The Deutsche Mark (German: [ˈdɔʏtʃə ˈmaɐ̯k] (listen), "German mark"), abbreviated "DM" or "D-Mark" (help·info), was the official currency of West Germany from 1948 until 1990 and later the unified Germany from 1990 until 2002. It was first issued under Allied occupation in 1948 to replace the Reichsmark, and served as the Federal Republic of Germany's official currency from its founding the following year until the adoption of the euro. In English it is commonly called the "Deutschmark" (//); this expression is unknown in Germany. The Germans usually called it D-Mark when referring to the currency, and Mark when talking about individual sums.
|Deutsche Mark (German)|
Marka Gjermane (Albanian)
Njemačka marka (Croatian)
Nemačka marka / Немачка марка (Serbian)
DM 100 banknote
|Freq. used||DM 10, DM 20, DM 50, DM 100, DM 200|
|Rarely used||DM 5, DM 500, DM 1000|
|Freq. used||1 pf, 2 pf, 5 pf, 10 pf, 50 pf, DM 1, DM 2, DM 5|
|Unofficial user(s)|| Kosovo (under UNMIK)[a] (1999–2002) |
Bosnia and Herzegovina (1992–1998)
Montenegro (1999–2002, in parallel with the Yugoslav dinar until 2000)
|Central bank||Deutsche Bundesbank|
|Inflation||1.4%, December 2001|
|Pegged by||Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark, Bulgarian lev at par|
|Since||13 March 1979|
|Fixed rate since||31 December 1998|
|Replaced by €, non cash||1 January 1999|
|Replaced by €, cash||1 January 2002/28 February 2002|
|€ =||DM 1.95583|
This infobox shows the latest status before this currency was rendered obsolete.
In 1999, the Deutsche Mark was replaced by the Euro; its coins and banknotes remained in circulation, defined in terms of euros, until the introduction of euro notes and coins on 1 January 2002. The Deutsche Mark ceased to be legal tender immediately upon the introduction of the euro — in contrast to the other eurozone nations, where the euro and legacy currency circulated side by side for up to two months. Mark coins and banknotes continued to be accepted as valid forms of payment in Germany until 28 February 2002.
The Deutsche Bundesbank has guaranteed that all German marks in cash form may be changed into euros indefinitely, and one may do so in person at any branch of the Bundesbank in Germany. Banknotes and coins can even be sent to the Bundesbank by mail. In 2012, it was estimated that as many as 13.2 billion marks were in circulation, with one poll showing a narrow majority of Germans favouring the currency's restoration (although a minority believed this wouldn't bring any economic benefit).
One Deutsche Mark was divided into 100 Pfennige.
A mark had been the currency of Germany since its original unification in 1871. Before that time, the different German states issued a variety of different currencies, though most were linked to the Vereinsthaler, a silver coin containing 16 2⁄3 grams of pure silver. Although the mark was based on gold rather than silver, a fixed exchange rate between the Vereinsthaler and the mark of 3 marks = 1 Vereinsthaler was used for the conversion.
The first mark, known as the Goldmark, was introduced in 1873. With the outbreak of World War I, the mark was taken off the gold standard. The currency thus became known as the Papiermark, especially as high inflation, then hyperinflation occurred and the currency became exclusively made up of paper money. The Papiermark was replaced by the Rentenmark (RM) from November 15, 1923, and the Reichsmark (ℛℳ) in 1924.
Early military occupation following WWIIEdit
During the first two years of occupation the occupying powers of France, United Kingdom, United States, and the Soviet Union were not able to successfully negotiate a possible currency reform in Germany. Due to the strains between the Allies each zone was governed independently as regards monetary matters. The US occupation policy was governed by the directive JCS 1067 (in effect until July 1947), which forbade the US military governor "to take any steps to strengthen German financial structure". As a consequence a separate monetary reform in the U.S. zone was not possible. Each of the Allies printed its own occupation currency.
