Airbus A350 XWB
The Airbus A350 XWB is a family of long-range, twin-engine wide-body jet airliners developed by European aerospace manufacturer Airbus. The A350 is the first Airbus aircraft with both fuselage and wing structures made primarily of carbon fibre reinforced polymer. Its variants seat 315 to 369 passengers in typical seating layouts. The A350 is positioned to succeed the A340 and to compete with the Boeing 787 and 777.
|An A350-900 of launch customer Qatar Airways|
|Role||Wide-body jet airliner|
|First flight||14 June 2013|
|Introduction||15 January 2015 with Qatar Airways|
|Status||In production, in service|
|Primary users||Qatar Airways|
|Number built||265 as of 30 April 2019[update]|
|Program cost||€11 billion|
The A350 was originally conceived in 2004 as a pairing of the A330's fuselage with new aerodynamics features and engines. In 2006, Airbus redesigned the aircraft in response to negative feedback from several major prospective customers, producing the "A350 XWB" (eXtra Wide Body). Development costs are estimated at €11 billion (US$15 billion or £9.5 billion). As of February 2019, Airbus had received 893 orders for A350s from 51 customers worldwide. The prototype A350 first flew on 14 June 2013 from Toulouse, France. Type certification from the European Aviation Safety Agency was received in September 2014 and certification from the Federal Aviation Administration two months later. On 15 January 2015, the A350-900 entered service with its launch operator Qatar Airways, and the A350-1000 on 24 February 2018 with the same airline.
Airbus initially rejected Boeing's claim that the Boeing 787 Dreamliner would be a serious threat to the Airbus A330, stating that the 787 was just a reaction to the A330 and that no response was needed. When airlines urged Airbus to provide a competitor, Airbus initially proposed the "A330-200Lite", a derivative of the A330 featuring improved aerodynamics and engines similar to those on the 787. The company planned to announce this version at the 2004 Farnborough Airshow, but did not proceed.
On 16 September 2004, Airbus president and chief executive officer Noël Forgeard confirmed the consideration of a new project during a private meeting with prospective customers. Forgeard did not give a project name, and he did not state whether it would be an entirely new design or a modification of an existing product. Airline dissatisfaction with this proposal motivated Airbus to commit €4 billion to a new airliner design.
The original version of the A350 superficially resembled the A330 due to its common fuselage cross-section and assembly. A new wing, engines, and a horizontal stabiliser–to be coupled with new composite materials and production methods applied to the fuselage–would make the A350 an almost all-new aircraft. On 10 December 2004, the boards of EADS and BAE Systems, then the shareholders of Airbus, gave Airbus an "authorisation to offer" (ATO) and formally named it the A350.
On 13 June 2005 at the Paris Air Show, Middle Eastern carrier Qatar Airways announced that they had placed an order for 60 A350s. In September 2006 the airline signed a memorandum of understanding with General Electric to launch the GEnx-1A-72 engine for the aircraft. Emirates sought a more improved design and decided against ordering the initial version of the A350.
On 6 October 2005, the programme's industrial launch was announced with an estimated development cost of around €3.5 billion. The A350 was initially planned to be a 250- to 300-seat twin-engine wide-body aircraft derived from the existing A330's design. Under this plan, the A350 would have modified wings and new engines while sharing the A330's fuselage cross-section. As a result of a controversial design, the fuselage was to consist primarily of aluminium-lithium rather than the carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) fuselage on the Boeing 787. The A350 would see entry in two versions: the A350-800 with a 8,800 nmi (16,300 km) range with a typical passenger capacity of 253 in a three-class configuration, and the A350-900 with 7,500 nmi (13,900 km) range and a 300-seat 3-class configuration. The A350 was designed to be a direct competitor to the Boeing 787-9 and 777-200ER.
The A350 was publicly criticised by two of Airbus's largest customers, International Lease Finance Corporation (ILFC) and GE Capital Aviation Services (GECAS). On 28 March 2006, ILFC President Steven F. Udvar-Házy urged Airbus to pursue a clean-sheet design or risk losing market share to Boeing and branded Airbus's strategy as "a Band-aid reaction to the 787", a sentiment echoed by GECAS president Henry Hubschman. In April 2006, while reviewing bids for the Boeing 787 and A350, CEO of Singapore Airlines (SIA) Chew Choon Seng, commented that "having gone through the trouble of designing a new wing, tail, cockpit... [Airbus] should have gone the whole hog and designed a new fuselage."
Airbus responded that they were considering A350 improvements to satisfy customer demands. Airbus's then-CEO Gustav Humbert stated, "Our strategy isn't driven by the needs of the next one or two campaigns, but rather by a long-term view of the market and our ability to deliver on our promises." As major airlines such as Qantas and Singapore Airlines selected the 787 over the A350, Humbert tasked an engineering team to produce new alternative designs. One such proposal, known internally as "1d", formed the basis of the A350 redesign.
Redesign and launchEdit
On 14 July 2006, during the Farnborough Airshow, the redesigned aircraft was designated "A350 XWB" (Xtra-Wide-Body). Within four days, Singapore Airlines agreed to order 20 A350XWBs with options for another 20 A350XWBs.
The proposed A350 was a new design, including a wider fuselage cross-section, allowing seating arrangements ranging from an eight-abreast low-density premium economy layout to a ten-abreast high-density seating configuration for a maximum seating capacity of 440–475 depending on variant. The A330 and previous iterations of the A350 would only be able to accommodate a maximum of eight seats per row. The 787 is typically configured for nine seats per row. The 777 accommodates nine or ten seats per row, with more than half of recent 777s being ten-abreast as the 777X will be. The A350 cabin is 12.7 cm (5.0 in) wider at the eye level of a seated passenger than the 787's cabin, and 28 cm (11 in) narrower than the Boeing 777's cabin. (See Wide-body aircraft for a comparison of cabin widths and seating.) All A350 passenger models have a range of at least 8,000 nmi (14,816 km). The redesigned composite fuselage provides higher cabin pressure and humidity, and lower maintenance costs.
On 1 December 2006, the Airbus board of directors approved the industrial launch of the A350-800, -900, and -1000 variants. The delayed launch decision was a result of delays of the Airbus A380 and discussions on how to fund development. EADS CEO Thomas Enders stated that the A350 programme was not a certainty, citing EADS/Airbus's stretched resources. However, it was decided programme costs are to be borne mainly from cash-flow. First delivery for the A350-900 was scheduled for mid-2013, with the -800 and -1000 following on 12 and 24 months later, respectively. New technical details of the A350 XWB were revealed at a press conference in December 2006. John Leahy indicated existing A350 contracts were being re-negotiated due to price increases compared to the original A350s contracted. On 4 January 2007, Pegasus Aviation Finance Company placed the first firm order for the A350 XWB with an order for two aircraft.
The design change imposed a two-year delay into the original timetable and increased development costs from US$5.3 billion (€5.5 billion) to approximately US$10 billion (€9.7 billion). The total development cost for the A350 was estimated at US$15 billion by Reuters (€12 billion or £10 billion). The original mid-2013 delivery date of the A350 changed, as a longer than anticipated development forced Airbus to delay the final assembly and first flight of the aircraft to the third quarter of 2012 and second quarter of 2013 respectively. As a result, the flight test schedule was compressed from the original 15 months to 12 months. A350 programme chief Didier Evrard stressed that delays only affected the A350-900 while the -800 and -1000 schedules remained unchanged.
Airbus suggested Boeing's use of composite materials for the 787 fuselage was premature, and that the new A350 XWB was to feature large carbon fibre panels for the main fuselage skin. After facing criticism for maintenance costs, Airbus confirmed in early September 2007 the adoption of composite fuselage frames for the aircraft structure. The composite frames would feature aluminium strips to ensure the electrical continuity of the fuselage (for dissipating lightning strikes). Airbus used a full mock up fuselage to develop the wiring, a different approach from the A380, on which the wiring was all done on computers.
In 2006, Airbus confirmed development of a full bleed air system on the A350, as opposed to the 787's bleedless configuration. Rolls-Royce agreed with Airbus to supply a new variant of the Trent turbofan engine for the A350 XWB, named Trent XWB. In 2010, after low-speed wind tunnel tests, Airbus finalised the static thrust at sea level for all three proposed variants to the 330–420 kN (74,000–94,000 lbf) range.
General Electric (GE) stated it would not offer the GP7000 engine on the aircraft, and that previous contracts for the GEnx on the original A350 did not apply to the XWB. Engine Alliance partner Pratt & Whitney seemed to be at odds with GE on this, having publicly stating that it was looking at an advanced derivative of the GP7000. In April 2007, Airbus former chief executive Louis Gallois held direct talks with GE management over developing a GEnx variant for the A350 XWB. In June 2007, Airbus's chief operating officer John Leahy indicated that the A350 XWB would not feature the GEnx engine, saying that Airbus wanted GE to offer a more efficient version for the airliner. Since then, the largest GE engines operators, which include Emirates, US Airways, Hawaiian Airlines and ILFC have selected the Trent XWB for their A350 orders. In May 2009, GE said that if it were to reach a deal with Airbus to offer the current 787-optimised GEnx for the A350, it would only power the -800 and -900 variants. GE believed it can offer a product that outperforms the Trent 1000 and Trent XWB, but was reluctant to support an aircraft competing directly with its GE90-115B-powered 777 variants.
