57] In celebration, Lufthansa painted an Airbus A320 and a Boeing 747-8 in the "5 Starhansa" livery.[58]

In March 2018, Lufthansa and other airlines like British Airways and American Airlines accepted a request from Beijing to list Taiwan as part of China.[59]

In March 2019 Lufthansa ordered 20 Boeing 787-9 and an additional 20 Airbus A350-900 for its own and the group's fleet replacement and expansion. Also, the airline announced it would sell six A380 aircraft back to Airbus, beginning in 2022.

 
15 aircraft of Lufthansa that are parked at Berlin Brandenburg Airport on 21 March 2020 due to the cancellation of 95 percent of all flights of the airline on 19 March 2020

2020s: COVID-19 pandemic and recoveryEdit

On 19 March 2020 Lufthansa cancelled 95 percent of all flights due to a travel ban because of the COVID-19 pandemic.[60] Consequently, the airline incurred losses of 1 million euros per hour by April 2020. While Lufthansa reduced its costs throughout 2020, continuing health risks and travel restrictions still caused hourly losses of approximately 500,000 euros on average at the beginning of 2021.[61]

On 14 May, Lufthansa Group announced that it planned to operate 1,800 weekly flights by the end of June.[62] The company's recovery plans involved high-density cargo to replace paying customers.[63] All Lufthansa Group required all passengers to wear a mask while aboard.[63]

On 25 June, Deutsche Lufthansa AG shareholders accepted a 9,000,000,000 bailout, consisting of capital measures and the participation of the Economic Stabilisation Fund (WSF) of the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy.[64][65][66][67] The measures, which passed after initial opposition by principal shareholder Heinz Hermann Thiele, gave the government a 20% stake in the airline.[68][69][70]

In January 2021, Lufthansa CEO Spohr announced that the entire currently stored Airbus A340-600 fleet will be retired with immediate effect and not return to service anymore.[71] In June 2021, Lufthansa said it wants to repay state aid it received during the pandemic before Germany's federal election in September 2021 if possible.[72] Also in June 2021, Lufthansa said it would change its communications to adopt a more gender-neutral and inclusive language. It will remove greetings such as "Ladies and Gentlemen".[73]

In January 2022 Lufthansa admitted it had operated over 18,000 empty flights to keep airport slots during the pandemic.[74]

In March 2022, Lufthansa originally confirmed that its entire Airbus A380 fleet would be retired, having been in storage since early 2020.[75]

In May 2022, Skytrax demoted Lufthansa from its aforementioned 5 star rating which it held since 2017 as the first European carrier to do so, to an overall 4 star rating.[76]

In June 2022, Lufthansa revised its former decision to retire all Airbus A380s with plans to now return up to five aircraft from storage by 2023 to be based at Munich Airport. There is also an option to return all remaining eight A380 back to service by 2024, as six of formerly 14 have already been sold.[77]

Corporate affairsEdit

OwnershipEdit

Lufthansa was a state-owned enterprise until 1994.[78] Deutsche Lufthansa AG shares have been publicly traded on all German stock exchanges since 1966. In addition to floor trading, it is also traded electronically using the Xetra system. It is a DAX index share and is listed in the Frankfurt Stock Exchange's Prime Standard.[79] At the end of 2019, the shareholders’ register showed that German investors held 67.3% of the shares (previous year: 72.1%). The second-largest group, with 10.4%, was shareholders from Luxembourg. Investors from the US accounted for 8.1%, followed by Ireland and the United Kingdom, each with 3.6%. This ensures compliance with the provisions of the German Aviation Compliance Documentation Act (LuftNaSiG). As of the reporting date, 58% of the shares were held by institutional investors (previous year: 53%), and 42% were held by private individuals (previous year: 47%). Lansdowne Partners International Ltd. and BlackRock, Inc. were the largest shareholders in the Lufthansa Group at year-end, with 4.9% and 3.1% respectively. All the transactions requiring disclosure and published during the financial year 2019, as well as the quarterly updates on the shareholder structure, are available online. During the 2020 COVID crisis Heinz Hermann Thiele increased his stake to more than 12%; he died a few months later. The free float for Lufthansa shares was 67% in 2020, as per the definition of the Deutsche Börse.

German government bail-outEdit

The German government offered a €9 billion bailout to support the airline through COVID-19 induced economic issues. With this bailout, the government's stake in the airline increased to 20%, and also grant it board seats, while diluting existing shareholder stakes.[80] The shareholders of the company approved the bailout on Thursday, June 26, offering the airline a fresh lease of life.[81]

Business trendsEdit

Key business and operating results of the Lufthansa Group for recent years are shown below (as at year ending 31 December):

2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Turnover (€ m) 22,283 27,324 28,734 30,135 30,027 30,011 32,056 31,660 35,579 35,542 36,424 13,589
Net profit/loss (€ m) −43 1,131 −13 990 313 55 1,698 1,776 2,364 2,163 1,213 −6,725
Number of employees (k at year end) 117.5 117.0 116.4 117.0 118.3 118.8 120.7 124.3 129.4 135.5 138.4 110.1
Number of passengers (m) 77.3 91.2 100.5 103.1 104.6 106.0 107.7 109.7 130.0 141.9 145.3 36.4
Passenger load factor (%) 77.9 79.3 77.6 78.8 79.8 80.1 80.4 79.1 80.9 81.5 82.6 63.2
Cargo load factor (%) 60.6 68.0 66.8 66.9 69.1 69.9 66.3 66.6 69.3 66.6 61.4 69.6
Number of aircraft (at year end) 722 710 636 627 622 615 602 617 728 763 763 757
Notes/sources [82] [82] [82] [82] [82] [82] [82] [82][83] [82] [82] [82] [a][19]
  1. ^ 2020: Activities and income in fiscal 2020 were severely reduced by the impact of the coronavirus pandemic

HeadquartersEdit

 
Lufthansa's headquarters in Deutz, Cologne

Lufthansa's corporate headquarters are in Cologne. In 1971, Lawrence Fellows of The New York Times described the then-new headquarters building that Lufthansa occupied in Cologne as "gleaming".[84] In 1986, Left-wing terrorists bombed the building.[85] No one was injured.[86] In 2006, builders laid the first stone of the new Lufthansa headquarters in Deutz, Cologne. By the end of 2007, Lufthansa planned to move 800 employees, including the company's finance department, to the new building.[87] However, in early 2013 Lufthansa revealed plans to relocate its head office from Cologne to Frankfurt by 2017.[88]

Several Lufthansa departments are not at the headquarters; instead they are in the Lufthansa Aviation Center at Frankfurt Airport. These departments include Corporate Communications and Investor Relations.[89][90]

Airline subsidiariesEdit

 
Lufthansa Group passenger fleet size, including subsidiaries and excluding cargo (wholly owned)
 
The Lufthansa Aviation Center at Frankfurt Airport
 
The hangar of Lufthansa Technik at Frankfurt Airport
 
A Lufthansa advertisement in Lisbon

In addition to its main passenger operation, Lufthansa has several airline subsidiaries, including:[19]

Wholly owned by LufthansaEdit

Partly owned by LufthansaEdit

  • AeroLogic – German cargo airline owned by a joint-venture of Lufthansa (50%) and DHL (50%)
  • SunExpress – Turkish leisure airline jointly owned by Lufthansa (50%) and Turkish Airlines (50%)

FormerEdit

Other subsidiariesEdit

In addition to the airlines mentioned above, Lufthansa maintains further aviation affiliated subsidiaries:[19]

  • Global Load Control, a world leader in remote weight and balance services.
  • LSG Sky Chefs, the world's largest airline caterer, which accounts for one-third of the world's airline meals.
  • Lufthansa Consulting, an international aviation consultancy for airlines, airports, and related industries.
  • Lufthansa Flight Training, a provider of flight crew training services to various airlines and the main training arm for the airline's pilots.
  • Lufthansa Systems, the largest European aviation IT provider.
  • Lufthansa Technik, aircraft maintenance providers.
  • Lufthansa City Center International, a network of independent travel agents who are Lufthansa franchisees
  • Lufthansa AirPlus Servicekarten GMBH, (AirPlus International) travel payment company via UATP and Mastercard.