Currency reform of June 1948Edit
The Deutsche Mark was officially introduced on Sunday, June 20, 1948 by Ludwig Erhard. The old Reichsmark and Rentenmark were exchanged for the new currency at a rate of DM 1 = RM 1 for the essential currency such as wages, payment of rents etc., and DM 1 = RM 10 for the remainder in private non-bank credit balances, with half frozen.[clarification needed] Large amounts were exchanged for RM 10 to 65 Pfennig. In addition, each person received a per capita allowance of DM 60 in two parts, the first being DM 40 and the second DM 20.
A few weeks later Erhard, acting against orders, issued an edict abolishing many economic controls which had been originally implemented by the Nazis, and which the Allies had not removed. He did this, as he often confessed, on Sunday because the offices of the American, British, and French occupation authorities were closed that day. He was sure that if he had done it when they were open, they would have countermanded the order.
The introduction of the new currency was intended to protect western Germany from a second wave of hyperinflation and to stop the rampant barter and black market trade (where American cigarettes acted as currency). Although the new currency was initially only distributed in the three western occupation zones outside Berlin, the move angered the Soviet authorities, who regarded it as a threat. The Soviets promptly cut off all road, rail and canal links between the three western zones and West Berlin, starting the Berlin Blockade. In response, the U.S. and Britain launched an airlift of food and coal and distributed the new currency in West Berlin as well.
Economics of 1948 currency reformEdit
Since the 1930s, prices and wages had been controlled, but money had been plentiful. That meant that people had accumulated large paper assets, and that official prices and wages did not reflect reality, as the black market dominated the economy and more than half of all transactions were taking place unofficially. The reform replaced the old money with the new Deutsche Mark at the rate of one new per ten old. This wiped out 90% of government and private debt, as well as private savings. Prices were decontrolled, and labor unions agreed to accept a 15% wage increase, despite the 25% rise in prices. The result was the prices of German export products held steady, while profits and earnings from exports soared and were poured back into the economy. The currency reforms were simultaneous with the $1.4 billion in Marshall Plan money coming in from the United States, which primarily was used for investment. In addition, the Marshall plan forced German companies, as well as those in all of Western Europe, to modernize their business practices, and take account of the wider market. Marshall plan funding overcame bottlenecks in the surging economy caused by remaining controls (which were removed in 1949), and opened up a greatly expanded market for German exports. Overnight, consumer goods appeared in the stores, because they could be sold for higher prices. While the availability of consumers goods is seen as a giant success story by most historians of the present, the perception at the time was a different one: prices were so high that average people could not afford to shop, especially since prices were free-ranging but wages still fixed by law. Therefore, in the summer of 1948 a giant wave of strikes and demonstrations swept over West Germany, leading to an incident in Stuttgart where strikers were met by US tanks ("Stuttgarter Vorfälle"). Only after the wage-freeze was abandoned, Deutschmark and free-ranging prices were accepted by the population.
Currency reform in the Soviet occupation zoneEdit
In the Soviet occupation zone of Germany (later the German Democratic Republic), the East German mark (also named "Deutsche Mark" from 1948 to 1964 and colloquially referred to as the Ostmark — literally Eastmark) was introduced a few days afterwards in the form of Reichsmark and Rentenmark notes with adhesive stamps to stop the flooding in of Reichsmark and Rentenmark notes from the West. In July 1948, a completely new series of East German mark banknotes was issued.
Bank deutscher Länder and the Deutsche BundesbankEdit
Later in 1948, the Bank deutscher Länder ("Bank of the German States") assumed responsibility, followed in 1957 by the Deutsche Bundesbank. The Deutsche Mark earned a reputation as a strong store of value at times when other national currencies succumbed to periods of inflation. It became a source of national pride and an anchor for the country's economic prosperity, particularly during the years of the Wirtschaftswunder in the 1950s. In the 1990s, opinion polls showed a majority of Germans opposed to the adoption of the euro; polls today show a significant number would prefer to return to the mark.
Currency Union with the SaarlandEdit
The population in the Saar Protectorate rejected in a referendum the proposal to turn it into a "European territory". Despite French pre-referendum claims that a "no" vote would mean that the Saar would remain a French protectorate it in fact resulted in the incorporation of the Saar into the Federal Republic of Germany on January 1, 1957. The new German member state of the Saarland maintained its currency, the Saar franc, which was in a currency union at par with the French franc. On July 9, 1959 the Deutsche Mark replaced the Saar franc at a ratio of 100 francs = DM 0.8507.
