Line 1 (Shanghai Metro)

Line 1 is a north-south line of the Shanghai Metro. It runs from Fujin Road in the north, via Shanghai Railway Station to Xinzhuang in the south. The first line to open in the Shanghai Metro system, line 1 serves many important points in Shanghai, including People's Square and Xujiahui. Due to the large number of important locations served, this line is extremely busy, with a daily ridership of over 1,000,000 passengers.[4] Generally, the line runs at grade beside the Shanghai–Hangzhou railway in the south, underground in the city center and elevated on the second deck of the North–South Elevated Road in the North. The line is colored red on system maps.

Line 1
SHM Line 1 icon.svg
Shanghai Metro Line1 AC06.JPG
Line 1 AC06 trainset in November 2013
Overview
Other name(s)R1 (planned name)
Native name上海地铁1号线
StatusOperational; Extension to Chongming Island previously planned
OwnerShentong Metro Line 1 Development Co., Ltd. (south of Shanghai Circus World);
Shanghai Gonghexin Road Elevated Development Co., Ltd. (north of Shanghai Circus World)
LocaleMinhang, Xuhui, Huangpu, Jing'an, and Baoshan districts, Shanghai, China
Termini
Stations28
Service
TypeUrban rail transit in China Rapid transit
SystemShanghai Metro Shanghai Metro
Operator(s)Shanghai No. 1 Metro Operation Co. Ltd.
Depot(s)Fujin Road Depot;
Meilong Depot
Rolling stock84 Type A 8 car trains
Daily ridership1.507 million (2019 peak)[1]
History
CommencedJanuary 19, 1990; 32 years ago (1990-01-19)
OpenedMay 28, 1993; 29 years ago (1993-05-28)
Last extensionDecember 29, 2007; 14 years ago (2007-12-29)
Technical
Line length36.39 km (22.61 mi)[2]
Number of tracks2
CharacterUnderground: Shanghai South Railway StationWenshui Road
Elevated: XinzhuangJinjiang Park
At grade: Wenshui RoadFujin Road
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge
ElectrificationOverhead lines (1500 volts)
Operating speed80 km/h (50 mph)[3]
Average speed: 33.9 km/h (21 mph)
SignallingCASCO
Route map
Route on the Shanghai map:
  • Shanghai Metro Line1 Map.png
To scale geographic map:
  • Shanghai Metro Line 1.svg

HistoryEdit

The required investment for the project was US$620 million (including domestic supporting RMB investment). In August 1988 and May 1989, the program of loans to the Federal Republic of Germany, France and the United States was approved by the State Planning Commission.[5]

  • The Federal Government of Germany has a loan of 460 million marks, an annual interest rate of 0.75%, a committed rate of 0.25%, a repayment period of 30 years, and a grace period of 10 years.[5]
  • French mixed loan of 132 million francs, of which 54% of government soft loans, annual interest rate of 2%, loan repayment period of 19 years, grace period of 11 years; export credit 46%, annual interest rate of 8.3%, loan repayment period of 10 years, grace period of 22 month.[5]
  • The US loaned USD 23.18 million, of which 45% were government grants and 55% were commercial loans. The annual interest rate fluctuates, the loan repayment period is 10 years, and the grace period is 5 years.[5]

With the start of construction of the project, the cost has also increased. In August 1993, the budgetary estimate was adjusted to 3.974 billion yuan, of which domestic supporting funds increased by 1.086 billion yuan. In January 1995, the total budget was adjusted for the second time to 5.39 billion yuan, of which 3.961 billion yuan was domestic supporting funds.[5]