BrandingEdit

 
A Lufthansa Airbus A320-200 in the old livery used since 1988
 
A Lufthansa Airbus A320neo in the livery adapted since 2018

The Lufthansa logo, an encircled stylized crane in flight, was first created in 1918 by Otto Firle. It was part of the livery of the first German airline, Deutsche Luft-Reederei (abbreviated DLR), which began air service on 5 February 1919. In 1926, Deutsche Luft Hansa adopted this symbol, and in 1954, Lufthansa expressed continuity by adopting it and later in 1963 – a variant thereof as redesigned by Robert Lisovskyi.

The original creator of the name Lufthansa is believed to be F.A. Fischer von Puturzyn. In 1925, he published a book entitled "Luft-Hansa" which examined the options open to aviation policymakers at the time. Luft Hansa was the name given to the new airline, which resulted from the merger of Junkers' airline (Luftverkehr AG) and Deutscher Aero Lloyd.[95]

After World War II, the company kept blue and yellow as its main colours and the crane logo. Since the beginning of the 1960s, Helvetica was used for the company name in the livery. The 1970s retro livery featured the top half of the fuselage painted in all-white on top and the lower fuselage (bottom half, including the engines) was gray/silver aluminium, below a blue cheatline window band and a black painted nose. The crane logo was painted blue on the engines, on the bottom half of the fuselage just below the cockpit windows, and a yellow circle inside a blue band on the tail.

German designer Otl Aicher created a comprehensive corporate design for the airline in 1967. The crane logo was now always displayed in a circle which, on the livery, was yellow on an otherwise blue tailfin. Helvetica was used as the main typeface for both the livery and publications. The blue band and general paint scheme of the aircraft were retained from the previous livery.

Aicher's concept was retained in the 1988 design. The window band was removed and the fuselage was painted in grey.

In 2018, Lufthansa changed their livery. The encircled crane was retained, and the background changed from yellow to dark blue. The vertical stabilizer and the rear fuselage were painted in dark blue, and the tail cone remained white. The main fuselage was painted in all white, and the brand name "Lufthansa" was painted above the windows, also in dark blue.

The company slogan is 'Say yes to the world.'[96]

Alliances and partnershipsEdit

 
The Lufthansa First Class lounge at Frankfurt Airport

CommercialEdit

Lufthansa bought a 19% stake in JetBlue Airways in December 2007 and entered a code-sharing agreement with the airline. It was the first major investment by a European carrier in an American carrier since the EU–U.S. Open Skies Agreement came into effect in 2008. Lufthansa sold its stake in JetBlue in March 2015.

In late 2007, Lufthansa Cargo was forced to relocate a hub from Kazakhstan to Russia.

On 28 August 2008, Lufthansa and Brussels Airlines announced that they were negotiating a merger.[97]

Lufthansa acquired a 45% stake in Brussels Airlines in 2009. It has an option to acquire the remaining 55% by 2017. As a part of the deal Brussels Airlines joined Star Alliance in December 2009.[98][99][100]

On 28 October 2008, Lufthansa exercised its option to purchase a further 60% share in BMI (in addition to the 20% Lufthansa already owned), this resulted in a dispute with the former owner Sir Michael Bishop. Both parties reached an agreement at the end of June 2009, and the acquisition took place with effect from 1 July 2009.[101] Lufthansa acquired the remaining 20% from Scandinavian Airlines on 1 November 2009, taking complete control of BMI.[102]

Lufthansa completed the purchase of Austrian Airlines from the Austrian government in January 2009.

In 2010, Lufthansa was named in a European Commission investigation into price-fixing, but was not fined because it acted as a whistleblower.[103]

In April 2012, Lufthansa completed the sale of BMI to International Airlines Group (IAG), owner of British Airways and Iberia for £172.5 million.

In July 2012, a Qantas–Lufthansa Technik maintenance deal for Tullamarine airport fell through due to having insufficient engine maintenance work to support the partnership. This resulted in 164 engineers being made redundant. This followed just months after the closing of heavy maintenance operations, which resulted in 400 additional job losses. It was announced that the Lufthansa Technik–Qantas partnership would end in September.[104]

Lufthansa also coordinates scheduling and ticket sales on transatlantic flights with Air Canada and United Airlines (as do Brussels Airlines, Swiss and Austrian Airlines). Lufthansa (with Swiss and Austrian Airlines) cooperates similarly with ANA on flights to Japan. Both ventures required the approval of competition authorities.

TechnologyEdit

Until April 2009 Lufthansa inventory and departure control systems, based on Unisys were managed by LH Systems. Lufthansa reservations systems were outsourced to Amadeus in the early 1990s. Following a decision to outsource all components of the Passenger Service System, the functions were outsourced to the Altéa platform managed by Amadeus.

Partner airlinesEdit

Lufthansa describes Air Malta, Luxair, and LATAM as partner airlines. The partnerships mainly involve code-sharing and recognition of each other's frequent flier programmes.

SponsorshipsEdit

Lufthansa sponsors Bundesliga club Eintracht Frankfurt.[105] The Lufthansa Group also sponsors the German Sports Aid Foundation - promoting its sociopolitical goals and the athletes it sponsors.[106]

DestinationsEdit

Codeshare agreementsEdit

Lufthansa codeshares with the following airlines:[107][108]

LH Part of the Lufthansa Group.

FleetEdit

Aircraft naming conventionsEdit

In September 1960, a Lufthansa Boeing 707 (D-ABOC), which would serve the Frankfurt-New York intercontinental route, was christened Berlin after the divided city of Berlin by then-mayor Willy Brandt. Following Berlin, other Lufthansa 707 planes were named "Hamburg", "Frankfurt", "München", and "Bonn." With these names, the company established a tradition of naming the planes in its fleet after German cities and towns or federal states, with a rule of thumb that the airplane make, size, or route would correspond roughly to the relative size or importance of the city or town it was named after.

This tradition continued, with two notable exceptions, until 2010: The first was an Airbus A340-300 registered D-AIFC, named "Gander/Halifax", after Gander and Halifax, two Canadian cities along the standard flight path from Europe to North America. It became the first Lufthansa airplane named after a non-German city. The name commemorates the hospitality of the communities of Gander and Halifax, which served as improvised safe havens for the passengers and crew of the multitude of international aircraft unable to return to their originating airports during Operation Yellow Ribbon after the September 11, 2001 attacks. The other aircraft not named after a German city was an Airbus A321-100 registered as D-AIRA, which was designated Finkenwerder in honor of the Airbus facility in the district of Hamburg-Finkenwerder,[116] where about 40% of Airbus narrowbody models are manufactured.

In February 2010, Lufthansa announced that its first two Airbus A380s would be named Frankfurt am Main (D-AIMA) and München (D-AIMB) after Lufthansa's two hub airports. Subsequent A380 aircraft were named after other Lufthansa Group hub airports Zurich, Wien (Vienna) and Brüssel (Brussels) and the major German cities of Düsseldorf and Berlin. The remaining A380s were named after Star Alliance hub cities Tokyo, Beijing, Johannesburg, New York, San Francisco and Delhi. However, D-AIMN San Francisco was renamed Deutschland (Germany) in 2016.[116]

As of 2016, there are several short- and long-haul aircraft in Lufthansa's fleet that do not bear any name. They either never received one or their former one has been given to a newer aircraft, which was the case for several Boeing 747-400s. For example, the former Bayern (Bavaria), a Boeing 747-400 still in active service lost that name to a new Boeing 747-8I.[116]

Vintage aircraft restorationEdit

Lufthansa Technik, the airline's maintenance arm, restored a Junkers Ju 52/3m built in 1936 to airworthiness; this aircraft was in use on the 10-hour Berlin to Rome route, across the Alps, in the 1930s. Lufthansa is now restoring a Lockheed Super Constellation, using parts from three such aircraft bought at auctions. Lufthansa's Super Constellations and L1649 "Starliners" served routes such as Hamburg-Madrid-Dakar-Caracas-Santiago. Lufthansa Technik recruits retired employees and volunteers for skilled labour.[117][118]

Airbus A380Edit

Lufthansa had initially ordered a total of 15 Airbus A380-800, of which by June 2012 ten were delivered. In September 2011, the order was increased by two more to 17, this order was confirmed on 14 March 2013. However, in September 2013 it was announced that the Lufthansa Supervisory Board had approved the purchase of only twelve of the first 15 A380s. Thus, a total of 14 A380s have been added to the fleet.

Lufthansa uses its A380s from and to Frankfurt am Main (9 aircraft) and since March 2018 to and from Munich as well (5 aircraft). From 6 to 12 December 2011, Lufthansa already used an A380 once a day on the route from Munich to New York-JFK. This happened mainly against the backdrop of Christmas shopping in New York City.