The Deutsche Mark played an important role in the reunification of Germany. It was introduced as the official currency of East Germany in July 1990, replacing the East German mark (Mark der DDR), in preparation for unification on 3 October 1990. East German marks were exchanged for German marks at a rate of 1:1 for the first 4000 marks and 2:1 for larger amounts. Before reunification, each citizen of East Germany coming to West Germany was given Begrüßungsgeld (welcome money), a per capita allowance of DM 100 in cash. The government of Germany and the Bundesbank were in major disagreement over the exchange rate between the East German mark and the German mark.
France and the United Kingdom were opposed to German reunification, and attempted to influence the Soviet Union to stop it. However, in late 1989 France extracted German commitment to the Monetary Union in return for support for German reunification.
The German mark had a reputation as one of the world's most stable currencies; this was based on the monetary policy of the Bundesbank. The policy was "hard" in relation to the policies of certain other central banks in Europe. The "hard" and "soft" was in respect to the aims of inflation and political interference. This policy was the foundation of the European Central Bank's present policy[clarification needed] towards the euro. The German mark's stability was greatly apparent in 1993, when speculation on the French franc and other European currencies caused a change in the European Exchange Rate Mechanism. However, it should be remembered that "hard" is relative only if it is compared to other currencies, as in its 53-year history, the purchasing power of the German mark was reduced by over 70%.
The first Deutsche Mark coins were issued by the Bank deutscher Länder in 1948 and 1949. From 1950, the inscription Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Federal Republic of Germany) appeared on the coins. These coins were issued in denominations of 1, 2, 5, and 10 pfennigs. The 1- and 2-pfennig coins were struck in bronze clad steel (although during some years the 2 pfennigs was issued in solid bronze) while 5 and 10 pfennigs were brass clad steel. In 1950, cupronickel 50-pfennig and 1-mark coins were released, while a cupronickel 2 marks and a .625 silver 5 marks were released in 1951. Cupronickel replaced silver in the 5 marks in 1975. The 2- and 5-mark coins have often been used for commemorative themes, though typically only the generic design for the 5 marks is intended for circulation. Commemorative silver 10-mark coins have also been issued which have periodically found their way into circulation. Unlike other European countries, Germany retained the use of the smallest coins (1 and 2 pfennigs) until adoption of the euro.
|1 pfennig||1948–2001||1948–1949: Bronze-plated steel
1950–2001: Copper-plated steel
|Denomination between rye stalks||Oak sprig|
|2 pfennigs||1950–2001||1950–1968: Bronze
1968–2001: Bronze-plated steel
|Denomination between rye stalks||Oak sprig|
|5 pfennigs||1949–2001||Brass-plated steel||Denomination between rye stalks||Oak sprig|
|10 pfennigs||1949–2001||Brass-plated steel||Denomination between rye stalks||Oak sprig|
|50 pfennigs||1949–2001||Cupro-nickel||Denomination||Woman planting an oak seedling|
|DM 1||1950–2001||Cupro-nickel||Denomination between oak leaves||German eagle|
|DM 2||1951–1956||Cupro-nickel||Denomination between rye stalks and grapes||German eagle|
|1957–1971||Cupro-nickel||Max Planck||German eagle,|
|1969–2001||Cupro-nickel (Cu 75% Ni 25%)||1969–1987: Konrad Adenauer
1970–1987: Theodor Heuss
1979–1993: Kurt Schumacher
1988–2001: Ludwig Erhard
1990–2001: Franz Josef Strauss
1994–2001: Willy Brandt
|DM 5||1951–1974||.625 silver (Ag 62.5% Cu 37.5%)||Denomination||German eagle|
|1975–2001||Cupro-nickel (Cu 75% Ni 25%)||Denomination||German eagle|
Unlike other countries (such as Australia) there was no attempt or proposal suggested for the withdrawal of the 1- and 2-pfennig coins. Both coins were still in circulation in 2001 and supermarkets in particular still marked prices to the nearest pfennig. This penchant for accuracy continues with the euro (while Finland or the Netherlands for example, price to the nearest 5 cents) with the 1-cent coin still encountered in Germany.