In January 2008, French-based Thales Group won a US$2.9 billion (€2 billion) 20-year contract to supply avionics and navigation equipment for the A350 XWB, beating Honeywell and Rockwell Collins. US-based Rockwell Collins and Moog Inc. were chosen to supply the horizontal stabiliser actuator and primary flight control actuation, respectively. The flight management system incorporated several new safety features. Regarding cabin ergonomics and entertainment, in 2006 Airbus signed a firm contract with BMW for development of an interior concept for the original A350. On 4 February 2010, Airbus signed a contract with Panasonic Avionics Corporation to deliver in-flight entertainment and communication (IFEC) systems for the Airbus A350 XWB.
In 2008, Airbus planned to introduce new techniques and procedures to cut assembly time in half. The A350 XWB production programme sees extensive international collaboration and investments in new facilities: Airbus constructed 10 new factories in Western Europe and the US, with extensions carried out on 3 further sites.
Among the new buildings was a £570 million (US$760 million or €745 million) composite facility in Broughton, Wales, which would be responsible for the wings. In June 2009, the National Assembly for Wales announced provision of a £28 million grant to provide a training centre, production jobs and money toward the new production centre.
Airbus manufactured the first structural component in December 2009. Production of the first fuselage barrel began in late 2010 at its production plant in Illescas, Spain. Construction of the first A350-900 centre wingbox was set to start in August 2010.
The new composite rudder plant in China opened in early 2011. The forward fuselage of the first A350 was delivered to the final assembly plant in Toulouse on 29 December 2011. Final assembly of the first A350 static test model was started on 5 April 2012. Final assembly of the first prototype A350 was completed in December 2012.
The production rate was expected to rise from three aircraft per month in early 2015 to five at the end of 2015, and would ramp to ten aircraft per month by 2018. In 2015, 17 planes would be delivered and the initial dispatch reliability was 98%. Airbus plans to increase its production rate from 10 monthly in 2018 to 13 monthly from 2019, while the Boeing 787 production will increase from 12 to 14 per month in 2019, and six A330 are produced monthly. Around 90 deliveries are expected in 2018, with about 15% -1000s (≈14).
Testing and certificationEdit
The first Trent engine test was made on 14 June 2010. The Trent XWB's flight test programme began use on the A380 development aircraft in early 2011, ahead of engine certification in late 2011. On 2 June 2013, the Trent XWB engines were powered up on the A350 for the first time. Airbus confirmed that the flight test programme would last 12 months and use five test aircraft.
The A350's maiden flight took place on 14 June 2013 from the Toulouse–Blagnac Airport. Airbus's chief test pilot said, "it just seemed really happy in the air...all the things we were testing had no major issues at all." It flew for 4 hours, reaching Mach .8 at 25,000 feet after retracting the landing gear and starting a 2,500 h flight test campaign. Development costs were estimated at €11 billion (US$15 billion or £9.5 billion) in June 2013.
A350 XWB, F-WWCF, msn. 2, underwent two-and-a-half weeks of climatic tests in the unique McKinley Climatic Laboratory at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, in May 2014, and was subjected to multiple climatic and humidity settings from a high of 45 °C to as low as -40 °C.
The A350 received type certification from the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) on 30 September 2014. On 15 October 2014, EASA approved the A350-900 for ETOPS 370, allowing it to fly more than six hours on one engine and making it the first airliner to be approved for "ETOPS Beyond 180 minutes" before entry into service. Later that month Airbus received regulatory approval for a Common Type Rating for pilot training between the A350 XWB and A330. On 12 November 2014, the A350 received certification from the US Federal Aviation Administration.
Introduction and early operationsEdit
In June 2011, the A350-900 was scheduled to enter service in the first half of 2014, with the -800 to enter service in mid-2016, and the -1000 in 2017. In July 2012, Airbus delayed the -900's introduction by three months to the second half of 2014. The first delivery to launch customer Qatar Airways took place on 22 December 2014. The first commercial flight was made on 15 January 2015 between Doha and Frankfurt.
One year after introduction, the A350 fleet had accumulated 3,000 cycles and around 16,000 flight hours. Average daily usage by first customers was 11.4 hours with flights averaging 5.2 hours, which are under the aircraft's capabilities and reflect both short flights within the schedules of Qatar Airways and Vietnam Airlines, as well as flight-crew proficiency training that is typical of early use and is accomplished on short-haul flights. Finnair was operating the A350 at very high rates: 15 flight hours per day for Beijing, 18 hours for Shanghai, and more than 20 hours for Bangkok. This may have accelerated its retirement of the Airbus A340.
In service problems had included three areas. The onboard Maintenance, Repair, Overhaul network needed software improvements. Airbus issued service bulletins regarding onboard equipment and removed galley inserts (coffee makers, toaster ovens) because of leaks. Airbus had to address spurious overheating warnings in the bleed air system by retrofitting an original connector with a gold-plated connector. Airbus targeted a 98.5 percent dependability by the end of 2016 and to match the mature A330 reliability by early 2019.
By the end of May 2016, the in-service fleet had flown 55,200 hours over 9,400 cycles at a 97.8 percent operational reliability on three months. The longest operated sector was Qatar Airways' Adelaide–Doha at 13.8 hours for 6,120 nmi (11,334 km). 45 percent of flights were under 3,000 nmi (5,556 km), 16 percent over 5,000 nmi (9,260 km), and 39 percent in between. The average flight was 6.8 hours, with the longest average being 9.6 hours by TAM Airlines and the shortest being 2.1 hours by Cathay Pacific's. Aircraft seat configuration ranged from 253 seats for Singapore Airlines to 348 seats for TAM Airlines, with a 30 to 46 seat business class and a 211 to 318 seat economy class, often including a premium economy.
The first A350-1000 was assembled in 2016, for a first flight on 24 November and entry into service planned for mid-2017.
In January 2017, two years after introduction, 62 aircraft were in service with 10 airlines. They had accumulated 25,000 flights over 154,000 hours with an average daily utilisation of 12.5 hours, and transported six million passengers with a 98.7 percent operational reliability. Zodiac Aerospace had business class seats production difficulties in its Gainesville, Texas and Santa Maria, California factories. After a year, Cathay Pacific experienced cosmetic quality issues and upgraded or replaced the seats for the earliest cabins.
In 2017, average test flights before delivery decreased to 4.1 from 12 in 2014, with an average delay down to 25 days from 68. Its reliability was 97.2 percent in 2015, 98.3 percent in 2016, and 98.8 percent in June 2017, just behind its 99 percent target for 2017.
In June 2017 after 30 months in commercial operation, 80 A350 were in service with 12 operators, the largest being Qatar Airways with 17 and 13 each at Cathay Pacific and Singapore Airlines (SIA). The fleet average block time was 7.2 hours with 53 percent below 3,000 nmi (5,556 km), 16 percent over 5,000 nmi (9,260 km), and 31 percent in between. LATAM Airlines had the longest average sector at 10.7 hours, and Asiana had the shortest at 3.8 hours. Singapore Airlines operated the longest leg, Singapore to San Francisco 7,340 nmi (13,594 km), and the shortest leg, Singapore to Kuala Lumpur 160 nmi (296 km). In 2016, 49 were delivered and the monthly rate should grow to 10 by the end of 2018. Seating varied from 253 for Singapore Airlines to 389 for Air Caraïbes, with most between 280 and 320.
In October 2017, Airbus was testing extended sharklets, which could offer 100–140 nmi (185–259 km) extra range and reduce fuel burn by 1.4–1.6 percent. The wing twist is being changed for the wider, optimised spanload pressure distribution, and they will be used for the Singapore Airlines A350-900ULR in 2018 before spreading to other variants.Iberia was the first to get the upgraded -900 on 26 June 2018, with a 280 t (617,294 lb) MTOW version for an 8,200 nmi (15,186 km) range with 325 passengers in three classes.
As of February 2018, 142 -900s had been delivered, with a dispatch reliability of 99.3 percent.
By April 2019, Airbus was testing a hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) on the leading edge of an A350 prototype vertical stabilizer, with passive suction like the boundary layer control on the Boeing 787-9 tail, but unlike the natural laminar flow BLADE, within the same EU Clean Sky program.
In September 2007, Airbus rolled out new design advances to a gathering of 100 representatives from existing and potential XWB customers. The A350 XWB is based on the technologies developed for the Airbus A380 and includes a similar cockpit and fly-by-wire systems layout.
Airbus expects 10 percent lower airframe maintenance compared with the original A350 design and 14 percent lower empty seat weight than the Boeing 777. Design freeze for the A350-900 was achieved in December 2008.
The A350 XWB airframe is made out of 53 percent composites: carbon fibre reinforced plastic for the outer and centre wing box (covers, stringers, spars), fuselage (skin, frame, keel beam, and rear fuselage) and the empennage (horizontal and vertical tailplanes); 19 percent aluminium and aluminium–lithium alloy for ribs, floor beams, and gear bays; 14 percent titanium for landing gears, pylons, and attachments; 6 percent steel; and 8 percent miscellaneous. The A350's competitor, the Boeing 787, is 50 percent composites, 20 percent aluminium, 15 percent titanium, 10 percent steel, and 5 percent other.