On 13 March 2019, Lufthansa announced that it will be removing 6 A380 aircraft from the fleet and replacing them with Boeing 787-9 and Airbus A350-900 aircraft.[119]

On 8 March 2020, Lufthansa announced that it would be grounding all of its A380 aircraft due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[120][121][122]

Lufthansa announced on 27 June 2022 that the remaining fleet of eight A380s will be reactivated and brought back into service for the 2023 summer season.[123] The stronger than anticipated customer demand and quicker recovery of international travel from the pandemic is cited as one of two reasons.[124] The other reason is the persistent delay of Boeing 777-9 delivery, which Lufthansa would not receive until 2025 or later. Lufthansa is still assessing how many and which A380 will be reactivated and which route the A380 will serve again.[125]

ServicesEdit

Frequent-flyer programmeEdit

Lufthansa's frequent-flyer programme is called Miles & More, and is shared among several European airlines, including all of Lufthansa's subsidiary airlines (excluding the SunExpress joint ventures), plus Adria Airways, Condor Flugdienst (formerly owned by Lufthansa), Croatia Airlines, LOT Polish Airlines, and Luxair (stake formerly held by Lufthansa).[126] Miles & More members may earn miles on Lufthansa flights and Star Alliance partner flights, as well as through Lufthansa credit cards, and purchases made through the Lufthansa shops. Status within Miles & More is determined by miles flown during one calendar year with specific partners. Membership levels include: Miles & More member (no minimal threshold), Frequent Traveller (Silver, 35,000-mile (56,000 km) threshold or 30 individual flights), Senator (Gold, 100,000-mile (160,000 km) threshold), and HON Circle (Black, 600,000-mile (970,000 km) threshold over two calendar years). All Miles & More status levels higher than Miles & More member offer lounge access and executive bonus miles, with the higher levels offering more exclusive benefits.[127]

CabinsEdit

First ClassEdit

 
First Class of Lufthansa's Boeing 747-8Is in a 1-2-1 layout

First Class is offered on most long-haul aircraft (all Airbus A340-600s, the front part of the upper deck of all Airbus A380s, and the nose of the main deck of all Boeing 747-8Is). Each seat converts to a 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) bed, includes laptop power outlets, as well as entertainment facilities. Meals are available on demand. Lufthansa offers dedicated First Class check-in counters at most airports, and offers dedicated First Class lounges in Frankfurt and Munich, as well as a dedicated first-class terminal in Frankfurt. Arriving passengers have the option of using Lufthansa's First Class arrival facilities, as well as the new Welcome Lounge. Lufthansa introduced a new First Class product aboard the Airbus A380 and planned to gradually introduce it on all of its long-haul aircraft.[128] However, with the new program SCORE, introduced to boost profits by 1.5 billion euros over the following years, Lufthansa halted route expansion and extensively decreased its First Class offerings on most routes.[129][130] In 2017 the airline announced that its first few Boeing 777-9s would not include First Class seats, however, First Class could be installed on later deliveries.[131] As of June 2021, the only remaining First Class seats Lufthansa offered were on its Boeing 747-8Is, with 10 Airbus A350-900s with First Class seats to be delivered starting in July 2023.[132][133]

Business ClassEdit

 
Business Class in a 2-2 layout on the upper deck of a Boeing 747-8I. Business Class on all of the airline's other wide-body aircraft has a 2-2-2 layout.

Business Class is offered on all long-haul aircraft. Seats convert to 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) lie-flat beds and include laptop power outlets and entertainment facilities.[134] Lufthansa offers dedicated Business Class check-in counters at all airports, as well as dedicated Business Class lounges at most airports, or contract lounges at other airports, as well as the Lufthansa Welcome Lounge upon arrival in Frankfurt. As of 2014, Business Class on all wide-body aircraft feature lie-flat seats.[135] Lufthansa released plans for a new business class set to be released in 2022 on the Boeing 787-9, and will retrofit the rest of the fleet in the coming years.[136]

Premium EconomyEdit

Introduced in 2014,[137] Lufthansa's long-haul Premium Economy was rolled out on all long-haul aircraft, starting with some Boeing 747-8Is. Similar in design to Air Canada's Premium Economy or British Airways' World Traveller Plus cabins, Premium Economy features 38-inch (970 mm) pitch along with up to 3 inches (76 mm) more width than economy class, depending on the aircraft. The seats also feature a 11 or 12 inches (280 or 300 mm) personal seat-back entertainment screen and a larger armrest separating seats. Along with the planned introduction of the Boeing 777-9X, the airline plans to add a new Premium Economy cabin with a "shell" design. These seats are also to be installed on SWISS' Boeing 777-300ERs and Airbus A340-300s from the first and second quarter of 2021, respectively.[138]

Economy ClassEdit

 
Economy Class on a 747-8I in a 3-4-3 layout

Lufthansa's long-haul Economy Class is offered on all long-haul aircraft. All have a 31-inch (790 mm) seat pitch except the Airbus A380s, which have a 33-inch (840 mm) seat pitch. Passengers receive meals, as well as free drinks. The whole fleet offers Audio-Video-On-Demand (AVOD) screens in Economy Class.[citation needed]

Airport lounges and terminalsEdit

 
First Class Terminal at Frankfurt Airport

Lufthansa operates four types of lounges within its destination network: First Class, Senator, Business, and Welcome Lounges. Each departure lounge is accessible both through travel class, or Miles and More/Star Alliance status; the Welcome Lounge is limited to arriving premium passengers of the Lufthansa Group and United Airlines only.[139]

Lufthansa also operates a dedicated first class terminal at Frankfurt Airport. The first terminal of its kind, access is limited only to departing Lufthansa First Class, same day Lufthansa Group first class and HON Circle members. Approximately 200 staff care for approximately 300 passengers per day in the terminal, which features a full-service restaurant, full bar, cigar lounge, relaxation rooms, and offices, as well as bath facilities. Guests are driven directly to their departing flight by Mercedes S-Class or V-Class, or Porsche Cayenne or Panamera vehicles.

Bus serviceEdit

Lufthansa previously operated a check-in point in the city limits of Nuremberg and a bus service from Nuremberg to Munich Airport in the late 1990s.[140] A bus service from Nuremberg Airport to Munich Airport has been reinstated in 2021 as a replacement for the short-haul flight between both cities which was terminated.[141]

Accidents and incidentsEdit

This is a list of accidents and incidents involving Lufthansa mainline aircraft since 1956. For earlier occurrences, refer to Deutsche Luft Hansa. For accidents and incidents on Lufthansa-branded flights which were operated by other airlines, see the respective articles (Lufthansa CityLine, Lufthansa Cargo, Contact Air, Germanwings, and Air Dolomiti).