On 27 December 2000, the German government enacted a law authorizing the Bundesbank to issue, in 2001, a special .999 pure gold 1-mark coin commemorating the end of the German mark. The coin had the exact design and dimensions of the circulating cupro-nickel DM 1 coin, with the exception of the inscription on the reverse, which read "Deutsche Bundesbank" (instead of "Bundesrepublik Deutschland"), as the Bundesbank was the issuing authority in this case. A total of one million gold 1-mark coins were minted (200,000 at each of the five mints) and were sold beginning in mid-2001 through German coin dealers on behalf of the Bundesbank. The issue price varied by dealer but averaged approximately 165 United States dollars.
German coins bear a mint mark, indicating where the coin was minted. D indicates Munich, F Stuttgart, G Karlsruhe and J Hamburg. Coins minted during the Second World War include the mint marks A (Berlin) and B (Vienna). The mint mark A was also used for German mark coins minted in Berlin beginning in 1990 following the reunification of Germany. These mint marks have been continued on the German euro coins.
Between July 1, 1990 (the currency union with East Germany) and July 1, 1991, East German coins in denominations up to 50 pfennigs continued to circulate as Deutsche Mark coins at their face value, owing to a temporary shortage of small coins. These coins were legal tender only in the territory of the former East Germany.
In colloquial German the 10-pfennig coin was sometimes called a groschen (cf. groat). Likewise, sechser (sixer) could refer to a coin of 5 pfennigs. Both colloquialisms refer to several pre-1871 currencies of the previously independent states (notably Prussia), where a groschen was subdivided into 12 pfennigs, hence half a groschen into 6. After 1871, 12 old pfennigs would be converted into 10 pfennigs of the mark, hence 10-pfennig coins inherited the "Groschen" name and 5-pfennig coins inherited the "sechser" name. Both usages are only regional and may not be understood in areas where a Groschen coin did not exist before 1871. In particular, the usage of "sechser" is less widespread. In northern Germany the 5-mark coin used to be also called "Heiermann" (etymology is unclear), whereas in Bavaria the 2-mark coin was called "Zwickl" (as the €2 coin is now).
There were four series of German mark banknotes:
- The first was issued in 1948 by the Allied military. There were denominations of 1⁄2, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 marks, with two designs of 20 and 50 Mark notes.
- The second series (BdL) was introduced in 1948 by the Bank deutscher Länder, an institution of the western occupation government. The designs were similar to the US Dollar and French franc, as the job of designing and printing the different denominations was shared between the Bank of France and the American Bank Note Company. There were denominations of 5 and 10 pfennigs, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 marks. The last of the banknotes (5 and 10 marks) were phased out by July 31, 1966.
- The third series (I/Ia BBk) was introduced in 1960 by the Bundesbank, depicting neutral symbols, paintings by the German painter Albrecht Dürer, and buildings. There were denominations of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 marks. The series ceased to be legal tender on June 30, 1995.
- The fourth (BBk III/III a) was introduced in 1990 by the Bundesbank to counter advances in forgery technology. The notes depicted German artists and scientists together with symbols and tools of their trade. This series added a 200-mark denomination, to decrease the use of 100-mark banknotes, which made up 54% of all circulating banknotes, and to fill the gap between the DM 100 and DM 500 denominations. In 1997-1998, new versions of DM 50, DM 100 and DM 200 were issued with improved security elements.
The notes with a value greater than 200 marks were rarely seen.
A reserve series (BBk II) was commissioned on July 1, 1960, consisting of 10, 20, 50 and 100 mark banknotes. 670 million BBk II banknotes in value of 25 billion marks were printed. The notes were printed between 1963 and 1974 in fear if the Eastern Bloc would start systematically counterfeiting the BBk I series of banknotes to cripple the economy, then they would quickly be replaced by emergency notes. Another reserve series for West Berlin (BBk IIa) was commissioned on July 1, 1963, consisting of 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 mark banknotes. 115 million West Berlin banknotes were printed, total value 4 billion marks. 15 billion marks worth of the banknotes were held in Bundesbank's custom-built underground bunker in Cochem in Rheinland-Pfalz, the rest was stored in Bundesbank's vault in Frankfurt.
