Clara Schumann (//; née Clara Josephine Wieck; 13 September 1819 – 20 May 1896) was a German pianist, composer and piano teacher. She is regarded as one of the most distinguished pianists of the Romantic era, exerting her influence over a 61-year concert career. She changed the format and repertoire of the piano recital from displays of mere virtuosity to programs of serious works. She composed solo works for her instrument, a Piano Concerto, chamber music and choral pieces.
Portrait by Franz von Lenbach, 1878
Clara Josephine Wieck
13 September 1819
|Died||20 May 1896 (aged 76)|
|Organization||Dr. Hoch's Konservatorium|
(m. 1840; died 1856)
She was married to composer Robert Schumann, and the couple had eight children. Together, they encouraged Johannes Brahms and maintained a close relationship with him. She was the first to perform many works by her husband and by Brahms in public. Her international concert tours in Europe began at age eleven with a tour to Paris. After her husband's death, she toured further, especially to Britain, with a focus on chamber music, which she frequently performed with the violinist Joseph Joachim. Beginning in 1878, she was an influential piano educator at Dr. Hoch's Konservatorium in Frankfurt, where she attracted international students.
- 1 Life
- 2 Family life
- 3 Music
- 4 Legacy
- 5 References
- 6 Sources
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
Clara Josephine Wieck was born in Leipzig on 13 September 1819 to Friedrich Wieck and Marianne Wieck (née Tromlitz). Her mother was a famous singer in Leipzig at the time, performing solos on a weekly basis at the Gewandhaus. Irreconcilable differences between her parents, in part due to her father's unyielding nature, but prompted by an affair between her mother and Adolph Bargiel, her father's friend, resulted in the Wiecks' divorce in 1824, with Marianne marrying Bargiel. Five-year-old Clara remained with her father while Marianne and Bargiel eventually moved to Berlin, limiting contact between Clara and her mother to written letters and an occasional visit.
From an early age, Clara's career and life were planned down to the smallest detail by her father. She had started receiving basic piano lessons from her mother at age 4-1/2, but after her mother moved out, she began daily one-hour lessons in piano, violin, singing, theory, harmony, composition, and counterpoint from her father, using the teaching methods he had developed, and had to practice for two hours every day. He followed the methods in his own book, Wiecks pianistische Erziehung zum schönen Anschlag und zum singenden Ton, aiming for a delicate touch and a singing sound. Her musical studies came largely at the expense of her broader general education, although she still studied religion and languages under her father's control.
Clara Wieck made her debut on 28 October 1828 at the Gewandhaus in Leipzig. The same year, she performed at the Leipzig home of Dr. Ernst Carus, director of the mental hospital at Colditz Castle. There, she met another gifted young pianist who had been invited to the musical evening, Robert Schumann, who was nine years older. Schumann admired Clara's playing so much that he asked permission from his mother to stop studying law, which had never interested him much, and take music lessons with Clara's father. While taking lessons, he rented a room in the Wieck household, staying about a year. He would sometimes dress up as a ghost and scare Clara, creating a bond between the two.
In September 1831, Clara left for a concert tour to Paris via other European cities, accompanied by her father, which lasted through April 1832. In Weimar, she performed a bravura piece by Henri Herz for Goethe, who presented her with a medal with his portrait and a written note saying: "For the gifted artist Clara Wieck". During that tour, Niccolò Paganini was in Paris, and he offered to appear with her. However, her Paris recital was poorly attended, as many people had fled the city due to an outbreak of cholera. The tour marked the transition from a child prodigy to a young woman performer.
From December 1837 to April 1838, Clara Wieck performed a series of recitals in Vienna when she was 18. Franz Grillparzer, Austria's leading dramatic poet, wrote a poem entitled "Clara Wieck and Beethoven" after hearing Wieck perform Beethoven's Appassionata sonata during one of these recitals. Wieck performed to sell-out crowds and laudatory critical reviews; Benedict Randhartinger, a friend of Franz Schubert, gave Wieck an autographed copy of Schubert's Erlkönig, inscribing it "To the celebrated artist, Clara Wieck." Chopin described her playing to Franz Liszt, who came to hear one of Wieck's concerts and subsequently "praised her extravagantly in a letter that was published in the Parisian Revue et Gazette Musicale and later, in translation, in the Leipzig journal Neue Zeitschrift für Musik." On 15 March, Wieck was named a Königliche und Kaiserliche Kammervirtuosin ("Royal and Imperial Chamber Virtuoso"), Austria's highest musical honor.