The A350 XWB fuselage has a constant width from door 1 to door 4, unlike previous Airbus aircraft, to provide maximum usable volume. The double-lobe (ovoid) fuselage cross-section has a maximum outer diameter of 5.97 m (19.6 ft), compared to 5.64 m (18.5 ft) for the A330/A340. The cabin's internal width is 5.61 m (18.4 ft) at armrest level compared to 5.49 m (18.0 ft) in the Boeing 787 and 5.87 m (19.3 ft) in the Boeing 777. It allows for an eight-abreast 2–4–2 arrangement in a premium economy layout, with the seats being 49.5 cm (19.5 in) wide between 5 cm (2.0 in) wide arm rests. Airbus says that the seat will be 1.3 cm (0.5 in) wider than a 787 seat in the equivalent configuration. In the nine-abreast, 3–3–3 standard economy layout, the A350 seat will be 45 cm (18 in) wide, 1.27 cm (0.5 in) wider than a seat in the equivalent layout in the 787, and 3.9 cm (1.5 in) wider than a seat in the equivalent A330 layout. The current 777 and future derivatives have 1.27 cm (0.5 in) greater seat width than the A350 in a nine-abreast configuration. The 10-abreast seating on the A350 is similar to a 9-abreast configuration on the A330, with a seat width of 41.65 cm (16.4 in). Overall, Airbus promises passengers more headroom, larger overhead storage space, and wider panoramic windows than current Airbus models.
The A350 nose section has a configuration derived from the A380 with a forward-mounted nosegear bay and a six-panel flightdeck windscreen. This differs substantially from the four-window arrangement in the original design. The new nose, made of aluminium, improves aerodynamics and enables overhead crew rest areas to be installed further forward and eliminate any encroachment in the passenger cabin. The new windscreen has been revised to improve vision by reducing the width of the centre post. The upper shell radius of the nose section has been increased.
Airbus adopted a new philosophy for the attachment of the A350's main undercarriage as part of the switch to a composite wing structure. Each main undercarriage leg is attached to the rear wing spar forward and to a gear beam aft, which itself is attached to the wing and the fuselage. To help reduce the loads further into the wing, a double side-stay configuration has been adopted. This solution resembles the design of the Vickers VC10.
Airbus devised a three-pronged main undercarriage design philosophy encompassing both four- and six-wheel bogies to stay within pavement loading limits. The A350-900 has four-wheel bogies in a 4.1 m (13 ft) long bay. The higher weight variant, the A350-1000 uses a six-wheel bogie, with a 4.7 m (15 ft) undercarriage bay. French-based Messier-Dowty provides the main undercarriage for the -900 variant, and UTC Aerospace Systems supplies the −1000 variant. The nose gear is supplied by Liebherr Aerospace.
The A350 features new composite wings with a wingspan that is common to the proposed variants. Its 64.75 m (212.4 ft) wingspan stays within the same ICAO Aerodrome Reference Code E 65m limit as the A330/A340 and the Boeing 777. The A350's wing has a 31.9° sweep angle for a Mach 0.85 cruise speed and have a maximum operating speed of Mach 0.89.
The -900 wing covers a 442 m2 (4,760 sq ft) area. This is between the 436.8 m2 (4,702 sq ft) wing of the current Boeing 777-200LR/300ER and the 466.8 m2 (5,025 sq ft) wing of the in-development Boeing 777X. However, Boeing and Airbus do not use the same measurement. The A350-1000 wing is 22.3m² (240 ft²) larger through a 30 cm (12 in) extension to the inboard sections of the fixed trailing edge.
A new trailing-edge high-lift device has been adopted with an advanced dropped-hinge flap similar to that of the Airbus A380, which permits the gap between the trailing edge and the flap to be closed with the spoiler. It is a limited morphing wing with adaptive features for continuously optimising the wing loading to reduce fuel burn: variable camber for longitudinal load control where inboard & outboard flaps deflect together and differential flaps setting for lateral load control where inboard & outboard flaps deflect differentially.
The manufacturer has extensively used computational fluid dynamics and also carried out more than 4,000 hours of low- and high-speed windtunnel testing to refine the aerodynamic design. The final configuration of wing and winglet was achieved for the "Maturity Gate 5" on 17 December 2008. The wingtip device curves upwards over the final 4.4 m (14 ft).
The wings are produced in the new £400M, 46,000 m2 (500,000 sq ft) North Factory at Airbus Broughton, employing 650 workers, in a specialist facility constructed with £29M of support from the Welsh Government.
Cockpit and avionicsEdit
The revised design of the A350 XWB's glass cockpit dropped the A380-sized display and adopted 38 cm (15 in) liquid-crystal display screens. The new six-screen configuration includes two central displays mounted one above the other (the lower one above the thrust levers) and a single (for each pilot) primary flight/navigation display, with an adjacent on-board information system screen. Airbus says the cockpit design allows for future advances in navigation technology to be placed on the displays plus gives flexibility and capacity to upload new software and to combine data from multiple sources and sensors for flight management and aircraft systems control. A head-up display is also present in the cockpit.
Avionics are a further development of the integrated modular avionics (IMA) concept found on the A380. The A350's IMA will manage up to 40 functions (versus 23 functions for the A380) such as undercarriage, fuel, pneumatics, cabin environmental systems, and fire detection. Airbus stated that the benefits includes reduced maintenance and lower weight because as the IMA replaces multiple processors and LRUs with around 50 percent fewer standard computer modules known as line-replaceable modules. The IMA runs on a 100 Mbit/s network based on the AFDX standard, as employed in the A380, in place of the architecture used on the A330/A340.
The Rolls-Royce Trent XWB feature a 118 in (300 cm) fan disk diameter and the design will be based on the advanced developments of the Airbus A380 Trent 900 and the Boeing 787 Trent 1000. It has two thrust levels to power the A350 variants: a 84,000 lbf (370 kN) for the A350-900 and a 97,000 lbf (430 kN) for the A350-1000. The higher-thrust version will have some modifications to the fan module—it will be the same diameter but will run slightly faster and have a new fan blade design—and run at increased temperatures allowed by new materials technologies from Rolls-Royce's research.
The Trent XWB may also benefit from the next-generation reduced acoustic mode scattering engine duct system (RAMSES), an acoustic quieting engine nacelle intake, and a carry-on design of the Airbus's "zero splice" intake liner developed for the A380. A "hot and high" rating option for Middle Eastern customers Qatar Airways, Emirates, and Etihad Airways keep its thrust available at higher temperatures and altitudes.
Airbus aimed to certify the A350 with 350-minute ETOPS capability on entry into service. That could reach 420 min later, although Airbus achieved a 370–minute ETOPS rating on 15 October 2014 which covers 99.7% of the Earth's surface. Engine thrust-reversers and nacelles are supplied by US-based UTC Aerospace Systems.
Honeywell supplies its 1,700 hp (1,268 kW) HGT1700 auxiliary power unit with 10 percent greater power density than the TPE331 from which it is developed, and the air management system: the bleed air, environmental control, cabin pressure control and supplemental cooling systems. Airbus says that the new design provides a better cabin atmosphere with 20 percent humidity, a typical cabin altitude at or below 6,000 ft (1,800 m) and an airflow management system that adapts cabin airflow to passenger load with draught-free air circulation.
The ram air turbine, capable of generating 100 kilovolt-ampere, is supplied by Hamilton Sundstrand and located in the lower surface of the fuselage. In light of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner battery problems, in February 2013 Airbus decided to revert from lithium-ion to the proven nickel-cadmium technology although the flight test programme will continue with the lithium-ion battery systems. In late 2015, MSN24 was delivered with 176 lb (80 kg) lighter Saft Li-ion batteries and in June 2017, fifty A350s were flying with them and benefiting from a two-year maintenance schedule instead of NiCd's 4–6 months.
Parker Hannifin supplies the complete fuel package: inerting system, fuel measurement and management systems, mechanical equipment and fuel pumps. The fuel tank inerting system features air-separation modules to generate nitrogen-enriched air to reduce the flammability of fuel vapour in the tanks. Parker also provides hydraulic power generation and distribution system: reservoirs, manifolds, accumulators, thermal control, isolation, software and new engine- and electric motor-driven pump designs. Parker estimates the contracts will generate more than $2 billion in revenues over the life of the programme.
The three main variants of the A350 were launched in 2006, with entry into service planned for 2013. At the 2011 Paris Air Show, Airbus postponed the entry into service of the A350-1000 by two years to mid-2017. In July 2012, the A350's entry into service was delayed to the second half of 2014, before the -900 began service on 15 January 2015. In October 2012, the -800 was due to enter service in mid-2016, but its development has been cancelled since September 2014. The A350 is also offered as the ACJ350 corporate jet by Airbus Corporate Jets (ACJ), offering a 20,000 km (10,800 nmi) range for 25 passengers for the -900 derivative.
The A350-900 is the first A350 model, has a maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) of 275 tonnes, typically seats 325 passengers, and has a range of 8,100 nmi (15,001 km). Airbus says that per seat, the Boeing 777-200ER should have a 16 percent heavier manufacturer's empty weight, a 30 percent higher block fuel consumption, and 25 percent higher cash operating costs than the A350-900. The −900 is designed to compete with the Boeing 777 and 787 (777-200ER/LR, Boeing 777-8, and Boeing 787-10), while replacing the Airbus A340-300 and A340-500.