FatalEdit

  • On 11 January 1959, Lufthansa Flight 502, a Lufthansa Lockheed Super Constellation (registered D-ALAK) crashed onto a beach shortly off Galeão Airport in Rio de Janeiro following a scheduled passenger flight from Hamburg, Germany. Of the 29 passengers and 10 crew members on board, only the co-pilot and 2 flight attendants survived. The investigation into the accident resulted in blaming the pilots for having executed a too low approach, which may have been caused by fatigue.[142]
  • On 4 December 1961, a Lufthansa Boeing 720 (registered D-ABOK) crashed of unknown causes near Mainz during a training flight from Frankfurt to Cologne, killing the three occupants. It was the first crash involving an aircraft of that type.[143]
  • On 15 July 1964, another Boeing 720 (registered D-ABOP) crashed during a training flight, with the three people, including Werner Baake, on board losing their lives (in what was only the second crash for this aircraft type). The accident occurred near Ansbach after the pilots had lost control of the aircraft when executing an aileron roll.
  • On 28 January 1966 at 17:50 local time, Lufthansa Flight 005 from Frankfurt to Bremen, which was operated using a Convair CV-440 Metropolitan registered D-ACAT, crashed 0.5 kilometres (0.31 mi) short of Bremen Airport, killing all 42 passengers and 4 crew members on board. The pilots had tried to execute a go-around when approaching the airport, during which the aircraft stalled and went out of control, possibly due to pilot error.[144]
  •  
    D-ABYB, the aircraft that was destroyed in the Flight 540 accident, was the second of three Boeing 747-100s delivered to Lufthansa.[145] It is seen here during a promotional event at Nuremberg Airport in 1970.
    On 20 November 1974 at 07:54 local time, Lufthansa Flight 540, a Boeing 747-100 (registered D-ABYB), lost power and crashed shortly after take-off at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport in what was the first air accident involving a Boeing 747. 55 out of the 140 passengers and 4 out of the 17 crew lost their lives, making it the worst accident in the history of the airline.[146]
  • On 26 July 1979 at 21:32 UTC, a cargo-configured Boeing 707 (registered D-ABUY) that was en route Lufthansa Flight 527 from Rio de Janeiro to Dakar and onwards to Germany crashed into a mountain 25 kilometres (16 mi) from Galeão Airport during initial climb, killing the three crew members on board. A flawed communication between the pilots and the air traffic controller had resulted in the aircraft flying on a wrong path.[147]
  • In January 1984, a woman was found dead in a suitcase which was lying on an LAXbaggage carousel for a while. The suitcase had arrived on a Lufthansa flight. The woman was later discovered to have been an Iranian citizen who had recently married another Iranian with UGreen card status. She had been denied a US visa in West Germany and therefore decided to enter the US like this. [148]
  • On 14 September 1993, Lufthansa Flight 2904, an Airbus A320-200 (registered D-AIPN) flying from Frankfurt to Warsaw with 64 passengers and 4 crew members on board, overran the runway upon landing at Warsaw-Okecie Airport, and crashed into an earth embankment, resulting in the death of the co-pilot and one passenger.[149][150]
  • On May 28, 1999, German border police suffocated to death Aamir Ageeb, whom they were escorting aboard Lufthansa Flight 588 from Frankfurt to Cairo. During takeoff, the officers restrained and pinned down Ageeb, a Sudanese man deported from Germany after being rejected for asylum.[151] The aircraft made an emergency landing in Munich. The incident led to the German interior ministry suspending its policy of forcible air deportation, and contributed to protests over Lufthansa's role in transporting deported asylum seekers.[152][153]

Non-fatalEdit

  • On 20 December 1973 at 00:33 local time, a Lufthansa Boeing 707 (registered D-ABOT) with 98 passengers and 11 crew members on board collided with a middle marker shack upon approaching Palam Airport in Delhi following a scheduled passenger flight from Bangkok (as part of a multi-leg flight back to Germany). There were no injuries, but the aircraft was damaged beyond repair. Visibility was poor at the time of the accident.[154]
  • On 18 October 1983, a Boeing 747-200 freighter ran off the runway at Kai Tak airport in Hong Kong and got bogged in the grass after an engine failure during take-off.[155]
  • On 11 June 2018, one of the airline's Airbus A340-300s, registered as D-AIFA, was being towed to its departure gate at Frankfurt Airport when the towing vehicle caught fire. Despite the quick action of the airport fire brigade, the aircraft suffered substantial fire and smoke damage to the nose and flight deck. Six people were treated for smoke inhalation.[156]

Hijackings and criminal eventsEdit

CriticismEdit

Employment relationsEdit

Relations between Lufthansa and their pilots have been very tense in the past years, with many strikes occurring, causing many flights to be cancelled, as well as major losses to the company.[174] A major dispute between Lufthansa and the pilot's union has been settled after nearly five years and overall 14 strikes in December 2017.[175] Without taking into account the €9 billion bailout from the German government, Lufthansa cut 31,000 jobs in the COVID19 years.[176] During the 2022 collective bargaining, ver.di said that Lufthansa's wage offer meant real wage losses for employees and called on around 20,000 ground workers in Germany to go on warning strikes.[177]

Germanwings crisis managementEdit

Germanwings was a subsidiary of Lufthansa. Carsten Spohr, Lufthansa's CEO, oversaw the Germanwings Flight 9525 accident, "the darkest day for Lufthansa in its 60-year history", when pilot Andreas Lubitz intentionally flew an aircraft into a mountain, murdering 149 passengers.[178]

Nonetheless, damage control by Spohr and his team was poor according to several sources, as compared to other CEOs in the face of a major accident, with contradictory information given about the mental health and the airworthiness of the co-pilot Andreas Lubitz. It was revealed that Lubitz suffered from a severe case of depression and mental disorders and had intentionally crashed Germanwings Flight 9525 into the French Alps, killing all 150 aboard. Spohr had misleadingly said the co-pilot "was 100% airworthy without any restrictions, without any conditions".[179]

GDS surchargeEdit

On 1 September 2015, Lufthansa implemented a 16 euro surcharge on Global Distribution System bookings. The surcharge is payable unless tickets are purchased directly from the airline's website, or at its service centres and ticket counters at the airport. In a statement responding to Lufthansa's strategy, Amadeus, a travel technology company, said the new model would make "comparison and transparency more difficult because travellers will now be forced to go to multiple channels to search for the best fares.[180] For the period between 1–14 September, the airline experienced a 16.1% drop in revenue, indicating to some that the new fee backfired, although the airline maintains the statement that the decrease was due to the pilot strike, and "other seasonal effects".[181]

Deportation flightsEdit

Pro-migration activists from Germany have criticised Lufthansa for performing deportation flights on behalf of the German government.[182][152] In 2019, 4,573 people were deported on their planes, while their subsidiary Eurowings performed 1,312 deportations.[183] This totals more than 25% of deportations in Germany in 2019. At least two deportees perished during transport.[151][152]

Treatment of Nazi-era pastEdit

Lufthansa has been criticized for lack of transparency about the use of more than 10,000 forced laborers, many of them children, by its predecessor company, Deutsche Luft Hansa, during World War II.[33][25]

Ghost flightsEdit

Lufthansa operated 18,000 empty or near-empty flights in winter 2021–2022 to avoid losing take-off and landing rights at major airports.[184][185]

Alleged collective punishment of visibly Jewish passengersEdit

In 2022, the company allegedly engaged in collective punishment of visibly Jewish passengers. After a small minority of Jewish passengers did not comply with COVID masking rules on a flight from New York to Frankfurt, the company barred over a hundred visibly Jewish passengers from a connecting flight to Budapest. Lufthansa called in dozens of armed federal police to enforce its policy. A supervisor from Lufthansa explained to passengers that "everyone has to pay for a couple" as "It's Jews coming from JFK. Jewish people who were the mess, who made the problems."[186][187][188][189] The video of Lufthansa supervisor's statement has been compared to the treatment of Jews during the Holocaust.[190] Lufthansa confirmed that it barred a group of passengers from the flight.[191]

German police reacted with rage when passengers asked "why do you hate us?" and used the word Nazi.[192] The German Federal Police confirmed they were called to "presence" at the scene,[193] and in response to later questions said that "Lufthansa called us and said that some of this group from JFK were not following the rules" and that they "did not make any decision at all about who could fly and who could not. As the police even if we did think that their decision was discriminatory, as the police we can’t then make the decision about who can and who cannot fly."[194]

The American Jewish Committee stated that "Banning ALL Jews from a flight because of an alleged mask violation by some Jewish passengers is textbook antisemitism from Lufthansa".[195][196][197] German MP Marlene Schönberger said that if the reports are true, then "there must be consequences" as "Excluding Jews from a flight because they were recognizable as Jewish is a scandal. I expect German companies in particular to be aware of anti-Semitism."[197]

Lufthansa denied its actions were antisemitic saying that "We consider the claim of anti-Semitism to be unwarranted and without merit".[198] Lufthansa later said it wishes to investigate the incident internally.[197] Lufthansa was condemned by US envoy Deborah Lipstadt who described Lufthansa's anti-Semitism as "unbelievable", and stated that her office was in contact with the German government over the incident that involved US citizens.[199]

In August 2022, as a result of the incident, Lufthansa adopted the IHRA Working Definition of Antisemitism and appointed a senior manager to prevent antisemitism and discrimination.[200][201][202][203]

PakistanEdit

Despite a large overseas Pakistani population, Lufthansa accepts a below-average number of Pakistani employees and has not flown to Pakistan since 2008 [204][205]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ The company that today is known as Deutsche Lufthansa AG was founded as Aktiengesellschaft für Luftverkehrsbedarf (Luftag) on 6 January 1953.[1] It sees itself in the tradition of Deutsche Lufthansa, the former German national airline that was founded in 1926 and liquidated in 1951, whose name and logo it acquired in 1954.[2] Lufthansa frequently names "1926" as its founding date, but it is not the legal successor of the earlier airline.[3]
  2. ^ Lufthansa also counts Berlin Brandenburg Airport, Düsseldorf Airport, Vienna International Airport and Zurich Airport as its hubs.[4] They are not listed here because they are home to Lufthansa's subsidiaries Eurowings, Austrian Airlines, and Swiss International Air Lines, respectively. For the same reason, all other Eurowings bases are omitted.

