CRRC Dalian

CRRC Dalian Co., Ltd. (Chinese: 中车大连机车车辆有限公司; lit. 'CRRC Dalian Locomotive & Rolling Stock Co., Ltd.'), often abbreviated as DLoco, is a company located in Dalian, Liaoning Province, China, producing railway locomotives, multiple units and diesel engines.

CRRC Dalian Co., Ltd.
Native name
  • Shahekou factory
  • Dalian Locomotive Works
  • CNR Dalian Locomotive & Rolling Stock Co., Ltd.
  • 1899; 122 years ago (1899)
  • 2003 (incorporation as company)[1]
HeadquartersShahekou District, ,
Area served
  • China
  • exported worldwide
OwnerCRRC (100%)
Number of employees
~8000[citation needed]

The factory was established in 1899 during the period of construction of the Chinese Eastern Railway, as the Shahekou works, and was under Japanese control from 1905, and later part of the Manchukuo state. After the end of the Second World War the railway was under joint Chinese and Russian control until the 1950s when the Chinese Eastern Railroad and the city of Dalian were transferred to sole Chinese control. The factory was state owned, and controlled by the Ministry of Railways until 2001 when LORIC (China National Railway Locomotive & Rolling Stock Industry Corporation) was split into two groups (as part of CNR Group); it then became one of the constituent companies of listed company China CNR, and after June 1, 2015, CRRC, an unification of two listed companies that derived from 2001 split.



Dalian in relation to the South Manchurian branch (NE-SW) of the Chinese Eastern Railway (map draw in 1912).

The locomotive factory in Dalian was founded in 1899,[2] contemporary with the construction of the southern branch of the Chinese Eastern Railway during the lease of the Liaodong Peninsula from China to the Russian Empire,[nb 1] and to the development of Dalian as a port and town.[3][4]

In 1905, the "Shahekou Plant" came under Japanese control as a result of the Treaty of Portsmouth,[nb 2] and in 1906 the railway from Dalian to Changchun became part of the Japanese controlled South Manchurian Railway.[7]

In 1934 the factory together with Kawasaki Heavy Industries, manufactured the Asia Express high speed steam train for the South Manchuria Railway.[8]

In 1945 at the end of the Second World War the city came under Soviet Russian control. The Changchun Railway was jointly operated by China and Russia until 1952, when control was passed entirely to the Chinese government. Soviet Russian occupation ended in 1955.[4][9][10]


In 1956 the company manufactured the China Railways HP[nb 3] prototype 2-10-2 steam locomotive.[11][12] and in 1957, the first China Railways JS class 2-8-2 locomotive,[nb 4] of which 1916 were built at different plants.[13] as well as other steam locomotives.

Diesel locomotives were developed and produced at the plant, a prototype diesel electric type "JuLong" (Chinese: 巨龙; pinyin: Jù Lóng; lit. 'grand dragon') was produced in 1958 based on the Russian ТЭ10 locomotive and Fairbanks Morse FM38D opposed piston engine,[14] which led to the DF class diesel electric locomotives[nb 5] entered production in 1964.[14][15]

The change from steam to diesel production began in 1965,[16] and in 1969, the first of the China Railways DF4 class of locomotives was produced. The DF4 series of locomotive type became the main mainline diesel locomotive type in China,[17][18] and developments were produced in the following decades; including the DF4B in 1984, the DF4D in 1996.[16][19]

In the 1980s the company began a decade long research partnership with Ricardo plc into increasing the power output and efficiency of its DL240 diesel engine products.[2][20] In 1997 it began working with Southwest Research Institute (USA) on the design of a new locomotive diesel engine.[21][22]

The company first exported a mainline diesel locomotive in 1993 (to Myanmar), by the middle of the first decade of the 21st century the company had exported over 200 diesel locomotives.[2]

By 2000 the company was producing half of the China's internal supply of diesel locomotives, and manufactured 80% of the countries diesel locomotive exports.[23]


Dalian locomotive works' parent company, state-owned China National Railway Locomotive & Rolling Stock Industry Corporation (LORIC), was split into the northern and southern groups in 2002; the locomotive works part of China Northern Locomotive & Rolling Stock Industry (Group) Corporation along with other rail vehicle manufacturers in China.[24] The locomotive works was also incorporated as a limited company in 2003,[1] known as CNR Group Dalian Locomotive & Rolling Stock (Chinese: 中国北车集团大连机车车辆有限公司) or just CNR Dalian.

In the first decade of the 21st century the plant began producing two new mainline locomotive product types; the China Railways HXD3 electric locomotives in association with Toshiba, a joint venture with Toshiba (Chinese: 大连东芝机车电气设备有限公司; lit. 'Dalian Toshiba Locomotive Electric Equipment Co., Ltd.') was formed in 2002 to manufacture electric equipment for rolling stock.[25] Also in the 2000s the diesel electric locomotives China Railways HXN3 were produced at Dalian in association with GM EMD.

As part of the initial public offering, the stake of CRN Dalian was transferred to an intermediate holding company China CNR in 2008.