An anonymous music critic, describing her Vienna recitals, said: "The appearance of this artist can be regarded as epoch-making... In her creative hands, the most ordinary passage, the most routine motive acquires a significant meaning, a colour, which only those with the most consummate artistry can give."
Marriage to Robert SchumannEdit
Robert Schumann was a little more than nine years older than Clara. In 1837, when she was age 18, he proposed to her and she accepted. Robert then asked her father for her hand in marriage. Wieck was strongly opposed to the marriage, and refused his permission. Robert and Clara had to go to court and sue him, and the judge's decision was to allow the marriage, which notably took place on 12 September 1840, the day before Clara's 21st birthday, when she attained majority status. From then on, the couple maintained a joint musical and personal diary of their life together.
The Schumanns first met violinist Joseph Joachim in November 1844, when he was just 14 years old. A year later Clara wrote in her diary that in a concert on 11 November 1845, "little Joachim was very much liked. He played a new violin concerto by Felix Mendelssohn, which is said to be wonderful." In May 1853 they heard Joachim play the solo part in Beethoven's Violin Concerto. She wrote that he played "with a finish, a depth of poetic feeling, his whole soul in every note, so ideally, that I have never heard violin-playing like it, and I can truly say that I have never received so indelible an impression from any virtuoso." A lasting friendship developed which "for more than forty years never failed Clara in things great or small, never wavered in its loyalty."
Over her career, Clara gave over 238 concerts with Joachim in Germany and Britain, "more than with any other artist". "The two were particularly noted for their playing of Beethoven's sonatas for violin and piano."
In the spring of 1853, the then-unknown 20-year-old Johannes Brahms met Joachim and made a very favorable impression. Brahms received from Joachim a letter of introduction to Robert Schumann, and thus presented himself at the Schumanns' home in Düsseldorf. Brahms played some of his piano solo compositions for the Schumanns and they were deeply impressed. Robert published an article highly lauding Brahms, and Clara wrote in the diary that Brahms "seemed as if sent straight from God". During Robert's last years of life confined to an asylum, Brahms was a strong presence in Clara's life, and a series of letters were shared between the two, which describe Brahms' strong feelings for Clara. Their relationship has been interpreted as bordering between friendship and love. She was the first to perform many of his works in public, including the Variations and Fugue on a Theme by Handel.
Robert Schumann's confinement and deathEdit
Robert Schumann attempted suicide in February 1854 and then was committed to an asylum where he spent the last two years of his life. In March 1854, Brahms, Joachim, Albert Dietrich, and Julius Otto Grimm spent time with Clara, playing music for her and with her to divert her mind from the tragedy. Robert Schumann died on 29 July 1856.
Clara Schumann first toured England in April 1856, while Robert was still living but unable to travel. She was invited to play in a London Philharmonic Society concert by conductor William Sterndale Bennett, a good friend of Robert's. Clara was displeased with the little time spent on rehearsals: "They call it a rehearsal here if a piece is played through once." She wrote that musical "artists" in England "allow themselves to be treated as inferiors." She was happy, though, to hear the cellist Alfredo Piatti play with "a tone, a bravura, a certainty, such as I never heard before". In May 1856 she played Schumann's Piano Concerto in A minor with the New Philharmonic Society conducted by a Dr. Wylde, who Clara said had "led a dreadful rehearsal" and "could not grasp the rhythm of the last movement". Still, she returned to London the following year and continued to perform in Britain for the next 15 years.
In October–November 1857, she went with Joachim on a recital tour to Dresden and Leipzig. St. James's Hall in London, which opened in 1858, hosted a series of "Popular Concerts" of chamber music. Joachim visited London annually beginning in 1866. Clara also spent many years in London participating in the Popular Concerts with Joachim and the celebrated Italian cellist Carlo Alfredo Piatti. Most often on the same concert programmes would be second violinist Joseph Ries (brother of composer Ferdinand Ries) and violist J. B. Zerbini. George Bernard Shaw, the leading playwright and also a music critic, wrote that the Popular Concerts helped greatly to spread and enlighten musical taste in England.