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ a b c d "We Call on Luftag". Flight International (5 February 1954): 165. Archived from the original on 16 May 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d Klussmann, Niels (2007). Lexikon der Luftfahrt. Heidelberg: Springer. pp. 396–397. ISBN 9783540490968.
  3. ^ a b "As Time Flies By". Lufthansa. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
  4. ^ "Airport information". Lufthansa. Archived from the original on 2 December 2021. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  5. ^ "Lufthansa new CEO oversees network, airline brands". Manila Bulletin. 5 May 2014 – via Yahoo! News.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Annual Report 2021 (PDF) (Report). Lufthansa Group. 19 March 2022.{{cite report}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  7. ^ "Berlin airports strike to ground more than 650 flights". BBC News. 13 March 2017. Retrieved 10 March 2022. German flag carrier Lufthansa said ...
  8. ^ "Air travel faces continued turbulence". BBC News. 8 April 2020. Retrieved 10 March 2022. The German flag-carrier followed up ...
  9. ^ Bray, Chad (12 October 2017). "Lufthansa to Buy Units of Air Berlin for $249 Million". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 10 March 2022. The German flag carrier Lufthansa ...
  10. ^ Clark, Nicola (22 April 2013). "Strike Grounds Most Lufthansa Flights". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 10 March 2022. A widespread strike all but grounded the German flag carrier Lufthansa on Monday
  11. ^ Murray, Miranda; Szymanska, Zuzanna (12 November 2021). "German ministries welcome Lufthansa's early bailout aid repayment". Reuters. Retrieved 10 March 2022. Germany's finance and economy ministries on Friday welcomed the early repayment by flag carrier Lufthansa
  12. ^ Sources:[7][8][9][10][11]
  13. ^ Pariona, Amber (25 April 2017). "The Largest Airlines in Europe". WorldAtlas. Archived from the original on 15 April 2021. Retrieved 29 August 2019.
  14. ^ "Lufthansa regains place as Europe's biggest airline from Ryanair". Reuters. 10 January 2018. Archived from the original on 5 December 2020. Retrieved 29 August 2019.
  15. ^ Tagliabue, John (15 May 1997). "5 Airlines Extend Limits of Alliances". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 29 December 2017. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  16. ^ "Lufthansa". Star Alliance. Archived from the original on 25 January 2022. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  17. ^ "Lufthansa, IAG, Air France-KLM fleets: Lufthansa Group largest". CAPA - Centre for Aviation. Aviation Week Network. 28 March 2019. Archived from the original on 18 May 2021. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  18. ^ Pande, Pranjal (15 March 2021). "What Are The Largest Airline Groups In The World?". Simple Flying. Archived from the original on 29 December 2021. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  19. ^ a b c d Annual Report 2020 (PDF) (Report). Lufthansa Group. 4 March 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 November 2021.
  20. ^ "How to get there". lac.lufthansa.com. Archived from the original on 1 November 2006. Retrieved 30 July 2002.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  21. ^ "Lufthansa eröffnet neue Konzernzentrale in Frankfurt" [Lufthansa opens new office complex in Frankfurt]. Die Welt (in German). 19 July 2006. Archived from the original on 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  22. ^ "FOC - Flight Operations Center". Flughafen München (in German). Archived from the original on 31 December 2012.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  23. ^ Starzmann, Maria Theresia (September 2015). "The Materiality of Forced Labor: An Archaeological Exploration of Punishment in Nazi Germany". International Journal of Historical Archaeology. 19 (3): 647–663. doi:10.1007/s10761-015-0302-9. JSTOR 24572806. S2CID 154427883.
  24. ^ Endlich, St.; Geyler-von Bernus, M.; Rossié, B. "Tempelhof - Forced Labourerers". Flughafen Tempelhof. Archived from the original on 24 February 2021. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  25. ^ a b Hofmann, Sarah Judith. "Why Lufthansa reduces its Nazi past to a sidenote". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 26 May 2021. Retrieved 25 December 2020.
  26. ^ Rieger, Tobias (13 April 2020). "Kurt Knipfer". Beamte nationalsozialistischer Reichsministerien (in German). Archived from the original on 14 January 2022.
  27. ^ a b c "A German Airline Again". Flight International. 15 April 1955. pp. 472–473. Archived from the original on 17 October 2014.
  28. ^ "Die Tabellen-Piloten". Der Spiegel (in German). No. 22/1955. 25 May 1955. pp. 32–40. Archived from the original on 26 October 2011.
  29. ^ de Syon, Guillaume (2007). "Lufthansa Welcomes You: Air Transport and Tourism in the Adenauer Era" (PDF). In Swett, Pamela E.; Wiesen, Jonathan; Zatlin, Jonathan R. (eds.). Selling Modernity: Advertising in Twentieth-Century Germany. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. pp. 182–201. doi:10.1215/9780822390350-008. ISBN 978-0-8223-4047-8. JSTOR j.ctv11cw9bp.13. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  30. ^ Petrykowski, Michał (2009). "Samoloty Ił-18 Lufthansy" [Lufthansa's Il-18 Planes]. Lotnictwo (in Polish). Vol. Nr. 12/2009. p. 20. ISSN 1732-5323. OCLC 749496804.
  31. ^ Kaminski-Morrow, David (15 November 2019). "A320's order total overtakes 737's as Max crisis persists". FlightGlobal. Archived from the original on 18 May 2021.
  32. ^ "The 1990s". lufthansagroup.com. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  33. ^ a b c Schlautmann, Christoph (4 May 2016). "World War II: A Turbulent Legacy". Handelsblatt Today. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
  34. ^ Bamber, Greg J.; Gittell, Jody Hoffer; Kochan, Thomas A.; von Nordenflycht, Andrew (2009). Up in the Air: How Airlines Can Improve Performance by Engaging Their Employees. Ithaca, NY: ILR Press. ISBN 9780801447471. Retrieved 16 February 2022 – via the Internet Archive.
  35. ^ "Lufthansa makes the 'Connexion'". Boeing Frontiers Online. Vol. 1, no. 2. June 2002. Archived from the original on 22 October 2021.
  36. ^ Kopp, Tabitha; Schaper, Edda (2010). "Konfliktmanagement im Tourismus – Die Einführung der Nullprovision" [Conflict Management in Tourism — The Introduction of Zero Commission]. In Kaune, Axel (ed.). Change-Management mit Organisationsentwicklung: Veränderungen erfolgreich durchsetzen [Change Management with Organizational Development: Successfully Implementing Changes] (in German). Contribution by Harald Bastian (2nd ed.). Berlin: Erich Schmidt. pp. 205–221. ISBN 978-3-503-12446-6.
  37. ^ "Another airline enters the "A380 era" as Lufthansa receives its initial 21st century flagship aircraft". Airbus. Archived from the original on 2 September 2017. Retrieved 24 November 2010.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  38. ^ "History of Brussels Airlines". Archived from the original on 31 January 2022. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  39. ^ "Lufthansa board approves Brussels Airlines takeover". Reuters. 28 September 2016. Archived from the original on 30 November 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
  40. ^ Hofmann, Kurt (15 December 2016). "Lufthansa acquires Brussels Airlines, to become part of Eurowings". ATW. Archived from the original on 16 December 2016. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
  41. ^ "Green Light for Merger of Austrian Airlines and Lufthansa". Breaking Travel News. 28 August 2009. Archived from the original on 15 November 2021. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
  42. ^ "Lufthansa A380 flights to Tokyo, Beijing and Johannesburg now bookable" (Press release). Lufthansa Group. 29 April 2010. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016.
  43. ^ Webb, Alex (3 May 2012). "Lufthansa to Scrap 3,500 Administrative Posts After Loss". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on 7 April 2015.
  44. ^ "Lufthansa on course with its SCORE programme" (Press release). Lufthansa Group. 14 March 2013. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013.
  45. ^ "Modern, quiet and environmentally efficient: Lufthansa Group orders 59 ultra-modern wide-body Boeing 777-9X and Airbus A350-900 aircraft" (Press release). Lufthansa Group. 19 September 2013. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013.