In 2009 the company obtained its first export order to supply locomotives to a western country, an order for 20 New Zealand DL class locomotives.[26]

In 2009 the groundbreaking ceremony took place for a new plant in the Lüshun economic development zone (Lushunkou District); the new facility was developed in conjunction with the municipal council of Dalian city. The facility, on a 2 km (1.2 mi) site, is designed to have a production of around 1000 locomotives, 1000 rail vehicles and 1000 diesel engines per year.[27] The plant officially opened in August 2011, the first vehicles on the production line were metro passenger units for Line 2, Tianjin Metro.[28]

One of the company's latest export orders came in January 2015 from the Lagos Metropolitan Area Transport Authority for 15 metro trains for the Lagos Rail Mass Transit system in Nigeria, with an option for 14 more.[29] This order came about following a failed acquisition of old H-series carriages retired from the Toronto Subway. In the same year an order was placed for 14 eight car trains for Line 1 of the Kolkata Metro.[30]

Products and servicesEdit

The company's primary products are railway rolling stock and related parts; it has a production capacity of ~600 locomotives and 300 metro rail vehicles per year.[31]

Sister companies and organizationsEdit

Sharing the same registered address in the Shahekou District, CRRC Dalian Dali Railway Transportation Equipment Co., Ltd. (Chinese: 大连大力轨道交通装备有限公司) was found in 2007. The company was not listed and remained in the unlisted portion of CRRC Group.[32]

Another company, "Daqi company" or "Dalian Qiqihar Railway Rolling Stock Railway Transportation Equipment Co., Ltd." (Chinese: 大连齐车轨道交通装备有限责任公司) by CRRC Qiqihar Railway Rolling Stock in 2007.[33] The company was based in Lüshun Economic Development Zone of Lüshunkou District. In 2016 it was renamed to Chinese: 大连中车大齐车辆有限公司; lit. 'Dalian CRRC Daqi Railway Rolling Stock'. It was part of CRRC (via CRRC Qiqihar Railway Rolling Stock), the listed portion of CRRC Group.

Research, development and educationEdit

The Entrance to CRRC Dalian Research Institute on Zhongchang Street, Dalian.

In 1956, Dalian Locomotive and Rolling Stock Manufacturing School was established nearby on Huanghe Road, which became the Dalian Railway Institute (Chinese: 大连铁道学院) in 1958, and in 2004 Dalian Jiaotong University (Chinese: 大连交通大学).[34]

Also located in Dalian, CRRC Dalian Locomotive Research Institute Co., Ltd. [zh] (Chinese: 中车大连机车研究所有限公司) was founded in 1922[35][36][37] by South Manchuria Railway Company as a closely associated institute of the railway and the locomotive works; the organisation was incorporated as a company and as a subsidiary of China CNR in 2007.[36][37]

In 2001, another research institute, CRRC Dalian R&D [zh] (Chinese: 中车大连电力牵引研发中心), was founded. It was incorporated as a company in 2013.[38]


See alsoEdit


  1. ^ The lease and railway construction rights were obtained in the Li–Lobanov Treaty of 1896
  2. ^ Treaty of Portsmouth, Article VI : "The Imperial Russian Government engages to transfer and assign to the Imperial Government of Japan, without compensation and with the consent of the Chinese Government, the railway between Chang-chunfu and Kuanchangtsu and Port Arthur, and all the branches, together with all the rights, privileges and properties appertaining thereto in that region .."[5][6]
  3. ^ abbreviation of Heping (Chinese: 和平; pinyin: Hé Píng; lit. 'Peace')[11][12]
  4. ^ abbreviation of Jianshe (Chinese: 建设; pinyin: Jiàn Shè; lit. 'Construction'[13])
  5. ^ abbreviation of Dongfeng (Chinese: 东风; pinyin: Dōng Fēng; lit. 'East Wind')