In January 1867, she toured Edinburgh and Glasgow, Scotland, along with Joachim, Piatti, Ries, and Zerbini. Two sisters, Louisa and Susanna Pyne, both singers who ran an opera company in England, and a Mr. Saunders, managed all the arrangements. Clara was accompanied by her oldest daughter Marie, who wrote from Manchester to her friend Rosalie Leser that in Edinburgh the pianist "was received with tempestuous applause and had to give an encore, so had Joachim. Piatti, too, is always tremendously liked." Marie also wrote: "For the longer journeys we had a saloon [car], comfortably furnished with arm-chairs and sofas... the journey ... was very comfortable." On this occasion, the musicians were not "treated as inferiors".
She also gave a concert tour in the United States in 1874.
In July 1875, Clara Schumann consulted a doctor about an arm injury. Having massaged the arm, the doctor advised her to practice only for one hour a day. She rested for eight months before returning to the concert stage in March 1876. She had not fully recovered, however, and experienced more neuralgia in her arm again in May, reporting that she "could not write on account of my arm". After her full recovery in 1877 she performed Beethoven's Fifth Piano Concerto with conductor Woldemar Bargiel (her half-brother by her mother's second marriage) in Berlin, and had tremendous success. She also performed concert engagements in England and Holland.
In 1878, Clara Schumann was appointed the first piano teacher of the new Dr. Hoch's Konservatorium in Frankfurt. She had chosen Frankfurt among offers from Stuttgart, Hannover, and Berlin, because the director, Joachim Raff, had accepted her conditions: she had to teach only 1-1/2 hours per day, was free to teach at her home, and had four months of vacation and time off for short tours in winter. She demanded two assistants, with her daughters Marie and Eugenie in mind.
Clara was the only woman in the faculty. Her fame attracted students from abroad, including Europe and the United States. She trained only advanced pupils, mostly young women, while her two daughters gave lessons to beginners. Among her 68 known students who made a musical career were Natalia Janotha, Fanny Davies, Nanette Falk, Amina Goodwin, Carl Friedberg, Leonard Borwick, Ilona Eibenschütz, Adelina de Lara, Marie Olson, and Mary Wurm. The Konservatorium staged events to celebrate her 50th year on stage in 1878 and her 60th ten years later. She held the teaching post until 1892 and contributed greatly to the improvement of modern piano playing technique.
Robert Schumann gave his wife a diary book on the day of their marriage. His first entry indicates that it should act as an autobiography of the family's personal lives, especially of the couple, and of their desires and accomplishments in the arts. It also functioned as a record of their artistic endeavors and growth. She fully accepted the diary in her many entries. It demonstrates her loyal love for her husband, with a desire to combine two lives into one artistically, although this life-long goal involved risks.
The couple remained joint partners in both family life and their careers. Clara premiered many works by Robert, from solo piano works to the piano versions of the introductions of Robert's orchestral works.
Clara Schumann often took charge of finances and general household affairs. Part of her responsibility included earning money by giving concerts, although she continued to play throughout her life not only for the income but also because she was a concert artist by training and by nature. The burden of duties for the family increased over time and narrowed her ability as an artist. As a flourishing composer's wife, she was limited in her own explorations.
She was the main breadwinner for her family and the sole one after Robert was hospitalized and then died, by giving concerts and teaching, and she did most of the work of organizing her own concert tours. She hired a housekeeper and a cook to keep house while she was away on her long tours. She refused to accept charity when a group of musicians offered to put on a benefit concert for her.
Clara and Robert Schumann had eight children:
- Marie (1841–1929)
- Elise (1843–1928)
- Julie (1845–1872)
- Emil (1846–1847)
- Ludwig (1848–1899)
- Ferdinand (1849–1891)
- Eugenie (1851–1938)
- Felix (1854–1879).
During the May Uprising in Dresden in 1849, she famously walked into the city through the front lines, defying a pack of armed men who confronted her, rescued her children, then walked back out of the city through the dangerous areas again. On the evening of 3 May, Robert and Clara heard that the revolution against the Saxon King Friedrich Augustus II for not accepting the "constitution for a German Confederation" had arrived in Dresden. Most family members left and hid in a "neighbourhood security brigade", but on 7 May, she bravely walked back to Dresden to rescue her three children who had been left with a maid.