Shanghai Metro Line 1 opening history
Segment Commencement Opened Length Station(s) Name Investment
Jinjiang Park — Xujiahui 19 Jan 1990 28 May 1993 4.4 km (2.73 mi) 4 Initial phase (1st section) ¥5.39 billion[6]
Xujiahui — Shanghai Railway Station 19 Jan 1990 10 Apr 1995 16.1 km (10.00 mi) 8 Initial phase (2nd section)
Xinzhuang — Jinjiang Park 10 Dec 1994 28 Dec 1996 5.3 km (3.29 mi) 4 Southern extension ¥620 million[7]
Shanghai Railway Station — Gongfu Xincun 28 Dec 2004 12.4 km (7.71 mi) 9 1st Northern extension ¥4.62 billion[8]
Gongfu Xincun — Fujin Road 29 Dec 2007 4.3 km (2.67 mi) 3 2nd Northern extension ¥1.5339 billion[9]

StationsEdit

Service routesEdit

Shanghai Metro Line 1 service routes
Routes Station name Connections Distance Location Open-
ing
Plat-
form[10]
M P English Chinese km min
Xinzhuang 莘庄  5   Jinshan [i]   XZH 0.00 0.00 0 Minhang 28 Dec
1996[11]
At-grade
Side
Waihuanlu 外环路 1.31 1.31 3
Lianhua Road 莲花路 1.46 2.77 5 28 Dec
1996[ii]
Jinjiang Park 锦江乐园 1.63 4.40 8 Xuhui 10 April
1995[11][13]
Shanghai South Railway Station 上海南站  3   15   Jinshan    SNH 2.09 6.49 11 28 May
1993[iii]
Underground
Island
Caobao Road 漕宝路  12  1.60 8.09 14 28 May
1993[14][13]
Shanghai Indoor Stadium 上海体育馆  4  1.57 9.66 16
Xujiahui 徐家汇  9   11  1.20 10.86 18
Hengshan Road 衡山路 1.58 12.44 21 10 April
1995[11][13]
Changshu Road 常熟路  7  1.09 13.53 23
South Shaanxi Road 陕西南路  10   12  0.93 14.46 24 Huangpu
Site of the First CPC National Congress · South Huangpi Road 一大会址·黄陂南路  14  1.32 15.78 26
People's Square 人民广场  2   8  1.57 17.35 29
Xinzha Road 新闸路 0.95 18.30 31
Hanzhong Road 汉中路  12   13  0.99 19.29 33 Jing'an
Shanghai Railway Station 上海火车站  3   4 [iv]     SHH 0.82 20.11 35
North Zhongshan Road 中山北路 1.37 21.48 38 28 Dec
2004[11]
Yanchang Road 延长路 1.52 23.00 40
Shanghai Circus World 上海马戏城 0.93 23.93 42
Wenshui Road 汶水路 1.44 25.37 45 Elevated
Side
Pengpu Xincun 彭浦新村 1.57 26.94 47
Gongkang Road 共康路 1.39 28.33 50
Tonghe Xincun 通河新村 1.44 29.77 53 Baoshan
Hulan Road 呼兰路 1.01 30.78 55
Gongfu Xincun 共富新村 1.75 32.53 58
Bao'an Highway 宝安公路 1.64 34.17 60 29 Dec
2007[11]
West Youyi Road 友谊西路 1.32 35.49 62
Fujin Road 富锦路 1.27 36.76 65 Elevated
Side & Island
  1. ^ Xinzhuang station on the Jinshan line is currently under reconstruction. Expected reopening: 2024.
  2. ^ Former station opened on 28 December 1996;[11] Renovated station opened on 25 June 2021.[12]
  3. ^ Former station opened on 28 May 1993;[14][13] current station opened on 30 October 2004.[11]
  4. ^ Virtual transfer with lines 3 and 4 – passengers who hold the Shanghai Public Transportation Card and transfer within 30 minutes of exiting the station are able to transfer to other lines without exiting the system.
 
Line 1 train running under the North–South Elevated Road.