A proposed A350−900R extended-range variant was to feature the higher engine thrust, strengthened structure, and landing gear of the 308 tonnes MTOW -1000 to give a further 800 nmi (1,500 km) range. An A350−900F freighter with a 5,000 nmi (9,260 km) range and a similar payload and volume to the 91.7 tonne and 440 m3 (16,000 cu ft) McDonnell Douglas MD-11F should be studied after the -1000 is done, depending on market demand.
Philippine Airlines will replace its A340-300 with an A350-900HGW high gross weight version available from 2017. It will enable non-stop Manila-New York City flights without payload limitations in either direction, a 7,404 nmi (13,712 km) flight. The PAL version will have a 278 tonne MTOW, and from 2020, the -900 will be proposed with the ULR's 280 tonne MTOW, up from the 268 tonnes for the original weight variant and the certified 260, 272, and 275 tonne variants, with the large fuel capacity. This will enable a 8,100 nmi (15,001 km) range with 325 seats in a three-class layout.
In early November 2017, Emirates committed to purchase 40 Boeing 787-10 aircraft before Airbus presented a picture-changing A350-900 layout with the rear pressure bulkhead pushed back by 2.5 ft (1 m). After Emirates' Tim Clark was shown a ten-abreast economy cabin and galley changes, he said the -900 is "more marketable" as a result.
The average lease rates of the first A350-900s produced in 2014 were $1.1 million per month, not including maintenance reserves amounting to $18 million after 10–12 years, and falling to $940,000 per month in 2018 while a new A350-900 is leased for $1.2 million per month and its interior can cost $12 million, 10% of the aircraft. By 2018, a 2014 build was valued $108M falling to $74.5M by 2022 while a new build was valued for $148M, a 6+12year check cost $3M and an engine overhaul $4–6.5M.
The MTOW of the ultra-long range -900ULR has been increased to 280 t (620,000 lb) and its fuel capacity increased from 141,000 to 165,000 l (37,000 to 44,000 US gal) within existing fuel tanks, enabling up to 19-hour flights with a 9,700 nmi (18,000 km) range. The MTOW is increased by 5 tonnes from the previously certified 275 tonnes variant. Due to the A350-900's fuel consumption of 5.8 tonnes/hour, it needs an additional 24 tonnes of fuel to fly 19 hours instead of the standard 15 hours: the increased MTOW and lower payloads will enable the larger fuel capacity. Non-stop flights could last more than 20 hours. The first −900ULR was rolled out without its engines in February 2018 for ground testing, and debuted flight-tests after engine installation to check the larger fuel capacity and to measure the performance improvements from the extended winglets. It made its first flight on 23 April 2018.
Singapore Airlines, the launch customer, will use its seven -900ULR aircraft on non-stop flights between Singapore and New York City, and cities on the U.S. west coast. Singapore Airlines' seating is to be from 170 in largely business class seating up to over 250 in mixed seating. The planes can be reconfigured. They will have two seating classes. The airline received its first -900ULR on 23 September 2018, with 67 business class seats and 94 premium economy seats. On 12 October, it landed the world's longest flight in New York/Newark from Singapore Changi after 17 h 52 min. The flight covered 16,562 km (8,943 nmi) for a 15,353 km (8,290 nmi) orthodromic distance. It burned 101.4 t (224,000 lb) of fuel to cover the route in 17h22min: an average of 5.8 t/h.
At the 2015 Dubai Air Show, Airbus's John Leahy noted the appetite of the Middle Eastern Gulf airlines for this variant. In February 2018, Qatar Airways expressed no interest in the -900ULR. Compared to the standard -900, the -900ULR additional value is likely around $2 million.
Airbus Corporate Jet version of the A350, the ACJ350, is derived from the A350-900ULR. As a result of the increased fuel capacity from the -900ULR, the ACJ350 has a maximum range of 20,000 km (10,800 nmi).
After the Boeing 787-10 launch at the 2013 Paris Air Show, Airbus discussed with airlines a possible A350-900 Regional with a reduced MTOW of 250 tonnes and engine thrust reduced to 70,000-75,000 lb (from the standard 85,000 lb). The variant was said to be optimised for routes up to 6,800 nmi (12,594 km) with seating for up to 360 passengers in a single-class layout. Etihad Airways and Singapore Airlines were said to be ordering the A350 Regional. Since 2013, there has been no further announcement about this variant.
The A350-1000 is the largest variant of the A350 family at just under 74 metres in length. It seats 366 passengers in a typical three-class layout with a range of 8,000 nmi (14,800 km). With a 9-abreast configuration, it is designed to replace the A340-600 and compete with the Boeing 777-300ER and 777-9. Airbus estimates a 366-seat -1000 should have a 35 t lighter operating empty weight than a 398-seat 777-9, a 15% lower trip cost, a 7% lower seat cost, and a 400 nmi (740 km) greater range. Compared to a Boeing 777-300ER with 360 seats, Airbus claims a 25% fuel burn per seat advantage for an A350-1000 with 369 seats. The 7 m (23 ft) extension seats 40 more passengers with 40% more premium area. The -1000 can match the 40 more seats of the 777-9 by going 10-abreast but with diminished comfort.
The A350-1000 has an 11-frame stretch over the −900 and a slightly larger wing than the −800/900 models with trailing-edge extension increasing its area by 4%. This will extend the high-lift devices and the ailerons, making the chord bigger by around 400 mm, optimising flap lift performance as well as cruise performance. The main landing gear is a 6-wheel bogie instead of a 4-wheel bogie, put in a one frame longer bay. The Rolls-Royce Trent XWB engine's thrust is augmented to 97,000 lbf (430 kN). These and other engineering upgrades are necessary so that the −1000 model maintains range.
In 2011, Airbus redesigned the A350-1000 with higher weights and a more powerful engine variant for more range for trans-Pacific operations which will boost its appeal to Cathay Pacific, Singapore Airlines, which committed to 20 777-9, and United Airlines, which could turn to 777-300ERs to replace its 747-400s. Emirates was disappointed with the changes and cancelled its order for 50 A350-900s and 20 A350-1000s instead of citing the whole order to the larger variant.
Assembly of the first fuselage major components started in September 2015. In February 2016, final assembly started at the A350 Final Assembly Line in Toulouse. Three flight test aircraft was planned with entry into service scheduled for mid-2017. The first aircraft completed its body join on 15 April 2016. Its maiden flight took place on 24 November 2016.
The A350-1000 flight-test programme planned for 1,600 flight hours; 600 hours on the first aircraft, MSN59, for the flight envelope, systems and powerplant checks; 500 hours on MSN71 for cold and warm campaigns, landing gear checks and high-altitude tests; and 500 hours on MSN65 for route proving and ETOPS assessment, with an interior layout for cabin development and certification. In cruise at Mach 0.854 (912 km/h; 492 kn) and 35,000 ft, its fuel flow at 259 t (571,000 lb) is 6.8 t (15,000 lb) per hour within a 10,000 km (5,400 nm), 11 h 30 m early long test flight. Flight tests allowed raising the Maximum Take-Off Weight from 308 to 316 t (679,000 to 697,000 lb), the 8 t (18,000 lb) increase giving 450 nmi (830 km) more range. Airbus then completed functional and reliability testing.
Type Certification was awarded by EASA on 21 November 2017, along FAA certification. The first serial unit was on the final assembly line in early December. After its maiden flight on 7 December, delivery to launch customer Qatar Airways slipped to early 2018. The delay was due to issues with the business class seat installation. It was delivered on 20 February and entered commercial service on Qatar Airways' Doha to London Heathrow route on 24 February.
It features an automatic emergency descent function to around 10,000 ft (3,000 m) and notifies air traffic control if the crew fails to respond to an alert, indicating possible incapacitation from depressurisation. The avionics software adaptation is activated by a push and pull button to avoid mistakes and could be retrofitted in the smaller -900. All performance targets have been met or exceeded and it remains within its weight specification, unlike early −900s. Its basic 308 t (679,000 lb) maximum take-off weight was bumped to 311 t (686,000 lb) before offering a possible 316 t (697,000 lb) version. Its 316 t MTOW appeared in the 29 May 2018 update of its type certificate data sheet. This raised its range from 7,950 to 8,400 nmi (14,720 to 15,560 km). A further MTOW increase by 3 t to 319 t is under study to be available from 2020 and could be a response to Qantas' Project Sunrise.
Airbus has explored the possibility of a further stretch offering 45 more seats. A potential 4 m stretch would remain within the exit limit of four door pairs, and a modest MTOW increase from 308 t to 319 t would need only 3% more thrust, within the Rolls-Royce Trent XWB-97 capabilities, and would allow a 14,100 km (7,600 nmi) range to compete with the Boeing 777-9 capabilities.
This variant was to be a replacement for the Boeing 747-400, tentatively dubbed the A350-8000, -2000 or -1100. Within the June 2016 Airbus Innovation Days, chief commercial officer John Leahy was concerned about the size of a 400-seat market besides the Boeing 747-8 and the 777-9 and chief executive Fabrice Brégier feared such an aircraft could cannibalise demand for the -1000.