Her life was punctuated by tragedy. In 1854, her husband had a mental collapse, attempted suicide, and was committed, at his request, to an insane asylum where he stayed for the last two years of his life. Her eldest son Ludwig suffered from mental illness like his father and, in her words, eventually had to be "buried alive" in an institution. She became deaf in later life, and she often needed a wheelchair. Not only did her husband predecease her but also four of their children. Their first son, Emil, died in infancy in 1847, aged only 1. Their daughter Julie died in 1872, leaving two small children aged only 2 and 7, then raised by their grandmother. In 1879, their son Felix died aged 25, leaving his children to her care as he was no longer married. In 1891, their son Ferdinand died at the age of 42.
Their oldest child Marie was of great support and help to her mother, taking the position of household cook. Marie also dissuaded her mother from continuing to burn letters she had written to Brahms, and he had returned, requesting that she destroy them. Another daughter, Eugenie, who had been too young when her father died to remember him, wrote a book, Erinnerungen (Memories), published in 1925, covering her parents and Brahms.
During her lifetime, Schumann was an internationally renowned concert pianist. Over 1,300 concert programs from her performances throughout Europe between 1831 through 1889 have been preserved. She championed the works of her husband and other contemporaries such as Brahms, Chopin and Mendelssohn.
Tomorrow precisely at eleven o'clock I will play the adagio from Chopin's Variations and at the same time I shall think of you very intently, exclusively of you. Now my request is that you should do the same, so that we may see and meet each other in spirit.
In her early years, her repertoire, selected by her father, was showy and in the style common to the time, with works by Kalkbrenner, Henselt, Thalberg, Herz, Pixis, Czerny and her own compositions. She turned to including compositions by Baroque composers such as Domenico Scarlatti and Johann Sebastian Bach, but performed especially contemporary music by Chopin, Mendelssohn and her husband, whose music did not attain popularity until the 1850s.
In 1835, she performed her Piano Concerto in A minor with the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra, conducted by Mendelssohn. A second piano concerto remained unfinished; only a Konzertsatz in F minor from 1847 survived. On 4 December 1845, she premiered Robert Schumann's Piano Concerto in Dresden.
Following the advice of Brahms she performed Mozart's Piano Concerto in C minor at the Hanoverian court and in Leipzig. Her busiest years as a performer were between 1856 and 1873, after her husband's death. During this period, she experienced success as a performer in Britain, where her 1865 performance of Beethoven's Piano Concerto in G major was met "with enormous applause". As a chamber musician, she often gave concerts with violinist Joachim. In her later career, she frequently accompanied lieder singers in recitals.
As part of the broad musical education given to her by her father, Clara Wieck learned to compose, and from childhood to middle age she produced a good body of work. Clara wrote that "composing gives me great pleasure... there is nothing that surpasses the joy of creation, if only because through it one wins hours of self-forgetfulness, when one lives in a world of sound". Her Op. 1 was Quatre Polonaises pour le pianoforte composed in 1831, and Op. 5 4 Pièces caractéristiques in 1836, all piano pieces for her recitals. She wrote a piano concerto at age 14, with some help from her future husband. A second piano concerto remained unfinished; only a Konzertsatz in F minor from 1847 survived.
After her marriage, she turned to lieder and choral works. The couple wrote and published one joint composition in 1841, Zwölf Lieder auf F. Rückerts Liebesfrühling (her Op. 12 and his Op. 37), setting a cycle of poems by Friedrich Rückert called Liebesfrühling (Spring of Love). Her chamber works include the Piano Trio in G minor, Op. 17 (1846) and Three Romanzen for Piano and Violin, Op. 22 (1853), inspired by her husband's birthday. They were dedicated to Joachim, who performed them for George V of Hanover, who declared them a "marvellous, heavenly pleasure".
As she grew older, however, she became more preoccupied with other responsibilities in life and found it hard to compose regularly, writing, "I once believed that I possessed creative talent, but I have given up this idea; a woman must not desire to compose—there has never yet been one able to do it. Should I expect to be the one?" Her husband also expressed concern about the effect on her composing output:
Clara has composed a series of small pieces, which show a musical and tender ingenuity such as she has never attained before. But to have children, and a husband who is always living in the realm of imagination, does not go together with composing. She cannot work at it regularly, and I am often disturbed to think how many profound ideas are lost because she cannot work them out.