Banknotes of the fourth seriesEdit
The design of German banknotes remained unchanged during the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. During this period, forgery technology made significant advances and so, in the late 1980s, the Bundesbank decided to issue a new series of Deutsche Mark banknotes. The colours for each denomination remained unchanged from the previous series but the designs underwent significant changes and a DM 200 denomination was introduced. Famous national artists and scientists were chosen to be portrayed on the new banknotes. Male and female artists were chosen in equal numbers. The buildings in the background of the notes' obverses had a close relationship to the person displayed (e.g., place of birth, place of death, place of work), as well as the second background picture (Lyra and the musician Schumann). The reverses of the notes refer to the work of the person on the obverse.
The new security features were: a windowed security thread (with the notes' denominations in microprinting), watermarks, microprinting, intaglio printing (viewing-angle dependent visibility as well as a Braille representation of the notes denomination), colour-shifting ink (on the DM 500 and 1000 denominations), a see-through registration device and ultraviolet-visible security features.
First to be issued were the DM 100 and 200 denominations on 1 October 1990 (although the banknote shows "Frankfurt am Main, 2. Januar 1989"). The next denomination was DM 10 on 16 April 1991, followed by DM 50 on 30 September 1991. Next was the DM 20 note on 20 March 1992 (printed on 2 August 1991). The reason for this gradual introduction was, that public should become familiar with one single denomination, before introducing a new one. The change was finished with the introduction of the DM 5, DM 500, and DM 1000 denominations on 27 October 1992. The last three denominations were rarely seen in circulation and were introduced in one step. With the advance of forgery technology, the Bundesbank decided to introduce additional security features on the most important denominations (DM 50, 100 and 200) as of 1996. These were a hologram foil in the center of the note's obverse, a matted printing on the note's right obverse, showing its denomination (like on the reverse of the new €5, €10, and €20 banknotes), and the EURion constellation on the note's reverse. Furthermore, the colours were changed slightly to hamper counterfeiting.
|Image||Dimensions||Main Color||Description||Date of|
|122×62 mm||Yellowish Green||Bettina von Arnim||Brandenburg Gate||1/8/1991||27/10/1992||31/12/2001|
|130×65 mm||Blue Violet||Carl Friedrich Gauss||Sextant||2/1/1989||16/4/1991||31/12/2001|
|138×68 mm||Bluish Green||Annette von Droste-Hülshoff||A quill pen and a beech-tree||1/8/1991||20/3/1992||31/12/2001|
|146×71 mm||Yellowish Brown||Balthasar Neumann||Partial view of the Würzburg Residence||2/1/1989||30/9/1991||31/12/2001|
|154×74 mm||Dark Blue||Clara Schumann||Grand Piano||2/1/1989||1/10/1990||31/12/2001|
|162×77 mm||Orange||Paul Ehrlich||Microscope||2/1/1989||1/10/1990||31/12/2001|
|170×80 mm||Red Violet||Maria Sibylla Merian||Dandelion, Inchworm, Butterfly||1/8/1991||27/10/1992||31/12/2001|
|178×83 mm||Dark Brown||Wilhelm and Jacob Grimm||The 'German Dictionary'||1/8/1991||27/10/1992||31/12/2001|
|For table standards, see the banknote specification table.|
Spelling and pronunciationEdit
The German name of the currency is Deutsche Mark (fem., German pronunciation: [ˈdɔʏtʃə ˈmaʁk]); its plural form in standard German is the same as the singular. In German, the adjective "deutsche" (adjective for "German" in feminine singular nominative form) is capitalized because it is part of a proper name, while the noun "Mark", like all German nouns, is always capitalized. The English loanword "Deutschmark" has a slightly different spelling and one syllable fewer (possibly due to the frequency of silent e in English), and a plural form in -s.
In Germany and other German speaking countries, the currency's name was often abbreviated as D-Mark (fem., [ˈdeːmaʁk]) or simply Mark (fem.) with the latter term also often used in English. Like Deutsche Mark, D-Mark and Mark do not take the plural in German when used with numbers (like all names of units), the singular being used to refer to any amount of money (e.g. eine (one) Mark and dreißig (thirty) Mark). Sometimes, a very colloquial plural form of Mark, Märker [ˈmɛʁkɐ] was used either as hypocoristic form or to refer to a small number of D-Mark coins or bills, e.g. Gib mir mal ein paar Märker ("Just give me a few marks") and Die lieben Märker wieder ("The lovely money again", with an ironic undertone).