The potential 79 m-long (258 ft) aeroplane was competing against a hypothetical 777-10X for Singapore Airlines. At the 2017 Paris Air Show, the concept was shelved for lacking market appeal and in January 2018 Fabrice Brégier focused on enhancing the A350-900/1000 to capture potential before 2022/2023, when it will be possible to stretch the A350 with a new engine generation.
The 60.45 m (198.3 ft) long A350-800 was designed to seat 276 passengers in a typical 3-class configuration with a range of 15,270 km (8,245 nmi) with an MTOW of 259 t (571,000 lb).
In January 2010 Airbus opted to develop the -800 as a shrink of the baseline -900, avoid a specific development and increasing its payload by 3 t (6,600 lb) or its range by 460 km (250 nmi) but leading to a fuel burn penalty by "a couple of percent" according to John Leahy. The previously planned optimisation to the structure and landing gear was not beneficial enough against better commonality and maximum takeoff weight increase by 11t from 248t. The −800's fuselage is 10 frames shorter (six forward and four aft of wing) than the −900 aircraft. It was designed to supplement the Airbus A330-200 long-range twin. Airbus planned to decrease structural weight in the -800 as development continued, which should have been around airframe 20.
While its backlog reached 182 in mid-2008, it diminished since 2010 as customers switched to the larger -900. After launching the Airbus A330neo at the 2014 Farnborough Airshow, Airbus dropped the A350-800, with its CEO Fabrice Brégier saying "I believe all of our customers will either convert to the A350-900 or the A330neo". He later confirmed at a September 2014 press conference that development of the A350-800 had been "cancelled." There were 16 orders left for the -800 since Yemenia switched to the -900 and Hawaiian Airlines moved to the A330neo in December 2014: 8 for Aeroflot and 8 for Asiana Airlines, both also having orders for the -900. In January 2017, Aeroflot and Airbus announced the cancellation of its -800 order, leaving Asiana Airlines as the only customer for the variant. After the negotiation between Airbus and Asiana Airlines, Asiana converted orders of eight A350-800s and one A350-1000 to nine A350-900s.
New Engine OptionEdit
By November 2018, Airbus was hiring in Toulouse and Madrid to develop a re-engined A350neo. Although its launch is not guaranteed, it would arrive from the middle of the following decade, after the A321XLR and a stretched A320neo "plus" competing with the Boeing New Midsize Airplane which may be launched in 2019. Service entry would be determined by ultra-high bypass ratio engine developments pursued by Pratt & Whitney, testing its Geared Turbofan upgrade; Safran Aircraft Engines, ground testing a demonstrator from 2021; and Rolls-Royce Plc, targeting a 2025 Ultrafan service entry. The production target is a monthly rate of 20 A350neos, up from 10.
Orders and deliveriesEdit
|Total orders||Total deliveries|
Orders and deliveries, cumulative, by year:
|Operator||First commercial service||Number in service|
|Air Caraïbes||2 March 2017||2|
|Air Mauritius||23 October 2017||2|
|Air China||14 August 2018||7|
|Asiana Airlines||15 May 2017||7|
|Cathay Pacific||1 June 2016||31|
|China Airlines||30 October 2016||14|
|China Eastern Airlines||4 December 2018||4|
|Delta Air Lines||30 October 2017||13|
|Ethiopian Airlines||2 July 2016||10|
|Finnair||9 October 2015||13|
|French Bee||23 August 2017||2|
|Hainan Airlines||13 October 2018||4|
|Hong Kong Airlines||10 September 2017||9|
|Iberia||26 June 2018||3|
|LATAM Brasil (formerly TAM)||25 January 2016||11|
|Lufthansa||10 February 2017||12|
|Malaysia Airlines||8 December 2017||6|
|Philippine Airlines||21 July 2018||5|
|Qatar Airways||15 January 2015||37|
|Sichuan Airlines||14 August 2018||3|
|Singapore Airlines||8 March 2016||32|
|Thai Airways||4 September 2016||12|
|Vietnam Airlines||3 July 2015||14|
|Overall length||66.8 m / 219.2 ft||73.79 m / 242.1 ft|
|Wing||64.75 m / 212.43 ft span, 31.9° sweep|
|Wing area||442 m2 (4,760 sq ft)||464.3 m2 (4,998 sq ft)|
|Overall height||17.05 m / 55 ft 11 in||17.08 m / 56 ft 0 in|
|Fuselage||5.96 m / 19.7 ft width, 6.09 m / 19.98 ft height|
|Cabin width||5.61 m / 18 ft 5 in, 9-abreast Seat : 18 in / 46 cm[a]|
|MTOW||280 t / 617,295 lb||316 t / 696,661 lb|
|Max. payload||53.3 t (118,000 lb)
45.9–56.4 t (101,300–124,300 lb)
|64.2 t (142,000 lb)|
|Fuel capacity||140,795 L (37,194 US gal)
110,523 kg (243,662 lb)[b]
|158,791 L (41,948 US gal)|
124,651 kg (274,808 lb)
|OEW||142.4 t (314,000 lb) typical
134.7–145.1 t (297,000–320,000 lb)
|158.8 t (350,000 lb)|
155 t (342,000 lb) dry
|MEW||115.7 t (255,075 lb)||129 t (284,000 lb)|
|Cargo capacity||36 LD3 or 11 pallets||44 LD3 or 14 pallets|
|Cruise||Mach 0.85 (488 kn; 903 km/h) Typical, Mach 0.89 (513 kn; 950 km/h) Maximum|
|Range||15,000 km / 8,100 nmi[c][b]||15,600 km (8,400 nmi)[d]|
|Takeoff (MTOW, SL, ISA)||2,600 m (8,500 ft)|
|Landing (MLW, SL, ISA)||2,000 m (6,600 ft)|
|Service ceiling||43,100 ft (13,100 m)||41,450 ft (12,630 m)|
|Engines (2×)||Rolls-Royce Trent XWB|
|Maximum thrust||374.5 kN / 84,200 lbf||431.5 kN / 97,000 lbf|
Aircraft model designationsEdit
|A350-941||Trent XWB-84||30 September 2014|
|A350-1041||Trent XWB-97||21 November 2017|
ICAO aircraft type designatorsEdit
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Final assembly in France
- "Airbus confirms timing for A350 XWB First Flight". Airbus. 11 June 2013. Archived from the original on 6 February 2016. Retrieved 11 June 2013.
- "A350 enters service as Qatar jet heads for Frankfurt". Flight international. 15 January 2015.
- "German Airbus A350 XWB Production commences" (Press release). Airbus S.A.S. 31 August 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2011.
- "Airbus O&D". Airbus S.A.S. 30 April 2019. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
- "A350: The aircraft that Airbus did not want to build". BBC. 14 June 2013.
- "AIRBUS AIRCRAFT 2018 AVERAGE LIST PRICES* (USD millions)" (PDF). Airbus.com. 15 January 2018. Retrieved 15 January 2018.
- "Taking the lead: A350XWB presentation" (PDF). EADS. December 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2009.
- Gunston 2009, p. 253
- "Airbus to launch Boeing 7E7 rival." BBC News. 10 December 2004
- Kingsley-Jones, Max. "A350: Airbus's counter-attack". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 4 December 2010. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- Norris, Guy (14 September 2005). "Qatar signs MoU to launch GEnx on A350". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 15 April 2008. Retrieved 11 November 2010.
- "Airbus unleashes A350 for long-range twin dogfight". Flight International. 15 June 2005. Archived from the original on 23 January 2013. Retrieved 11 November 2010.
- "A350 lifts off with $15bn Qatar". Flightglobal. 14 June 2005. Archived from the original on 17 October 2014.
- Brierley, David (18 June 2006). "Pressure mounts following attack by Emirates". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 23 June 2011. Retrieved 23 May 2011.
- "Airbus settling on wider fuselage, composite wing as it nears A350 revamp decision". ATW Online
- Gates, D. "Airplane kingpins tell Airbus: Overhaul A350." Seattle Times, 29 March 2006
- Hamilton, S. "Redesigning the A350: Airbus’ tough choice Archived 27 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine." Leeham Company
- Michaels, D. and Lunsford, J.L. "Singapore Airlines Says Airbus Needs to Make A350 Improvements." The Wall Street Journal, 7 April 2006
- Associated Press. "Airbus Considering Improvements to A350". Seattle Times, 10 April 2006.
- "Criticism prompts Airbus to study options, CEO says." Rothman, A. Bloomberg News, 11 April 2006.
- "Under Pressure, Airbus Redesigns A Troubled Plane". Wall Street Journal. 14 July 2006. Retrieved 28 December 2014.
- Hepher, Tim (22 December 2014). "Insight - Flying back on course: the inside story of the new Airbus A350 jet". Reuters. Reuters UK. Retrieved 28 December 2014.
- Gunston 2009, p. 254
- "Singapore Airlines Orders 20 Airbus A350 XWB-900s and 9 Airbus A380s". Businesswire.com. 21 July 2006. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
- "Onboard well-being". Airbus S.A.S. Archived from the original on 3 April 2011. Retrieved 23 May 2011.