Her compositional output decreased after she reached the age of 36. The completed compositions from later in her life do not have opus numbers. They include: Vorspiele (Preludes) from 1895, and cadenzas for three piano concertos, one by Mozart and two by Beethoven. Today her compositions are increasingly performed and recorded.
Schumann was the authoritative editor, aided by Brahms and others, of her husband's works for the publishing firm of Breitkopf & Härtel. She also edited 20 sonatas by Domenico Scarlatti, letters (Jugendbriefe) by her husband in 1885, and his piano works with fingering and other instructions (Fingersatz und Vortragsbezeichnungen) in 1886.
Relation to composersEdit
Schumann was initially interested in the works of Liszt, but she later developed an outright hostility to him.[why?] She ceased to play any of his works; she suppressed her husband's dedication to Liszt of his Fantasie in C major when she published Schumann's complete works. She refused to attend a Beethoven centenary festival in Vienna in 1870 when she heard that Liszt and Richard Wagner would be participating.
She was particularly scathing of Wagner. Of Tannhäuser, she said that he "wears himself out in atrocities", described Lohengrin as "horrible", and wrote that Tristan und Isolde was "the most repugnant thing I have ever seen or heard in all my life". She also wrote that Wagner had spoken of Robert, Mendelssohn, and Brahms in a "scornful" way.
She held Bruckner's Seventh Symphony in very low esteem and wrote to Brahms, describing it as "a horrible piece". She was more impressed, however, with Richard Strauss's early Symphony in F minor in 1887.
Brahms played his First Symphony for her before its premiere. She gave some advice about the Adagio and he took it. She wrote to him and expressed her appreciation, but mentioned her dissatisfaction with the ending of the third and fourth movements.
Impact during her lifetimeEdit
Although Schumann was not widely recognized as a composer for many years after her death, she made a lasting impression as a pianist. Trained by her father to play by ear and memorize, she gave public performances from memory as early as age thirteen, a fact noted as something exceptional by her reviewers. She was one of the first pianists to perform from memory, making it the standard for concerts. She was also instrumental in changing the kind of programs expected of concert pianists. In her early career, before her marriage, she played the customary bravura pieces designed to showcase the artist's technique, often in the form of arrangements or variations on popular themes from operas, written by virtuosos such as Thalberg, Herz, or Henselt. As it was customary to play one's own compositions, she included at least one of her own works in every program, such as Variations on a Theme by Bellini (Op. 8) and the popular Scherzo (Op. 10). However, as she became a more independent artist, her repertoire contained mainly music by leading composers.
Schumann influenced pianists through her teaching, which emphasized expression and a singing tone, with technique subordinated to the intentions of the composer. One of her students, Mathilde Verne, carried her teaching to England where she taught, among others, Solomon. Another of her students, Carl Friedberg, carried the tradition to the Juilliard School in America, where his students included Malcolm Frager and Bruce Hungerford.
She was also instrumental in getting the works of Robert Schumann recognized, appreciated and added to the repertoire. She promoted his works tirelessly throughout her life.
Clara Schumann has been depicted on screen numerous times. Dreaming (Träumerei, the title of a piano piece) is the oldest known Schumann film, which premiered on 3 May 1944 in Zwickau. Possibly the best known is the 1947 film Song of Love, with Katharine Hepburn portraying Clara, Paul Henreid Robert, and Robert Walker as a young Brahms.
In 1954, Loretta Young portrayed her on The Loretta Young Show: The Clara Schumann Story in Season 1, Episode 26 (first aired on 21 March 1954), in which she supports the composing career of her husband, played by George Nader, alongside Shelley Fabares and Carleton G. Young.
Banknote and conservatoryEdit
An image of Clara Schumann, from an 1835 lithograph by Andreas Staub, was featured on the 100 Deutsche Mark banknote from 2 January 1989 until the adoption of the euro on 1 January 2002. The back of the banknote shows a grand piano she played and the exterior of Dr. Hoch's Konservatorium, where she taught. The great hall of the conservatory's new building is named after her.