Important stationsEdit

  • Shanghai Railway Station - Connects the metro with the main railway station in the city, allowing rail transport to and from other provinces. Virtual Interchange with lines 3 and 4.
  • People's Square - This station serves a business and shopping area, and is also close to multiple tourist attractions making the station busy all day long. Interchange with lines 2 and 8.
  • Xujiahui - This is a business and commercial area, also with tourist attractions such as the Xujiahui Cathedral. Interchange with lines 9 and 11.
  • Shanghai Indoor Stadium - This station is located at the sports stadium of the same name and the biggest regional and long distance bus station in the city. Interchange with line 4.
  • Shanghai South Railway Station - This station serves the second railway station of the city, which accommodates trains serving cities mainly to the south. Interchange with lines 3 and 15.
  • Xinzhuang - The southern terminus of line 1; interchange with line 5.

Future expansionEdit

West extension of line 1Edit

A 1.2 km extension to Humin road (North Xinzhuang Station) has been approved as part of the National Development and Reform Commission has approved the 2018-2023 construction planning of the city's Metro network. Work is expected to begin before 2023 and will take 4 years at acost of US$518. The extension will connect to the under construction Jiamin line.[15]

South extension of line 1Edit

There were plans to extend line 1 south to Jinshan to connect to Jinshan line. The route would include Minhang Development Zone on line 5 and Shanyang and Jinshanwei on the Jinshan line.[16]

North extension of line 1Edit

There were plans to extend line 1 north to Chongming Island to connect Chengqiao town. The line would connect to the Chongming line which would further extend east to connect with line 1.[16][17] Currently, there is no plan to extend it northwards.

HeadwaysEdit

Shanghai Metro Line 1 headway[18]
Time Xinzhuang -
Shanghai Railway Station
Shanghai Railway Station -
Fujin Road
Monday - Thursday
AM peak 7:00–9:00 About 2 min and 30 sec
Off-peak 9:00–17:00 About 4 min About 6 min
PM peak 17:00–19:00 About 3 min
Other
hours
Before 7:00
After 19:00
About 4 – 9 min
Friday
AM peak 7:00–9:00 2 min and 30 sec
Off-peak 9:00–14:30 About 4 min About 6 min
PM peak 14:30–17:00 About 4 min
17:00–19:00 About 3 min
Other
hours
Before 7:00
After 21:00
About 4 - 9 min
Saturday and Sunday (Weekends)
Peak 9:00–20:00 About 4 min
Other
hours
Before 9:00
After 20:00
About 6 - 12 min

TechnologyEdit

SignallingEdit

As the first line in the system, Shanghai Metro was conceived and designed during 1980s, when fixed block signalling and track circuit based train control (TBTC) was still considered a state-of-art approach to automatic train operation. The signalling system was designed by CASCO, a signalling manufacturer owned jointly by China Railway Signal & Communication Group Corporation (CRSC) and General Railway Signal (GRS), and was largely based on the system designed by GRS for the Washington Metro.[19] Coded audio-frequency (AF) track circuits are used for both train detection and transmission of speed commands, as well as limited train-to-wayside communication (TWC) for automatic train supervision (ATS). Train operation between stations and station stop can be automatic, while doors are controlled manually by train operators.[20][21]

From 2013 to 2019, the system was completely renewed, with obsolete components such as relay interlockings replaced by modern microprocessor-based ones, but the general operation of the signaling system remained unchanged.[22] As of 2020, the original design is expected to serve two additional decades.[23]

Rolling StockEdit

In the summer of 2006 after poor cooling effect of the 16 subway DC trains on Line 1 in summer and the high temperature of the carriages had long been a problem, 96 ice cubes have been put into a one-meter-high waste container to alleviate the high temperature of the 16 subway DC trains on Line 1. In order to make up for the defects in the refrigeration power and design of the 16 DC trains, emergency measures must be taken whenever the temperature reaches 33 °C or more.[24] With the transformation between 2006 and 2008 from 6 carriages to 8 carriages the of the air-conditioning system was improvement, making the ice waste containers something of the past.[25]

The line was initially operated by trains built by the German Shanghai Metro Group which included Adtranz (now Bombardier) and Siemens together with AEG Westinghouse and Düwag.[26]