- Max Kingsley-Jones (19 May 2008). "PICTURE: 10-abreast A350 XWB 'would offer unprecedented operating cost advantage'". Flight International. Archived from the original on 1 May 2009. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
- Murdo Morrison (5 April 2016). "Interiors: Why nine is the magic number on the 787". Flight international.
- "Boeing 777: 9 vs 10 Abreast Economy Seating". Airline Reporter. 22 January 2016.
- "Airbus – A350 XWB Xtra comfort". Archived from the original on 5 February 2008.
- "A350 XWB Family receives industrial go-ahead" (Press release). Airbus S.A.S. 1 December 2006. Retrieved 23 May 2011.
- Guy Norris; Max Kingsley-Jones (2 October 2006). "A380 delay puts brakes on A350 XWB formal launch at Airbus". Flight International. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 23 May 2011.
- Peter Dinkloh (5 October 2006). "Airbus May Stop Work on Its A350 Plane, FT Deutschland Says". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 23 May 2011.
- "CEO Streiff says A350 programme essential, but EADS board to decide". Forbes. 5 October 2006.[dead link]
- "Pegasus orders A350 XWBs, A330-200s". ATWonline.com. 5 January 2007. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
- "Airbus Unveils New A350 to Take on Boeing's 787." Bloomberg. 17 July 2006.[dead link]
- "Airbus A350 Cost Rises to $15.4 Billion on Composites." Bloomberg. 4 December 2006 Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
-  Reuters
- Robert Wall. "Airbus Delays A350 Final Assembly Start". Aviation Week. Retrieved 1 July 2011.[dead link]
- Norris, Guy (8 May 2006). "Airline criticism of Airbus A350 forces airframer to make radical changes to fuselage, wing and engines". Flight International. Archived from the original on 30 August 2007. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
- "Airbus rolls out XWB design revisions" Archived 13 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Flight International, September 2001
- "Airbus is at a crossroads on A350 design says ILFC" Archived 13 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Flight International, March 2006.
- Kingsley-Jones, Max (28 September 2007). "Metallic strips will ensure electrical continuity in A350 carbon". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 5 October 2007.
- "PICTURE: Airbus builds 'physical mock-up' of XWB fuselage to avoid A380 mistakes". Flight International. Archived from the original on 3 May 2010. Retrieved 30 May 2010.
- Steinke, S. "Airbus Unveils A350 XWB". Flug Revue. September 2006.
- Norris, Guy (25 July 2006). "Farnborough: Airbus A350 powerplant race ignites as Rolls-Royce reaches agreement to supply Trent". Flight International. Archived from the original on 29 August 2007.
- Patent 20090277445: System For Improving Air Quality In An Aircraft Pressure Cabin AIRBUS DEUTSCHLAND GMBH
- "R-R prepares to ground-test Trent XWB ahead of A380 trials next year". Flight International, 29 April 2010.
- Thomas, Geoffrey (8 March 2007). "No GP7000 for A350 XWB-1000". atwonline.com. Retrieved 23 May 2011.
- Doyle, Andrew (20 February 2008). "Singapore 2008: Pratt & Whitney pushes GP7000 as alternative A350 XWB engine". Flight International. Archived from the original on 8 May 2008. Retrieved 11 November 2010.
- Norris, Guy. "GEnx variant may yet power A350" Archived 16 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Flight International, 24 April 2007.
- Norris, Guy (20 April 2007). "Airbus lobbies General Electric to offer GEnx for A350 XWB". Flight International. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
- "Airbus Says No To GEnx For A350 XWB". Aero-news.net. 7 June 2007. Retrieved 23 May 2011.
- Ostrower, Jon (7 May 2009). "GE revives interest in A350 engine ahead of 787 flight test". Flight International. Archived from the original on 11 May 2009.
- Kaminski-Morrow, David (21 January 2008). "Airbus selects Thales for A350 XWB cockpit avionics". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 23 January 2008.
- "A350 cockpit offers unprecedented suite of safety tools". Flight International. 2010. Archived from the original on 9 July 2010. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
- "BMW to design parts of Airbus A350 model, reportedly aircraft cabins". Forbes. 5 January 2006. Retrieved 23 May 2011.[dead link]
- Reed Business Information Limited. "Honeywell wins Airbus A350 XWB systems contract". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 10 April 2008. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
- Kingsley-Jones, Max (12 June 2008). Streamlined build plan will cut A350 XWB assembly time in half. Flight International. Archived from the original on 13 June 2008. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
- Kingsley-Jones, Max (13 February 2009). "Airbus and partners gear up for A350 production". Flight International. Archived from the original on 15 February 2009. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
- "Airbus invest in A350 XWB wing line". Flight International. 30 March 2007. Archived from the original on 10 October 2008. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
- "£28 m investment at Airbus factory". BBC. 19 June 2009. Retrieved 23 May 2011.
- Derber, Alex (4 December 2009). "Airbus manufactures first structural component for A350". Flight International. Archived from the original on 7 December 2009.
- "Airbus in Spain begins production of A350 XWB components" (Press release). Airbus. 24 September 2010. Archived from the original on 8 January 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
- Kingsley-Jones, Max (29 July 2010). "Airbus aims to finally start assembling first A350 centre wingbox in August". Flight International. Archived from the original on 1 August 2010. Retrieved 11 November 2010.
- Kaminski-Morrow, David (1 March 2011). "Airbus opens A350 composite rudder plant in China". Flight International. Archived from the original on 4 March 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
- "First Airbus A350 Hitches A Ride To the Factory". Wired. 29 December 2011.
- "Airbus starts final assembly of first A350 XWB" (Press release). Airbus. 5 April 2012. Archived from the original on 9 October 2012. Retrieved 28 October 2012.
- "First flyable A350 XWB "MSN1" structurally complete" (Press release). Airbus. 4 December 2012. Archived from the original on 7 December 2012.
- "Airbus begins A350 ramp-up towards 10 a month". Flight International. 23 December 2014.
- Bjorn Fehrm (23 April 2015). "Bjorn's Corner: Boeing's 787 and Airbus' 350 programs, a snapshot". Leeham News and Comment.
- "Airbus preparing to hike A350 production rate". Leeham. 5 October 2017.
- Thierry Dubois (20 February 2018). "Qatar Airways takes delivery of first Airbus A350-1000". Aviation Week Network. Archived from the original on 22 February 2018. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
- "A350's Trent XWB engine runs for first time". Flightglobal. 18 June 2010. Archived from the original on 21 June 2010.
- "Airbus Powers Up A350 Engines in Preparation for Debut Flight". Business Week. 2 June 2013.
- "Airbus Airbus A350 makes maiden test flight". BBC. 14 June 2013.
- "Airbus declares A350 maiden flight a success". Financial Times. 14 June 2013.
- Chris Sloan (15 June 2013). "The Airbus A350 XWB: Being There At The Maiden Flight". Airways International.
- "The A350 XWB goes "hot and cold" during climatic testing in Florida" (Press release). Airbus. Archived from the original on 4 January 2015.
- "Airbus A350-900 receives EASA Type Certification" (Press release). Airbus. 30 September 2014.
- "EASA certifies Airbus A350 XWB for up to 370 minute ETOPS" (Press release). European Aviation Safety Agency. 15 October 2014.
- "The Common Type Rating is approved for A350 XWB and A330 pilot training" (Press release). Airbus. 22 October 2014. Archived from the original on 26 October 2014.
- "Airbus A350-900 receives FAA type certification" (Press release). Airbus. 13 November 2014.
- "PARIS: A350-1000 delayed to 2017 as Rolls raises XWB thrust". Flightglobal. 19 June 2011.
- "Airbus delays A350 XWB entry as EADS profits triple". BBC. 27 July 2012.
- "Airbus delivers first ever A350 XWB to Qatar Airways" (Press release). Airbus. 22 December 2014.
- Jens Flottau (19 January 2016). "Airbus, Operators Improving A350 Dispatch Reliability Two Years Into Service". Aviation Week & Space Technology.
- "Early A350 deployment reflects mature operation". Flight Global. 11 July 2016.
- "A350-1000 takes off on maiden flight". FlightGlobal. RELX Group. 24 November 2016.
- "A350 XWB: six million passengers flown… and counting" (Press release). Airbus. 17 January 2017. Archived from the original on 18 January 2017.
- Mavis Toh (12 April 2017). "Cathay to replace or upgrade poor quality A350 business seats". Flight Global.
- Addison Schonland (6 June 2017). "Airbus continues to make A350 progress". AirInsight.
- David Kaminski Morrow (9 June 2017). "A350 reliability ahead of target: Bregier". Flightglobal.
- Max Kingsley-Jones (14 June 2017). "A350-900 deployment highlights broad network coverage". Flightglobal.
- Bjorn Fehrm (25 October 2017). "Airbus working on new Sharklets for A350". Leeham.
- Bjorn Fehrm (1 November 2017). "New pictures of the changed Sharklets for A350". Leeham.
- Bjorn Fehrm (31 January 2018). "IBERIA gets upgraded A350-900". Leeham.
- "Iberia takes delivery of its first A350-900". Airbus. 26 June 2018. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
- Guy Norris (5 February 2018). "Airbus Debuts A350-1000 at Singapore Airshow". Aviation Week Network.
- Thierry Dubois (30 April 2019). "Does Airbus A350 Laminar Flow Test Signal Production Possibilities?". Aviation Week & Space Technology.