  46. ^ "Lufthansa cancels over 200 flights due to pilot strike". Deutsche Welle. 5 September 2014. Archived from the original on 25 May 2021.
  47. ^ Drum, Bruce (13 May 2014). "Lufthansa to rename 8 aircraft "Fanhansa" for the 2014 FIFA World Cup". Archived from the original on 20 July 2014.
  48. ^ Bryan, Victoria (18 November 2014). Heavens, Louise (ed.). "Lufthansa signs $1.25 billion outsourcing deal with IBM". Reuters. Archived from the original on 10 October 2021.
  49. ^ "Lufthansa löst Langstreckenbasis Düsseldorf auf" [Lufthansa dissolves Düsseldorf long-haul base]. aero.de (in German). 29 June 2015. Archived from the original on 5 February 2021.
  50. ^ Liu, Jim (24 September 2018). "Eurowings replaces Lufthansa Dusseldorf – Newark service from Dec 2018". Routes. Informa. Archived from the original on 19 January 2022.
  51. ^ Kowalewsky, Reinhard (12 March 2018). "Lufthansa schließt Basis in Düsseldorf" [Lufthansa closes base in Düsseldorf]. Rheinische Post (in German). Archived from the original on 29 November 2020.
  52. ^ Middeldorf, Götz (22 August 2018). "Lufthansa verlässt am 30. März 2019 Düsseldorf endgültig" [Lufthansa leaves Düsseldorf on 31 March 2019]. Neue Ruhr Zeitung (in German). Archived from the original on 23 August 2018.
  53. ^ "Lufthansa ends B737-500 operations". ch-aviation. 24 March 2016. Archived from the original on 23 April 2021.
  54. ^ Hofmann, Kurt (28 October 2016). "Lufthansa phases out last Boeing 737 after nearly 50 years". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 29 October 2016.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  55. ^ Schlautmann, Christoph (4 December 2017). "Skytrax-Auszeichnung: Lufthansa ergattert den fünften Stern" [Skytrax Award: Lufthansa gets its fifth star]. Wirtschaftswoche (in German). Archived from the original on 12 November 2021.
  56. ^ Ivanov, Petar (20 June 2019). "Does Lufthansa Deserve A Five Star Rating?". AeroNewsX. Archived from the original on 15 August 2020.
  57. ^ "Lufthansa is the only five-star airline in Europe" (Press release). Lufthansa Group. 4 December 2017. Archived from the original on 16 February 2022.
  58. ^ "Lufthansa celebrates its new Skytrax 5 Star rating with two new logo jets". World Airline News. 9 December 2017. Archived from the original on 12 November 2021.
  59. ^ Everington, Keoni (8 March 2018). "German companies Lufthansa, Mercedes-Benz and Bosch kowtow to Beijing". Taiwan News. Archived from the original on 5 February 2021.
  60. ^ "Massive Einschnitte: Lufthansa streicht 95 Prozent der Flüge - und fordert Milliardenhilfen". Der Spiegel (in German). 19 March 2020. Archived from the original on 12 November 2021.
  61. ^ Boon, Tom (22 January 2021). "Lufthansa's Losses Have Now Dropped To €500,000 Per Hour". Simple Flying. Archived from the original on 14 February 2021. Retrieved 23 January 2021.
  62. ^ "Lufthansa Group To Operate 1,800 Weekly Flights By End Of June". Simple Flying. 14 May 2020.
  63. ^ a b Sevunts, Levon (14 May 2020). "Lufthansa prepares to resume flights to Canada in June". CBC News. Radio Canada International. Archived from the original on 6 February 2022.
  64. ^ "Shareholders pave the way for stabilization measures" (Press release). Lufthansa Group. 25 June 2020. Archived from the original on 14 May 2021.
  65. ^ "Lufthansa-Aktionäre stimmen Staatseinstieg zu" (in German). Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (FAZ). 25 June 2020. Retrieved 19 December 2020.
  66. ^ "Shareholder structure of Lufthansa Group". Retrieved 19 December 2020.
  67. ^ "Economic Stabilisation Fund (ESF)". Retrieved 19 December 2020.
  68. ^ "Lufthansa set for showdown with billionaire investor Thiele over $10 billion bailout". MarketWatch, Inc. 23 June 2020.
  69. ^ Ziady, Hanna (25 June 2020). "'We simply don't have any money.' Lufthansa shareholders approve $10 billion bailout". CNN Business. Cable News Network.
  70. ^ "Lufthansa bailout package overwhelmingly backed by shareholders". Deutsche Welle. 25 June 2020. Archived from the original on 4 February 2022.
  71. ^ "Lufthansa will 2021 aus der Krise fliegen" [Lufthansa wants to fly out of the crisis in 2021]. aero.de (in German). 21 January 2021. Archived from the original on 25 December 2021.
  72. ^ "Lufthansa aims to repay state aid before German election - CEO". Reuters. 18 June 2021. Archived from the original on 10 October 2021.
  73. ^ Mayer, Christian (19 June 2021). "Warum die Lufthansa jetzt gendert". Business Insider (in German). Archived from the original on 2 February 2022.
  74. ^ Turak, Natasha (13 January 2022). "European carriers are flying thousands of near-empty planes this winter just to keep their airport slots". CNBC. Archived from the original on 28 January 2022.
  75. ^ "Lufthansa dissolves A380 fleet entirely". aero.de (in German). 1 April 2022.
  76. ^ "Lufthansa muss den fünften Stern wieder abgeben". aerotelegraph.com. 24 June 2022.
  77. ^ aerotelegraph.com 30 June 2022
  78. ^ Blüthmann, Heinz (13 May 1994). "Neue Freiheit" [New Freedom]. Die Zeit (in German). Archived from the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
  79. ^ "Share & Bonds". Lufthansa Group Investor Relations. Lufthansa Group. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  80. ^ Wissenbach, Ilona; Taylor, Edward (25 June 2020). "Lufthansa soars after top shareholder backs bailout". Reuters. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021.
  81. ^ Miller, Joe; Fletcher, Laurence (2020). "Lufthansa shareholders back €9bn bailout package". Financial Times. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  82. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Financial Reports". Lufthansa Group. Archived from the original on 16 February 2022. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  83. ^ Annual Report 2016 (PDF) (Report). Lufthansa Group. 16 March 2017. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 February 2022.
  84. ^ Fellows, Lawrence (12 July 1971). "Germans Setting Own Office Hours". The New York Times. Cologne. p. 1. Archived from the original on 19 August 2020. Retrieved 14 February 2010. At Lufthansa's gleaming new office building here, and at many other offices and factories around West Germany, men and women now go to work when they want and stay as long as they want – within reason.
  85. ^ "Terrorists Shoot Berlin Official, Bomb Airline". Los Angeles Times. West Berlin. UPI. 28 October 1986. Archived from the original on 15 February 2022.
  86. ^ "Bomb Rips Offices of Lufthansa in Cologne". Around the World. The New York Times. Associated Press. 29 October 1986. Archived from the original on 3 February 2021. Retrieved 24 November 2010.
  87. ^ "Grundsteinlegung für Lufthansa Hauptverwaltung in Köln Archived 4 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine." KFZ.net. Retrieved on 12 February 2010. "Die Lufthansa hat mit einer Grundsteinlegung in Köln-Deutz den Beginn der Arbeiten für ihre neue Kölner Konzernzentrale gefeiert. Ende 2007 werden rund 800 Kölner Lufthanseaten, vor allem aus dem Konzernressort Finanzen, das Hochhaus am Rhein verlassen und in den nur wenige hundert Meter entfernten Neubau umziehen, erklärte das Unternehmen."
  88. ^ Hofmann, Kurt (20 February 2013). "Lufthansa deepens cuts; to close head office in Cologne". ATW Plus. Archived from the original on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2013.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  89. ^ "Media Contact". Lufthansa Group. Archived from the original on 16 February 2022. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  90. ^ "Contacts Investor Relations". Lufthansa Group Investor Relations. Lufthansa Group. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  91. ^ a b "Company portrait". Lufthansa Group. Archived from the original on 16 February 2022. Retrieved 25 May 2022.
  92. ^ "Brussels Airlines sans Eurowings". Trends-Tendances (in French). 27 June 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  93. ^ "aviation24.be". Aviation24.be. 23 June 2020.
  94. ^ aerotelegraph.com (German) 23 June 2020
  95. ^ Lufthansa Chronicle. Konzern.lufthansa.com (28 June 2011). Retrieved on 8 July 2011.
  96. ^ "Erleben ist das neue Haben" (in German). Kolle Rebbe. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