Shanghai Metro Line 1 rolling stock
Set Manufacturer Time of
manufac-
turing
Type No
of
car
Assembly[i] Series Number Notes
11 ADtranz[ii] and Siemens 1992-1994 A[iii] 8 Tc+Mp+M+Mp+M+Mp+M+Tc 01A01 0101-0110
0114
In 2008-2009 expanded DC01 series by CRRC Zhuzhou Locomotive Co., Ltd. using the middle carriages of the old 0111-0113, 0115, 0116 trains.
5 ADtranz[ii] and Siemens 1992-1994 A[iii] 8 Tc+Mp+M+Mp+M+Mp+M+Tc 01A02 0111-0113
0115,0116
In 2008-2009 expanded DC01 series by CRRC Zhuzhou Locomotive Co., Ltd. Trains are a combination of the Tc carriages of the original DC01 train and the middle six carriages are newly produced by CRRC Zhuzhou Locomotive Co., Ltd. (30 newly produced carriages similar to 04A01).
9 ADtranz[ii] and Siemens 1998-2001 A[iii] 8 Tc+Mp+M+Mp+M+Mp+M+Tc 01A03 0117-0125 Train 0117 used to be AC01 and was damaged in a train collision in 2009, two carriages were scrapped. In 2011 these were replaced by two new carriages of CRRC Zhuzhou Locomotive Co., Ltd. Another two new carriages were added to expand it.

Trains 0118-0125 are an extension of the original AC01 train by adding two newly produced CRRC Zhuzhou Locomotive Co., Ltd. Tc carriages to six old middle AC01 carriages (using the 48 middle carriages from AC01).

12 ADtranz[ii] and Siemens 1998-2001 A[iii] 8 Tc+Mp+M+M+Mp+M+Mp+Tc 01A04 0126-0137 In 2008-2009 expanded AC01 series by CRRC Zhuzhou Locomotive Co., Ltd.
Trains are a combination of the Tc carriages of the original AC01 and six CRRC Zhuzhou Locomotive Co., Ltd. carriages (42 newly produced carriages similar to 04A01). The Tc carriages of trains 0130-0137 were returned from line 2 (set AC02, trains 0217-0224).
16 Even numbers: SATCO[iv] (and 0155)
Odd numbers CRRC Nanjing Puzhen Co., Ltd. (and 0140)
2006-2007 A[iii] 8 Tc+Mp+M+Mp+M+M+Mp+Tc 01A05 0140-0155 [27]
11 CRRC Zhuzhou Locomotive Co., Ltd. 2016-2018 A[iii] 8 Tc+Mp+M+Mp+M+M+Mp+Tc 01A06 0156-0166
20 CRRC Zhuzhou Locomotive Co., Ltd. 2017-2019 A[iii] 8 Tc+Mp+M+Mp+M+M+Mp+Tc 01A07 01067-01086
  1. ^ Tc: Trailer with cab; Mp: EMU with pantograph; M: EMU without pantograph.
  2. ^ a b c d ADtranz was acquired by Bombardier in May 2001. Subsequently, in January 2021 it was acquired by Alstom.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Type A carriage: 21-24m in length, 3.0m in width and 3.8m in height; Capacity: about 310 people.
  4. ^ SATCO (Shanghai Alstom Transportation Equipment Co., Ltd.) is a joint venture between Alstom Metropolis and Shanghai Electric.