- "Taking the lead: A350XWB presentation" (PDF). Airbus. 2006. Archived from the original on 11 December 2015.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
- "The A350 XWB achieves key steps with design freeze and final assembly line groundbreaking" (Press release). 14 January 2009. Archived from the original on 6 March 2017.
- Guy Hellard (2008). "Composites in Airbus - A Long Story of Innovations and Experiences" (PDF). Global Investor Forum. Airbus. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 October 2016. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
- "The Boeing 787 Dreamliner: More Than an Airplane" (PDF). Boeing. May 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 August 2007.
- Gunston 2009, p. 257
- "Specifications Airbus A330-200". Airbus S.A.S. Archived from the original on 17 February 2011. Retrieved 23 May 2011.
- "Airbus unveils mock up XWB cabin" Archived 12 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine Flight International September 2007
- "British Airways 787-8 Seat Map (17.5" seat width in economy)". SeatGuru. Retrieved 28 August 2014 – via Trip Advisor.
- "Air Asia X Seat Map A330-300". Seat Guru. Retrieved 24 September 2014 – via TripAdvisor.
- "American Airlines 9 across 777 Economy Seat Map". Seat Guru. Retrieved 11 August 2012 – via Trip Advisor.
- "United 787-800 Seat Map". Seat Guru – via Trip Advisor.
- Daniel Tsang. "Boeing 777X & 787-10 show the lure of the X factor". Aspire Aviation.
- Matt Kingsley-Jones. "PICTURE: 10-abreast A350 XWB "would offer unprecedented operating cost advantage"". Flight International. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
- "Airbus confirms switch to A380 style nose for A350 XWB" Archived 13 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Flight International, September 2007
- Gunston 2009, p. 258
- "The A350 XWB – Advanced Materials and Design". AZoM.com. 16 November 2012. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
- Aimee Turner (19 December 2006). "A350 could have composite nose". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007.
- "Airbus adopts VC-10 undercarriage concept for A350 XWB". Flightglobal. 28 May 2007.
- "Extended range A350-900R adopts −1000 six-wheel-gear". Flight International. 27 March 2007.
- Warwick, Graham (10 December 2007). "Messier-Dowty Confirmed as A350 XWB Main Gear Supplier". Flightglobal.
- "Why new wing is key - A350 XWB". Flight International. 12 December 2006.
- "ICAO Aerodrome Reference Code, FAA Airplane Design Group and Aircraft Approach Category for Airbus Aircraft" (PDF). Airbus. May 2015.
- "Boeing Commercial Aircraft - Design Groups/Codes (FAA & ICAO)" (PDF). Boeing. 4 November 2014.
- Fred George (22 May 2015). "Flying The A350: Airbus's Most Technologically Advanced Airliner". Aviation Week & Space Technology.
- "A350 XWB / Technology". Airbus. Archived from the original on 29 November 2013.
- Daniel Tsang (26 July 2012). "Boeing chooses largest wingspan for 777X". Aspire Aviation.
- Bjorn Fehrm (19 November 2014). "Fundamentals of airliner performance, Part 3". Leeham.
- Mike Gerzanics (6 July 2018). "Flight Test: Airbus A350-1000 takes growth in its stride".
- Max Kingsley-Jones (8 May 2007). "Airbus A350 wing aerodynamics advance". Flight International.
- François Caudron (November 2016). "A350-1000 - Upsized efficiency". Airbus. Archived from the original on 8 March 2017.
- Max Kingsley-Jones (13 June 2008). "PICTURES: Airbus refines A350 aerodynamic configuration". Flight International.
- Max Kingsley-Jones (20 January 2009). "Airbus prepares for A350 production following definition freeze". Flight International.
- "Airbus opens A350 wing factory at Broughton, Flintshire". BBC News. 13 October 2011.
- "Airbus reveals all new A350 XWB flightdeck design" Archived 13 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Flight International, September 2007
- David Learmount (24 July 2007). "A350 avionics to expand on A380 system". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 18 August 2007.
- Max Kingsley-Jones (29 April 2010). "R-R prepares to ground-test Trent XWB ahead of A380 trials next year". Flight International.
- "Airbus A350 XWB set to be quietest generation of airliner as manufacturer improves zero splice". Flight International. 23 January 2007.
- David Kaminski-Morrow (8 January 2008). "Airbus studying 350min ETOPS for A350 at service entry". Flightglobal.
- "Airbus Seeks Approval for A350s to Fly Farther From Nearest Emergency Strip". The Wall Street Journal. 15 January 2014. Retrieved 15 October 2018.
- "UTC Aerospace opens facility for A350 XWB thrust reverser assembly". www.compositesworld.com. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
- "The A350 XWB's engine shows early maturity during "hot" testing". Airbus. Retrieved 16 May 2019.
- Graham Warwick (19 September 2007). "Honeywell wins first contract to supply systems for Airbus A350 XWB". Flightglobal.
- "Hamilton Sundstrand to supply Ram Air Turbine for A350 XWB" (Press release). Hamilton Sundstrand. 16 September 2008.
- "Airbus activates "Plan B" for the A350 XWB batteries". Airbus. 15 February 2013.
- Thierry Dubois (27 June 2017). "Lithium-ion Batteries Prove Value On A350". Aviation Week & Space Technology.
- Graham Warwick (21 January 2008). "Parker wins $2 billion system contract for the A350". Flightglobal.
- "Airbus advances towards first flight of A350 twinjet". Flight International. 23 October 2012.
- "Al Baker expects A350s to be on schedule". Flightglobal. 17 September 2014.
- "ACJ350 Technical data". Airbus. Archived from the original on 19 January 2017.
- "Airbus A350-900ULR enables Singapore Airlines to reopen Singapore-New York". Leehamnews. 13 October 2015.
- "A350-900 specs". Airbus.
- John Leahy (19 June 2007). "Commercial Update" (PDF). Airbus. Archived from the original on 28 May 2008.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- "The Market for Large Commercial Jet Transports 2011–2020" (PDF). Forecast International. July 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2009.
- "Extended range A350-900R adopts −1000 six-wheel-gear". Flight International. 27 March 2007.
- Rob Coppinger (7 November 2007). "Airbus A350F matches Boeing MD-11 cargo volume says European airframe manufacturer". Flight Global. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
- "Philippine Airlines finalises order for the A350 XWB". Airbus. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
- "Philippine Airlines' international expansion continues with 5 new destinations, A350-900 HGW order". CAPA Centre for Aviation. 20 November 2015.
- "MNL-JFK". Great Circle Mapper.
- "Airbus increases A350-900 range to 8,100nm". Leeham News. 30 March 2016.
- Jens Flottau (14 November 2017). "Emirates Dismisses A380plus Concept As Negotiations Continue". Aviation Week.
- David Kaminski Morrow (14 November 2017). "Emirates' faith in 787-10 closes window to A350". Flightglobal.
- Aircraft Value News (14 May 2018). "A350-900 Lease Rentals Hold Steady".
- Aircraft Value News (10 December 2018). "Values Strong As Engines Continue to Turn".
- David Kaminski-Morrow (10 May 2017). "A350-900ULR range figure not a revision: Airbus". Flight Global.
- "Bjorn's Corner: Increasing an aircraft's range". Leehamnews. 16 October 2015.
- Gregory Polek (28 February 2018). "First Airbus A350-900ULR Rolls Out in Toulouse". AIN Online.
- David Kaminski-Morrow (28 February 2018). "Airbus rolls out first A350-900ULR". Flightglobal.
- David Kaminski-Morrow (23 April 2018). "First A350-900ULR starts flight-test campaign". Flightglobal.
- "Airbus launches new Ultra-Long Range version of the A350-900" (Press release). Airbus. 13 October 2015.
- Jamie Freed (6 April 2017). "Airbus, Boeing close in on Qantas'ultra-long haul dream". Reuters.
- "Singapore Airlines: non-stop USA flights with long-range A350". Australian Business Traveller. 13 October 2015.
- David Flynn (10 November 2017). "Singapore Airlines coy on long-range Airbus A350 business class". Australian Business Traveller.
- "SIA receives first Airbus A350-900ULR to fly world's longest flight". Singapore Business Review. 24 September 2018. Retrieved 24 September 2018.
- "Singapore Airlines Launches World's Longest Flight" (Press release). Singapore Airlines. 12 October 2018.
- "Singapore Airlines (SQ) #22". FlightAware. 11 October 2018.
- @FATIIIAviation (12 October 2018). "#SQ22 landed at EWR moments ago,..." (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Dubai Airshow: Gulf carriers likely buyers of Airbus A350-900 ultra-long range". Gulf News. 10 November 2015.
- "Qatar Airways not interested in ultra-long range A350-900ULR". Reuters. 21 February 2018 – via Australian Business Traveler.
- "A350-900ULR Values Will Not Suffer Same Fate as A340-500". Aircraft Value News. 29 October 2018.
- "ACJ350 XWB - Airbus, a leading aircraft manufacturer". Archived from the original on 19 January 2017.
- "Airbus To Offer A350-900 Regional This Year".
- "A350 Regional Version Offered At Lower Thrust".
- "Etihad Orders A350 Regional Variant As Part Of Fleet Renewal".