  97. ^ Lufthansa.com. Konzern.lufthansa.com (28 June 2011). Retrieved on 8 July 2011. Archived 8 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  98. ^ Official press release by Lufthansa. Konzern.lufthansa.com (28 June 2011). Retrieved on 8 July 2011. Archived 8 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  99. ^ airreview.com Archived 10 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine airreview.com. Retrieved on 2 April 2012
  100. ^ staralliance.com Archived 15 December 2009 at the Wayback Machine. staralliance.com. Retrieved on 8 July 2011.
  101. ^ "Lufthansa Strikes BMI Deal, Ending Dispute". Dow Jones Deutschland. 22 July 2009. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 24 November 2010.
  102. ^ "Lufthansa to gain full control of bmi from SAS, while BA confirms interest in the UK carrier". Centre for Asia Pacific Aviation. 2 October 2009.
  103. ^ "Eleven airlines fined in European cargo cartel investigation". Retrieved 10 November 2010.
  104. ^ "Job Losses After Qantas-Lufthansa Deal Falls Through". Airport International. 26 July 2012. Archived from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
  105. ^ "German giants sign Samsung extension - SportsPro Media". www.sportspromedia.com. November 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2019.
  106. ^ "Commitment to Sports". Archived from the original on 16 April 2015. Retrieved 10 April 2015.
  107. ^ "Lufthansa codeshare partners". Cologne: Lufthansa Group. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  108. ^ "Lufthansa Group and Star Alliance partners". Cologne: Lufthansa Group. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  109. ^ "Air Astana and Lufthansa Sign Codeshare Agreement". AviationPros.com. 15 March 2017. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
  110. ^ Casey, David (17 February 2021). "Lufthansa and airBaltic begin codeshare relationship". Routes. Informa. Archived from the original on 23 April 2021. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  111. ^ Liu, Jim (20 March 2018). "ANA extends Lufthansa codeshares to the Baltics in S18". Routesonline. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  112. ^ "Cathay Pacific extend codeshare partnership". businesstraveller.com. 15 July 2019. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  113. ^ "Etihad and Lufthansa strike code-share deal - The National". 16 December 2016.
  114. ^ Liu, Jim (20 January 2020). "United resumes Lufthansa codeshare to Russia from Feb 2020". Routesonline. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  115. ^ "LUFTHANSA / VISTARA BEGINS CODESHARE PARTNERSHIP FROM AUG 2022". Aeroroutes. 23 August 2022.
  116. ^ a b c lh-taufnamen.de - Lufthansa Archived 15 January 2018 at the Wayback Machine retrieved 20 June 2016
  117. ^ Michaels, Daniel (16 June 2008). "Lufthansa's Labor of Love: Restoring Some Really Old Junkers". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
  118. ^ Michaels, Daniel (16 June 2008). "Engineering Veteran Plays a Vital Role in Plane's Rebirth". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 27 August 2013.
  119. ^ "Lufthansa Group orders 40 Boeing 787-9 Dreamliners and Airbus A350-900 aircraft, will sell 6 A380s". World Airline News. 13 March 2019. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  120. ^ Singh, Jay (8 March 2020). "Breaking: Lufthansa To Ground Entire Airbus A380 Fleet". Simple Flying. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  121. ^ McDermott, John (8 March 2020). "Lufthansa Grounds Airbus A380 Fleet". AirlineGeeks.com. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  122. ^ Schlappig, Ben (8 March 2020). "Lufthansa Grounding Entire A380 Fleet". One Mile at a Time. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  123. ^ "Lufthansa reactivates Airbus A380". Lufthansa Media Relations. 27 June 2022.
  124. ^ Schlappig, Ben (27 June 2022). "Lufthansa Airbus A380 Returning In 2023!!!". One Mile At A Time.
  125. ^ Philip, Siddharth Vikram (27 June 2022). "Lufthansa to Bring Back A380 in Reversal as Travel Demand Soars". Bloomberg.
  126. ^ "All partners at a glance". Miles & More. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
  127. ^ "Benefits for frequent flyers compared". Miles & More. Retrieved 29 July 2019.
  128. ^ "Lufthansa First Class". a380.lufthansa.com. Archived from the original on 21 September 2016. Retrieved 24 November 2010.
  129. ^ Weiss, Richard (21 February 2013). "Lufthansa to Shrink First-Class Fleet Below British Airways". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on 10 April 2015. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
  130. ^ "Lufthansa To Reduce First Class Capacity". LufthansaFlyer (Blog). 22 February 2013. Archived from the original on 18 August 2013.[unreliable source?]
  131. ^ Schlappig, Ben (5 February 2017). "Lufthansa's Grim First Class Prospects". One Mile at a Time. Archived from the original on 30 April 2020. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  132. ^ Schlappig, Ben (18 October 2021). "Official: Lufthansa Installing First Class On A350s". One Mile at a Time. Archived from the original on 16 February 2022. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  133. ^ Flynn, David (28 June 2021). "Lufthansa confirms 2023 debut for new Airbus A350 first class". Executive Traveller. Archived from the original on 12 June 2021.
  134. ^ Snyder, Brett. "Photos: Inside Lufthansa's New Business Class". Condé Nast Traveler. Archived from the original on 12 October 2014. Retrieved 12 October 2014.
  135. ^ Caswell, Mark (8 March 2012). "Lufthansa unveils new fully-flat business class seat". Business Traveller. Archived from the original on 5 December 2020. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
  136. ^ Flynn, David (5 May 2021). "Lufthansa confirms 'mysterious' new Boeing 787 business class". Executive Traveller. Archived from the original on 14 May 2021.
  137. ^ "World premiere: Lufthansa presents Premium Economy Class" (Press release). Deutsche Lufthansa AG. 5 March 2014. Archived from the original on 7 March 2014.
  138. ^ Schlappig, Ben (25 June 2019). "Revealed: Lufthansa's New Premium Economy Seat". One Mile at a Time. Archived from the original on 30 December 2021. Retrieved 19 July 2019.
  139. ^ "Lounges". Lufthansa. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  140. ^ "New: Lufthansa Airport Bus Nuremberg - Munich". Lufthansa. 9 November 1996. Archived from the original on 9 November 1996. Retrieved 26 July 2018.
  141. ^ airliners.de (German) 20 January 2022
  142. ^ Lufthansa 1959 crash at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved on 8 July 2011.
  143. ^ Lufthansa 1961 accidents at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net (4 December 1961). Retrieved on 8 July 2011.
  144. ^ Lufthansa Flight 5 at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net (28 January 1966). Retrieved on 8 July 2011.
  145. ^ "Lufthansa Fleet Details and History". Planespotters.net. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014.
  146. ^ Flight 540 at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved on 8 July 2011.
  147. ^ Flight 527 at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved on 8 July 2011.
  148. ^ "Smuggled Bride Dies in Suitcase, Groom Kills Himself". Associated Press.
  149. ^ "A320-211 Warsaw Accident Report". www.rvs.uni-bielefeld.de. Retrieved 29 August 2019.
  150. ^ Flight 2904 at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net (14 September 1993). Retrieved on 8 July 2011.
  151. ^ a b Mesovic, Bernd (28 May 2019). "Tod bei Abschiebung" [Death upon Deportation]. Die Tageszeitung (in German). Archived from the original on 28 May 2019.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  152. ^ a b c Connolly, Kate (29 July 2001). "Frankfurt airport shuts out asylum activists". The Guardian.
  153. ^ Traynor, Ian (30 May 1999). "Germany halts air expulsions". The Guardian.
  154. ^ 1973 incident at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net (20 December 1973). Retrieved on 8 July 2011.
  155. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident Boeing 747-230F D-ABYU Hong Kong-Kai Tak International Airport (HKG)". Aviation Safety Network.
  156. ^ Eiselen, Stefan (11 June 2018). "Airbus A340 von Lufthansa bei Brand beschädigt" [Lufthansa Airbus A340 damaged in fire]. Aero Telegraph (in German). Archived from the original on 13 May 2021.
  157. ^ February 1972 hijacking at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved on 8 July 2011.
  158. ^ "On This Day—23 February 1972: Hijackers surrender and free Lufthansa crew". BBC News. 23 February 1972. Archived from the original on 4 January 2022. Retrieved 29 August 2013.