Former Rolling StockEdit

Shanghai Metro Line 1 former rolling stock
Set Manufacturer Time in
oper-
ation
Type No
of
car
Assembly Series Number Notes
10 Bombardier Movia 456 15/12/2004–28/09/2007 A 6 Tc+Mp+M+M+Mp+Tc AC04 0130-0139 Seconded to line 9 (set 09A01; number 0901-0910).
16 ADtranz[i] and Siemens 28/05/1993–28/12/2009 A 6 Tc+Mp+M+Mp+M+Tc DC01 0101-0116 Expanded into 8 carriages (01A01 & 01A02) using new CRRC Zhuzhou Locomotive carriage (01A02). While 01A01 (101-110 and 114) used M and Mp carriages from 111 112 113 115 116.
13 ADtranz[i] and Siemens 1999–22/12/2009 A 6 Tc+Mp+M+Mp+M+Tc AC01 0117-0129 Expanded into 8 car sets:
  1. ^ a b ADtranz was acquired by Bombardier in May 2001. Subsequently, in January 2021 it was acquired by Alstom.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Metro breaks records" (in Chinese). Shanghai Metro 163 Official. 2019-03-09. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
  2. ^ "Operations Overview". Shanghai Metro Operation Co, Ltd. Archived from the original on 2007-08-31. Retrieved 2007-09-24.
  3. ^ "Shanghai Metro Lines 1 & 2". Movia. Bombardier. Retrieved 2007-10-14.
  4. ^ "Ridership". Sina. Retrieved 2012-05-03.
  5. ^ a b c d e Hu, Genxi (2002). 上海党史与党建 "Shanghai Party History and Party Building" (No. 11 ed.).
  6. ^ "市政基础设施建设". shtong.gov.cn. Retrieved February 4, 2004.
  7. ^ "(十四)闵行区". shtong.gov.cn. Retrieved November 18, 2003.
  8. ^ "轨道交通". shjjw.gov.cn. Retrieved July 22, 2005.
  9. ^ "富锦路停车场项目信息". Retrieved December 18, 2007.
  10. ^ 乘车指南 > Station信息. Shanghai Metro Official Site. Retrieved 2015-12-17. Instructions: 点击相应线路,选择Station,点击"站层图"可查看相应Station的站台结构。
  11. ^ a b c d e f g 上海轨道交通1号线的历史&大事记. Sina. 2009-10-20. Archived from the original on 2015-12-22.
  12. ^ Chen, Huizhi (25 June 2021). "Lianhua Road Metro station gets a new look". Shine.
  13. ^ a b c d 市政基础设施建设.
  14. ^ a b 锦江乐园站. Jiefang Daily. 2013-01-07. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-07-23.
  15. ^ Chongming is in line for planned Metro extension
  16. ^ a b Picture of 2020 planned metro map for 2020
  17. ^ Shanghaiist metro map 2030
  18. ^ "Schedule" (in Chinese). Shanghai Metro. 2021-07-07. Retrieved 2021-07-07.
  19. ^ JinDong, Lu; YiXin, Chen. "The Shanghai No. 1 Subway Line" (PDF). Japan Railways & Transportation Review. January 1997 (Urban Railways in China and India): 31–37.
  20. ^ 陈其昌 (1996), 上海地铁一号线采用的列车自动控制系统 [ATC in Line No.1 of Shanghai Subway], 铁道通信信号, retrieved 2020-05-17
  21. ^ 黄钟 (1997), 上海地铁二号线ATC系统的技术比选及对国产化的认识, 地铁与轻轨, retrieved 2020-05-17
  22. ^ "卡斯柯助力上海地铁1号线信号系统改造". CASCO. Retrieved 2020-05-17.
  23. ^ 张琳, ed. (2020-03-19). "工作室持续研发,可移动测试台和云监控的时代即将到来!" (Press release). 上海地铁维保公司通号六支部. Archived from the original on 2020-05-17. Retrieved 2020-05-17.
  24. ^ Jianhui, Wang (August 1, 2006). "上海地铁一号线列车用冰块为乘客降温(图)". sina.com.cn.
  25. ^ Zhang, Haifeng (September 4, 2006). "车厢多2节 载客增3成". sina.com.cn.
  26. ^ "Shanghai Metro". Railway Technology.
  27. ^ 上海地铁一号线延伸线列车. 中车南京浦镇车辆有限公司 (in Chinese). Retrieved 2020-03-20.

Coordinates: 31°16′09″N 121°27′25″E / 31.2692°N 121.4570°E / 31.2692; 121.4570