- "Singapore launches lower-weight 'regional' A350". FlightGlobal. 22 July 2013.
- "Fuselage assembly begins in Hamburg and Saint-Nazaire" (Press release). Airbus. 25 September 2015.
- "2016 Airbus annual press conference - John Leahy adjusted". Airbus. February 2016. Archived from the original on 9 March 2016.
- Tim Hepher (3 July 2013). "Elbows fly in Airbus and Boeing battle over mini-jumbos". Reuters.
- "Airbus readies A350-1000 for delivery, dismisses Boeing 777-9". Leeham. 20 February 2018.
- Max Kingsley-Jones (23 April 2010). "Airbus opts for larger wing on A350-1000 through trailing edge extension". Flightglobal.
- "Airbus Commercial Update" (PDF). Airbus. 22 January 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 November 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
- Jens Flottau (28 October 2013). "Airbus Targets Late Summer 2014 For A350 Certification". Aviation Week.
- Max Kingsley-Jones (20 March 2017). "Can the A350-1000 live up to Airbus's expectations?". Flight Global.
- "Airbus starts A350-1000 final assembly" (Press release). Airbus. 10 February 2016.
- "The First Airbus A350-1000 Completes Body Join". Airways News. 15 April 2016. Archived from the original on 14 May 2016.
- David Kaminski-Morrow (28 November 2016). "Airbus details duty schedule for A350-1000 test fleet". Flight Global.
- David Kaminski-Morrow (7 June 2017). "Airbus raises tempo in A350-1000 flight-test effort". Flight Global.
- "Airbus augments A350-1000 capability". Leeham. 27 June 2017.
- David Kaminski-Morrow (2 November 2017). "A350-1000 nears certification after finishing reliability tests". Flight Global.
- "Airbus A350 type certificate data sheet" (PDF). EASA. 9 July 2018.
- Jens Flottau (21 November 2017). "Airbus Receives A350-1000 Type Certificate". Aviation Week Network.
- David Kaminski Morrow (28 December 2017). "First Qatar A350-1000 delivery slips to 2018". Flightglobal.
- Alan Dron (9 February 2018). "Airbus to deliver first Qatar A350-1000 Feb. 20". Aviation Week Network.
- David Kaminski-Morrow (20 February 2018). "Qatar to put first A350-1000 on Heathrow route". FlightGlobal.
- "London is the launch destination for Qatar Airways' Airbus A350-1000". Gulf Times. 25 February 2018.
- David Kaminski Morrow (21 November 2017). "A350-1000 features automated rapid-descent capability". Flightglobal.
- David Kaminski Morrow (2 January 2018). "EASA certifies higher-weight A350-1000". Flightglobal.
- Jens Flottau (14 June 2018). "Airbus extends range of A350-1000". Aviation Week Network.
- Max Kingsley-Jones (17 July 2018). "Airbus proposes longer-range A350-1000 to Qatar". Flightglobal.
- "ISTAT: Leahy changes opinion on demand for new A350 stretch". Flightglobal. 29 February 2016.
- "Airbus exploring higher capacity A350". Leeham News. 23 March 2016.
- Arvai, Ernest S. (8 March 2016). "The Super-Twin Battle Extends Upward". Airinsight.com.(subscription required)
- Tim Hepher (4 March 2016). "Exclusive: Airbus touts 400-seat 'A350-8000' jetliner". Reuters.
- "OPINION: Is Airbus caution right approach for 'A350-2000'?". Flight International. 3 June 2016.
- Jon Ostrower (7 November 2016). "Singapore Airlines shops for world's longest jet". CNN Money.
- David Kaminski Morrow (16 January 2018). "A350 stretch would need further engine evolution: Bregier". Flightglobal.
- "Airbus Family Figures" (PDF). Airbus. September 2017.
- "A350-800 to be developed as -900 shrink". Flightglobal. 12 January 2010.
- "Qatar Airways backs Airbus rethink on A350-800 design". Flight International. 15 January 2010.
- "Airbus focuses on family commonality as it begins A350-800 detailed design". FlightGlobal. 28 April 2010.
- "'Most XWB customers' endorse A350-800 rethink: Airbus". Flightglobal. 29 April 2010.
- Kingsley-Jones, Max (30 July 2010). "Airbus works to introduce lighter A350 structure with -800 variant". Flight International.
- "TAP Portugal set to defect to A350-900". Flightglobal. 29 July 2011.
- "Airbus Formally Launches A330neo With ALC As First Customer". Aviation Week. 14 July 2014.
- "A350-800 only 2 Customers and 16 orders left". A350 XWB News. 26 January 2015.
- Polina Montag-Girmes (11 January 2017). "Aeroflot cancels eight A350-800s". Air transport world. Aviation Week.
- Dominic Perry (24 April 2017). "Airbus in talks over sole remaining A350-800 order". Flight Global.
- David Kaminski-Morrow (8 March 2018). "Asiana conversion erases last A350-800 order". Flightglobal.
- Benjamin D Katz (21 November 2018). "Airbus Reveals Plans for All-New Narrow-Body, Re-Engined A350". Bloomberg.
- "Airbus 2007 results". Press centre (Press release). Airbus S.A.S. 16 January 2008. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
- "Airbus 2008 commercial results". Press centre (Press release). Airbus S.A.S. 15 January 2009. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
- "Air Caraïbes takes delivery of its first A350-900, opening up a new era in air transport to the French Caribbean". airbus. Retrieved 4 March 2017.
- 2017, UBM (UK) Ltd. "Asiana updates A350 May 2017 operations". Routesonline. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
- "Cathay to take first A350 on 27 May". 17 May 2016.
- "Cathay Pacific Airways Becomes New A350 XWB Operator". aero-news.net, 1 June 2016.
- "China Airlines further revises W16 operations; A350 network changes". routesonline.com. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
- "China Eastern Airlines takes delivery of its first Airbus A350-900". airbus.com. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
- "Delta announces first A350-900 flight". Retrieved 20 September 2017.
- "Press Release Details - Ethiopian Airlines". www.ethiopianairlines.com. Retrieved 4 March 2017.
- "Finnair becomes first European A350 XWB operator" (Press release). Airbus.
- "French Blue takes delivery of its first Airbus A350-900". World Airline News.
- "Hainan Airlines Puts its First Airbus A350-900 Into Service". AirlineGeeks.
- "Hong Kong Airlines Celebrates Arrival of First A350 Aircraft and Opening of New VIP Lounge "Club Autus" Flying Full Speed Ahead Towards International". www.hongkongairlines.com. Retrieved 15 September 2017.
- "PICTURE: TAM operates A350 on first revenue flight". 26 January 2016.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 January 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "LUFTHANSA A350-900 BEGINS LONG DISTANCE FLIGHTS (PHOTOS)".
- "First Airbus A350 for Malaysia Airlines started regional operations". Malaysia Airlines press realizes on Twitter.
- "PAL taking delivery of 1st A350-900 jet | Philstar.com". philstar.com. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
- "First Airbus A350 for Qatar to fly December 22".
- Singapore Airlines Outlines A350-900XWB Operations from March 2016[better source needed]
- "Thai Airways joins A350 club". australianaviation.com.au. Australian Aviation. 1 September 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
- "Vietnam Airlines becomes world's second operator of the A350 XWB" (Press release). Airbus.
- "A350 aircraft characteristics" (PDF). Airbus. 1 June 2018.
- "Airbus announces 18 additional seats for A350-1000". A350 XWB News. 3 February 2015.
- "A350-1000 specs". Airbus.
- "Airbus works to make 10-abreast A350 a smidge more comfortable". Runway Girl Network. 19 June 2015.
- Tim Wuerfel (6 July 2018). "Aviation Week Flies Airbus' Biggest Twin-Engine—A350-1000". Aviation Week & Space Technology.
- Kingsley-Jones, Max (10 June 2008). "A350 weight growth will result in 1% fuel penalty: Airbus". Flight International. Archived from the original on 31 January 2009. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
- "DOC 8643 – Aircraft Type Designators". icao.int. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to:|
|Airbus A350 XWB Cutaway|
|Airbus A350 XWB Cutaway from Flightglobal.com|
- Official website
- "A350 XWB Milestones 2006-2014". Airbus. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015.
- "A350 XWB Facts & Figures" (PDF). Airbus. June 2018.
- "Latest news, data, analysis and insight into the Airbus A350 programme". FlightGlobal.
- Rupa Haria (21 March 2014). "First Look: Inside the Airbus A350". Things With Wings. Aviation Week.
- Fred George (22 May 2015). "Flying The A350: Airbus's Most Technologically Advanced Airliner". Aviation Week & Space Technology.
- Fred George (22 May 2015). "Airbus A350's Enhanced, Modular Avionics". Aviation Week & Space Technology.
- Fred George (22 May 2015). "A350's Rolls-Royce Trent XWBs". Aviation Week & Space Technology.
- Fred George (22 May 2015). "Let's Go Flying: Airbus A350". Aviation Week & Space Technology.
- Mike Gerzanics (6 July 2018). "Flight Test: Airbus A350-1000 takes growth in its stride".
- Tim Wuerfel (6 July 2018). "Aviation Week Flies Airbus' Biggest Twin-Engine—A350-1000". Aviation Week & Space Technology.