  159. ^ July 1972 hijacking at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net (10 July 1972). Retrieved on 8 July 2011.
  160. ^ October 1972 hijacking at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net (11 October 1972). Retrieved on 8 July 2011.
  161. ^ 29 October 1972 hijacking at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved on 8 July 2011.
  162. ^ Bassett, Donna (2012). "Lufthansa Hijacking (1972)". In Chalk, Peter (ed.). Encyclopedia of Terrorism. Vol. 2. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. pp. 439–440. ISBN 9780313308956. Retrieved 28 February 2013.
  163. ^ Sattar, Majid (9 November 2006). "Deutsche Geschichte(n): Folgen eines Anschlags". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). Archived from the original on 10 December 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
  164. ^ 1973 hijacking at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved on 8 July 2011.
  165. ^ Shenker, Israel (19 December 1973). "Arab Hijackers Land in Kuwait; Hostages Freed". The New York Times. p. 1. Archived from the original on 16 February 2022.
  166. ^ June 1977 hijacking at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net (28 June 1977). Retrieved on 8 July 2011.
  167. ^ Chalk, Peter, ed. (2012). "Lufthansa Hijacking (1977)". Encyclopedia of Terrorism. Vol. 2. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. pp. 440–442. ISBN 9780313308956. Retrieved 28 February 2013.
  168. ^ Flight 181 at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved on 8 July 2011.
  169. ^ 1979 hijacking attempt at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net (12 September 1979). Retrieved on 8 July 2011.
  170. ^ February 1985 hijacking at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net (27 February 1985). Retrieved on 8 July 2011.
  171. ^ March 1985 hijacking at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net (27 March 1985). Retrieved on 8 July 2011.
  172. ^ March 1985 hijacking attempt at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net (29 March 1985). Retrieved on 8 July 2011.
  173. ^ Flight 595 at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved on 8 July 2011.
  174. ^ "No sign of take-off as Lufthansa pilots extend strike to three days". Deutsche Welle. 19 March 2015. Archived from the original on 30 December 2021.
  175. ^ Koenen, Jens (15 March 2017). "Lufthansa und Piloten: Die Streikhansa ist gelandet" [Lufthansa and Pilots: The strike hansa landed]. Handelsblatt (in German). Archived from the original on 6 July 2017.
  176. ^ "Lufthansa Group stoppt Stellenabbau und will wieder wachsen". airliners.de (in German). Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  177. ^ tagesschau.de. "Warnstreiks: Lufthansa streicht fast alle Flüge". tagesschau.de (in German). Retrieved 1 August 2022.
  178. ^ "Lufthansa boss says past hours 'darkest in 60-year history'". ITV News. 25 March 2015. Archived from the original on 8 January 2022. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
  179. ^ "Lufthansa Chief Carsten Spohr Under Spotlight After Germanwings Crash". The Wall Street Journal. 1 April 2015. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
  180. ^ Jainchill, Johanna (2 June 2015). "Lufthansa to add surcharge for GDS bookings". Travel Weekly. Archived from the original on 14 September 2021. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
  181. ^ Silk, Robert (25 September 2015). "Lufthansa disputes report that GDS bookings are way down". Travel Weekly. Archived from the original on 9 October 2015. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
  182. ^ Klein, Thomas (2 February 2002). "Prozess: »Deportation class« ist zulässig". Neues Deutschland (in German). Archived from the original on 16 February 2022.
  183. ^ Kleine Anfrage der Abgeordneten Ulla Jelpke u. a. und der Fraktion DIE LINKE: Abschiebungen und Ausreisen 2019 (PDF) (Report). Federal Ministry of the Interior, Building and Community. 17 March 2020. BT-Drucksache 19/17096. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 October 2020. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  184. ^ Coffey, Helen (6 January 2022). "Brussels Airlines operates 3,000 empty flights to keep airport slots". The Independent. Archived from the original on 21 January 2022.
  185. ^ Limb, Lottie (6 January 2022). "Almost 2 years into the pandemic, empty flights are still 'frying' the planet". Euronews. Archived from the original on 6 February 2022. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  186. ^ Eicher, Itamar; Salami, Daniel (9 May 2022). "German airline Lufthansa bars Jews from boarding flight". YNET.
  187. ^ Henry, Jacob (9 May 2022). "Passengers say Lufthansa threw all visible Jews off NYC-Budapest flight because some weren't wearing masks". Jewish Telegraphic Agency.
  188. ^ Borchardt, Reuvain (4 May 2022). "Jews Say They Were Barred From Lufthansa Flight Because 'One or Two' Didn't Wear Masks". Hamodia.
  189. ^ Zitser, Joshua (7 May 2022). "More than 100 Orthodox Jews who were praying before a flight were barred from boarding by German airline Lufthansa in mask dispute, report says". Business Insider – via Yahoo! News.
  190. ^ "Passengers say Lufthansa threw all visible Jews off NYC-Budapest flight". The Times of Israel.
  191. ^ Borchardt, Reuvain (4 May 2022). "Over 100 Jews Barred From Lufthansa Flight Because Some Didn't Wear Masks". Hamodia. Retrieved 9 June 2022.
  192. ^ Cohen, Ben (9 May 2022). "Orthodox Jews Allege Antisemitic Discrimination After German Airline Lufthansa Prevents Them From Boarding Connecting Flight". Algemeiner.
  193. ^ "Jüdische Passagiere am Flughafen Frankfurt aufgehalten" (in German). Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. 5 May 2022.
  194. ^ Hyde, Robe (9 May 2022). "Over 100 visibly Jewish passengers barred from Lufthansa flight after mask dispute". JC.
  195. ^ American Jewish Committee [@AJCGlobal] (9 May 2022). "Outrageous: Banning ALL Jews from a flight because of an alleged mask violation by some Jewish passengers is textbook antisemitism from @Lufthansa" (Tweet). Retrieved 10 May 2022 – via Twitter.
  196. ^ Klint, Matthew. "Did Lufthansa Really Discriminate Against Jews?". liveandletsfly.
  197. ^ a b c Thaidigsmann, Michael. "Lufthansa: Boarding denied". Jüdische Allgemeine.
  198. ^ "Más de 100 judíos ortodoxos de Nueva York son expulsados de un vuelo de Lufthansa por una disputa de mascarillas". El Diario La Prensa. 9 May 2022.
  199. ^ "U.S. Envoy Decries 'Unbelievable' Antisemitism by Lufthansa in Barring Jews from Flight". NBC News. 13 May 2022. Retrieved 14 June 2022.
  200. ^ Liphshiz, Cnaan (28 July 2022). "Lufthansa will create a position to fight antisemitism after kicking more than 100 Hasidic passengers off a flight". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Retrieved 15 August 2022.
  201. ^ Bloch, Ben (1 August 2022). "Lufthansa to hire antisemitism manager after orthodox passengers barred from flight". The Jewish Chronicle. Retrieved 14 September 2022.
  202. ^ Zitser, Joshua (28 July 2022). "Lufthansa Barred 100+ Jews From Flight to Hire Antisemitism Officer". Business Insider. Retrieved 15 August 2022.
  203. ^ Broder, Henryk M. (1 January 1970). "Gelebte Diversität: Wozu braucht die Lufthansa einen Antisemitismus-Beauftragten?". Die Welt (in German). Retrieved 15 August 2022.
  204. ^ "German airline Lufthansa to 'resume flight operation' for Pakistan after 13 years". 8 September 2021.
  205. ^ "Lufthansa keen to resume flight operations in Pakistan, Board of Investment told". 15 September 2021.

BibliographyEdit

  • Neulen, Hans-Werner (June 2001). "Une grue dans la tempête, Lufthansa dans les années 1939/1945" [A Crane in the Storm, Lufthansa in the Years 1939/1945]. Avions: Toute l'Aéronautique et son histoire (in French) (99): 30–40. ISSN 1243-8650.
  • Neulen, Hans-Werner (January 2002). "Une grue dans la tempête, Lufthansa dans les années 1939/1945". Avions: Toute l'Aéronautique et son histoire (in French) (106): 14–26. ISSN 1243-8650.
  • Neulen, Hans-Werner (February 2002). "Une grue dans la tempête, la Lufthansa en guerre: 1941" [A Crane in the Storm, Lufthansa at war: 1941]. Avions: Toute l'Aéronautique et son histoire (in French) (107): 39–51. ISSN 1243-8650.

External linksEdit

  Media related to Lufthansa at Wikimedia Commons

Coordinates: 50°56′15″N 006°58′11″E / 50.93750°N 6.96972°E / 50.93750; 6.96972