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- Reich, Nancy B. (1986). "Clara Schumann." In Women Making Music: The Western Art Tradition, 1150–1950. Urbana and Chicago, University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0252012046
- Reich, Nancy B., Clara Schumann, The Artist and The Woman, Revised edition, Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0-8014-8637-1 ISBN 978-0-8014-3740-3
- Reich, Susanna (1999, 2005), Clara Schumann: Piano Virtuoso, New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, ISBN 0-618-55160-3.
- Schumann, Clara, and Brahms, Johannes, Briefe aus den Jahren [Letters from the Years] 1853–1896, two vols., Band I: 1853–1871, Band 2: 1872–1896, with a "Geleitwort" (Preface) by Marie Schumann.
- Schumann, Eugenie. The Schumanns and Johannes Brahms: The Memoirs of Eugenie Schumann, English Edition 1927, reprinted 1991 by Music Book Society, Lawrence, Massachusetts, ISBN 1-878156-01-2; translated by Marie Busch from the German original Erinnerungen von Eugenie Schumann, 1925.
- Borchard, Beatrix: Clara Schumann. Ein Leben. Ullstein, Frankfurt/Main – Berlin 1991 (four editions), ISBN 3-548-35367-3.
- Beer, Anna: Sounds and Sweet Airs - The Forgotten Women of Classical Music. Oneworld Publications 2016, chapter 6, "Schumann", pp. 205–241, ISBN 978-1-78074-856-6.
- Borchard: Clara Schumann. Ihr Leben. Eine biographische Montage. 3rd edition Olms, Hildesheim 2015, ISBN 978-3-487-08553-1.
- Bogousslavsky, J. and M. G. Hennerici, Bäzner, H., Bassetti, C., Neurological disorders in famous artists, Part 3, Karger Publishers, 2010, pp. 101–18.
- Boyd, Melinda. "Gendered Voices: The 'Liebesfrühling' Lieder of Robert and Clara Schumann." 19th-Century Music 39 (Autumn 1975): 145–62.
- Gould, John. "What Did They Play? The Changing Repertoire of the Piano Recital from the Beginnings to 1980." The Musical Times 146 (Winter 2005): 61–76.
- Mäkelä, Tomi. "Den Lebenden schulden wir Rücksichtnahme, den Toten nur die Wahrheit. Eine Einführung in Friedrich Wiecks Welt der philisterhaften Mittelmäßigkeit und besseren Salonmusik" Friedrich Wieck – Gesammelte Schriften über Musik und Musiker [...], Tomi Mäkelä, Christoph Kammertöns und Lena Esther Ptasczynski (eds.), Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main 2019, p. 15–49 ISBN 978-3-631-76745-0.
- Kopiez, Reinhard, Andreas C. Lehmann and Janina Klassen. "Clara Schumann's collection of playbills: A historiometric analysis of life-span development, mobility, and repertoire canonization." Poetics, Volume 37, Issue 1, February 2009: 50–73.
- Burstein, L. Poundie. "Their Paths, Her Ways: Comparison of Text Settings by Clara Schumann and Other Composers." Women and Music – A Journal of Gender and Culture 6 (2002): 11ff.
- Rattalino, Piero. Schumann. Robert & Clara. In Italian; Varese: Zecchini Editore, 2002. ISBN 88-87203-14-8.
- Kees van der Vloed, Clara Schumann-Wieck. De pijn van het gemis. Aspekt, Soesterberg 2012. ISBN 9789461531773. (in Dutch)
- Dieter Kühn, Clara Schumann, Klavier. Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag. Auflage: März 2009. ISBN 9783596142033. (in German)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Clara Schumann.|
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- Free scores by Clara Schumann at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP)
- Clara Schumann: A Composer’s Wife as Composer - by Eugene Gates, Kapralova Society Journal.
- Kreusch-sheet-music.net - Free Scores by Clara Schumann
- Complete works of Clara Schumann-Wieck.
- Goldenwattle.net - Play about Clara Schumann
- on YouTube, for piano duet, Clara Schumann's last work
- on YouTube
- Clara Schumann - Classical Composer
- Clara Schumann Piano Trio in G minor, YouTube of a concert given by the Galos Piano Trio at St. Martin in the Fields on 26 May 2015.