  1. ^ a b 发展历史 [History] (in Chinese). CRRC Dalian. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
  2. ^ a b c Sources:
    企业简介. (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2012-04-22. Retrieved June 2012. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
    中国北车集团大连机车车辆有限公司_公司介绍_成员企业_中国北车股份有限公司 [CNR Dalian Locomotive & Rolling Stock Co. Company Profile : CNR member company]. (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2011-03-04.
  3. ^ Kenneth Pletcher, ed. (2010). The Geography of China: Sacred and Historic Places. Britannica Educational Publishing and The Rosen Publishing Group. Dalian (Dairen), pp.167-8. ISBN 9781615301829.
  4. ^ a b "Dalian". World and Its Peoples: Eastern and Southern Asia, Volume 2. Marshall Cavendish Corporation. 2007. p. 158. ISBN 9780761476337.
  5. ^ "The Treaty of Portsmouth, 1905 - September 5, 1905". Archived from the original on June 8, 2011. Retrieved February 8, 2011.
  6. ^ Melvin Eugene Page; Penny M. Sonnenburg (2003). Colonialism: an international social, cultural, and political encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. "Portsmouth, Treaty of (1905)" , pp.480-1, "Treaty of Portsmouth (September 5, 1905)", article VI , pp.1002. ISBN 9781576073353.
  7. ^ Alvin D. Coox (1990). Nomonhan: Japan Against Russia, 1939, Volumes 1-2. Stanford University Press. pp. 1–2. ISBN 9780804718356.
  8. ^ 1934年(昭和9年) パシナ形蒸気機関車979号が当社製造蒸気機関車の1,500両目となる : 沿革 : 川崎重工 車両カンパニー. (in Japanese). Kawasaki Heavy Industries. Retrieved 8 February 2011.
  9. ^ Christian A. Hess (2007). "Chapter 7: Big Brother Is Watching: Local Sino-Soviet Relations and the Building of New Dalian 1945-55". In Jeremy Brown, Paul Pickowicz (ed.). Dilemmas of victory: the early years of the People's Republic of China. Harvard University Press. pp. 160–1. ISBN 9780674026162.
  10. ^ Л. М. Малухин. "Китайская Чанчуньская железная дорога". Большой Советской Энциклопедии (in Russian).
  11. ^ a b Duncan Cotteril. "QJ Class 2-10-2".
  12. ^ a b Hans Schaefer. "History and technical data of steam locomotive type QJ". Archived from the original on 2002-04-16.
  13. ^ a b Duncan Cotteril. "Railography : Class Profiles : JS Class 2-8-2".
  14. ^ a b Robin J Gibbons. "DF (DF3) 东风". Archived from the original on 2002-08-18. Retrieved 2011-02-09.
  15. ^ 东风、东风2、东风3型内燃机车 [DF, DF2, and DF3 diesel locomotives]. (in Chinese). 铁道馆_中国科普博览, 中国科学院计算机网络信息中心.
  16. ^ a b 中国北车集团大连机车车辆有限公司 [CNR Dalian Locomotive & Rolling Stock Co., Ltd.]. (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2011-10-02.
  17. ^ Robbin R Gibbons. "DF4 / DF4A/ DF4B 东风4". Archived from the original on 2002-08-20. Retrieved 2011-02-11.
  18. ^ Duncan Cotterill. "Railography : Class Profiles : DF4, DF4A, DF4B Class Co'-Co' DE".
  19. ^ 东风4型内燃机车 [DF4 locomotive]. (in Chinese).
  20. ^ Mark Dodgson (1993). Technological collaboration in industry: strategy, policy, and internationalization in innovation. Routledge. Case Study: Ricardo/DLW, pp. 119-125. ISBN 9780415082303.
  21. ^ "China's Dalian Locomotive and Rolling Stock Works". Railway Age. April 1997.
  22. ^ "Design of a New Generation Locomotive Diesel Engine". Archived from the original on 2011-05-25. Retrieved 2011-02-12.
  23. ^ 王国振 (Wang Guozhen) (2001). 中国北方明珠——大连 [Pearl of North China : Dalian]. 五洲传播出版社 (China intercontinental press). p. 9. ISBN 9787801139054.
  24. ^ wikisource:zh:国务院关于组建中国北方机车车辆工业集团公司有关问题的批复 (in Chinese)
  25. ^ "Toshiba Establishes Joint Venture for Rolling Stock Electric Equipment with Major Chinese Locomotive Manufacturer". (Press release). Toshiba. 28 August 2002.
  26. ^ "KiwiRail's first Chinese locomotive arrives next month". Railway Gazette International. 22 September 2010.
  27. ^ 陆世光; 解传平 (24 November 2009). 大连机车旅顺基地隆重奠基 [Dalian locomotive Port Arthur foundation stone laying ceremony]. (in Chinese).
  28. ^ 大连机车旅顺基地正式启用, (in Chinese), 24 August 2011
  29. ^ "LAMATA opts for Chinese Trains for the Lagos Light Rail". Black Border Build. January 11, 2015. Archived from the original on September 25, 2015. Retrieved 2015-09-22.
  30. ^ "First look of your future Metro". Retrieved 2019-05-03.
  31. ^ 企业能力 (in Chinese), CNR Dalian, archived from the original on 2011-07-10, retrieved 2009-11-04
  32. ^ "2016 Annual Report" (in Chinese). CRRC Group. 30 April 2017. Retrieved 11 June 2017 – via Shanghai Clearing House.
  33. ^ 公司简介 (in Chinese). CRRC Qiqihar Railway Rolling Stock. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
  34. ^ "DaLian JiaoTong University : History". Dalian Jiaotong University. Archived from the original on 2011-07-04. Retrieved 2011-02-08.
  35. ^ "About Us". CRRC Dalian Locomotive Research Institute. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
  36. ^ a b 中国北车集团大连机车研究所有限公司简介 [About CNR Dalian Locomotive Research Institute Co., Ltd.] (in Chinese). China CNR. 23 August 2005. Archived from the original on 8 March 2012.
  37. ^ a b 公司简介 [About us] (in Chinese). CRRC Dalian Locomotive Research Institute. Retrieved 30 September 2017.
  38. ^ 公司简介 [About us] (in Chinese). CRRC Dalian R&D. Retrieved 30 September 2017.

External linksEdit