The subdivision unit is spelled Pfennig (masc.; [ˈpfɛnɪç]), which unlike Mark does have a commonly used plural form: Pfennige ([ˈpfɛnɪɡə]), but the singular could also be used instead with no difference in meaning. (e.g.: ein (one) Pfennig, dreißig (thirty) Pfennige or dreißig (thirty) Pfennig). The official form is singular.
Before the switch to the euro, the Deutsche Mark was the largest international reserve currency after the United States dollar.
- Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is recognized as an independent state by 104 out of 193 United Nations member states.
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- "Determination of the euro conversion rates". European Central Bank. 1999-01-01. Archived from the original on 2007-12-01. Retrieved 2008-02-20.
- Nicholas Balabkins, "Germany Under Direct Controls: Economic Aspects of Industrial Disarmament 1945–1948", Rutgers University Press, 1964 p. 145
- Bundesbank.de Archived 2017-01-24 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 2015-01-04
- Tyler Cowen, "The Marshall Plan: myths and realities" in U.S. Aid to the Developing World, A Free Market Agenda Archived 2011-01-22 at the Wayback Machine., Heritage Foundation, p.65
- Tipton, Frank B. (2003). History of Modern Germany since 1815. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 511–13. ISBN 0-520-24050-2.
- Sauermann, Heinz (1950). "The Consequences of the Currency Reform in Western Germany". Review of Politics. 12 (2): 175–196. JSTOR 1405052.
- Jörg Roesler: Die Stuttgarter Vorfälle vom Oktober 1948. Zur Entstehung der Sozialen Marktwirtschaft in der Bundesrepublik Deutschlands, in: Jahrbuch für Forschungen zur Geschichte der Arbeiterbewegung, No I/2007; Uwe Fuhrmann: Stuttgart 48 und die soziale Marktwirtschaft, in: Fuhrman et. a. (eds.): Ignoranz und Inszenierung, Münster 2012
- "Thatcher told Gorbachev Britain did not want German reunification". Michael Binyon. London: Times. September 11, 2009. Archived from the original on May 4, 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-06.
- Ben Knight (2009-11-08). "Germany's neighbors try to redeem their 1989 negativity". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 2009-11-11. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
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- The sculptor Richard Martin Werner designed the woman relief after his wife Gerda Johanna Werner (in German).
- Sammler.com Archived 2018-04-27 at the Wayback Machine. Withdrawn on 1 July 1958 over confusion with the similarly designed 1 DM
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Deutsche Mark.|
- Coins of the Third Reich
- Overview of German Mark from BBC online
- Historical US Dollars to German Marks currency conversion, 1913–2005
- Historical banknotes of Germany
Reichsmark, Rentenmark, AM-Mark
Reason: intended to protect West Germany from the second wave of hyperinflation and stop the rampant barter and black market trade
Ratio: 1 DM = 1 RM (either) below 600 RM
1 DM = 10 RM above 600 RM
and each person received 40 DM
|Currency of West Germany (incl. West Berlin)
21 (24 W-Berlin) June 1948 – 1990
Note: except of the state of the Saarland (1957–1959)
|Currency of Germany
1 July 1990 – 31 December 2001
Note: euro existed as money of account since 1 January 1999, with DM coins and banknotes being the German appearance of the euro
Reason: deployment of euro cash
Ratio: 1 euro = 1.95583 Deutsche Mark
French franc and Saar Franc
Reason: currency union (9 July 1959), after the Saarland had joined West Germany (1 January 1957)
Ratio: 100 Francs = 0.8507 Deutsche Mark
Mark of the GDR
Reason: currency union (1 July 1990) preparing the German reunification (3 October 1990)
Ratio: at par up to 4000 GDR marks
2 GDR marks = 1 DM above 4000 GDR marks
Yugoslav new dinar
Reason: political and economic reasons
|Currency of Kosovo, Montenegro |
1999 – 31 December 2001