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The Seoul Metropolitan Subway is a metropolitan railway system consisting of 22 rapid transit, light metro, commuter rail and people mover lines located in northwest South Korea. The system serves most of the Seoul Metropolitan Area including the Incheon metropolis and satellite cities in Gyeonggi province. Some regional lines in the network stretch out to rural areas in northern Chungnam province and western Gangwon province, that lie over 100 km away from the capital, as well as Suwon.[5]

Seoul Metropolitan Subway
South Korea subway logo.svg
Seoul-Metro-2004-20070722.jpg
Overview
Native name수도권 전철
Sudogwon Jeoncheol
OwnerGovernment of South Korea, Seoul Metropolitan Government, Incheon Metropolitan City, Bucheon City, Uijeongbu City, Yongin City and private companies
LocaleSeoul Capital Area
Transit typeRapid transit, Commuter rail
Number of lines22
Number of stations716
Annual ridership1.91 billion (2017, Lines 1-9, Seoul Subway)[1]
1.16 billion (2017, Korail)[2]
Operation
Began operation15 August 1974; 45 years ago (1974-08-15)
Operator(s)Seoul Metro, Korail, Incheon Transit Corporation, and private rapid transit operators
Technical
System length340.4 km (211.5 mi) (Seoul Metro / Line 9 only)[3][failed verification]
1,131 km (703 mi)[4][failed verification] (all lines)
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
System map

Seoul Metropolitan Subway network map.png

Seoul Metropolitan Subway
Hangul
Hanja
Revised RomanizationSudogwon Jeoncheol
McCune–ReischauerSudokwŏn Chŏnch'ŏl

The network consists of numbered lines 1–9, which serve Seoul City proper and its surroundings and other specifically named regional railways that serve the greater metropolitan region and beyond.[6] Most of the system is operated by three companies – Seoul Metro, Korail (Korea National Railroad) and Metro 9.[7] However, there are several other lines stretching out to regional provinces.

Its first metro line, Line 1, started construction in 1971 and opened in 1974, with through-operation to Korail suburban railways. Today, the network is one of the largest and most efficient urban railway systems in the world, with 331.5 km (206.0 mi) of track on lines 1–9 alone; wireless and internet service on all trains; and platform screen doors at almost all stations.

OverviewEdit

The first line of the Seoul Subway network started construction in 1971.[8] The first section of subway was built using the cheaper cut and cover construction method. Line 1 opened in 1974 with through services joining surrounding Korail suburban railway lines similar to the Tokyo subway.[9] Today, many of the Seoul Metropolitan Subway's lines are operated by Korail, South Korea's national passenger and freight railway operator.[10] This is similar to Europe and Japan, where the national railroad often operates local mainline urban railways, such as the S-Bahns in Germany, operated by subsidiaries of Deutsche Bahn, or JR East in Japan, which operates many other urban rail systems in Japanese cities.

It has been described as the world's longest multi-operator metro system by route length.[11] The system was rated as one of the world's best subway systems by CNN,[12] and Jalopnik[13] It is notable for its cleanliness and ease of use along with advanced technology such as 4G LTE, WiFi, DMB, and WiBro accessible in all stations and trains.[14] Nearly all stations have platform screen doors installed; only Gaewha and some minor Korail-operated stations remain with open platforms.[15] By 2017, Korail will completely install screen doors in every station and platform.[16] The world's first virtual mart for smartphone users opened at Seolleung station in 2011.[12]

All directional signs in the system are written in Korean, English and Hanja. In trains there are in addition many LCD screens giving service announcements, upcoming stop names, YTN news, stock prices and animated shorts. There are also prerecorded voice announcements that give the upcoming station, any possible line transfer, and the exiting side in Korean, followed by English. At major stations, this is followed by Japanese, then Mandarin Chinese, as well.[17] Seoul Subway uses full-color LCD screens at all stations to display real-time subway arrival times,[18] which are also available on apps for smartphones.[19] Most trains have digital TV screens, and all of them have air conditioning and climate controlled seats installed that are automatically heated in the winter. In 2014, it became the world's first metro operator to use transparent displays for ads when it installed 48 transparent displays on major stations of Line 2 in Gangnam District.[18] All lines use the T-money smart payment system using RFID and NFC technology for automatic payment by T-money smart cards, smartphones, or credit cards and one can transfer to any of the other line within the system for free.[Note 1]

Trains on numbered lines generally run on the right-hand track, while trains on the named lines (e.g. Shinbundang Line, Bundang Line, and AREX) run on the left-hand track. The exceptions are the trains on Line 1, as well as those on Line 4 south of Namtaeryeong station. These lines run on the left-hand track because these rail lines are operated by Korail, South Korea's national railway operator.[20]

HistoryEdit

Line 1, from Seongbuk station to Incheon station and Suwon station, opened on 15 August 1974. On 9 December 1978, the Yongsan-Cheongnyangni line (now part of the Jungang Line) was added to Line 1. Line 2 opened on 10 October 1980. In 1985, the fare system changed from charging by distance to zone and the Edmondson railway ticket changed to a magnetic paper ticket. Line 4 opened on 20 April 1985, and Line 3 on 12 July. On 1 April 1994, the Indeogwon-Namtaeryeong extension of Line 4 opened. The Bundang Line, from Suseo station to Ori station, opened on 1 September. On 15 November 1995, Line 5 opened. The Jichuk-Daehwa extension of Line 3 opened on 30 January 1996. On 20 March, the Kkachisan-Sindorim extension of Line 2 opened. Line 7 opened on 11 October, and Line 8 on 23 November. On 6 October 1999, Incheon Subway Line 1 opened.

Seoul Subway Line 6 opened on 7 August 2000. In 2004 the fare system reverted to charging by distance, and free bus transfers were introduced. The Byeongjeom-Cheonan extension of Line 1 opened on 20 January 2005. On 16 December, the Jungang Line from Yongsan station to Deokso station opened. The Uijeongbu-Soyosan extension of Line 1 opened and shuttle service from Yongsan station to Gwangmyeong station began (with the route now shortened from Yeongdeungpo to Gwangmyeong) on 15 December 2006. On 23 March 2007, AREX opened. The Deokso-Paldang extension of the Jungang Line opened on 27 December. On 15 December 2008, the Cheonan-Sinchang extension of Line 1 opened. The magnetic paper ticket changed to an RFID-based card on 1 May 2009. On 1 July the Gyeongui Line from Seoul station to Munsan station opened, and on 24 July Line 9 from Gaehwa station to Sinnonhyeon station opened.

The Byeongjeom-Seodongtan extension of Line 1 opened on 26 February 2010, and the Gyeongchun Line opened on 21 December. On 28 October 2011, the Shinbundang Line from Gangnam station to Jeongja station opened. The Suin Line, from Oido Station to Songdo Station, opened on 30 June 2012. The U Line opened on 1 July, the Onsu-Bupyeong-gu Office extension of Line 7 on 27 October and the Gongdeok-Gajwa extension of the Gyeongui Line on 15 December. On 26 April 2013 EverLine opened, and the Gyeongui·Jungang Line opened on 27 December 2014. The Sinnonhyeon-Sports Complex extension of Line 9 opened on 28 March 2015. On 30 January 2016 the Jeongja-Gwanggyo extension of the Shinbundang Line opened, followed by the Songdo-Incheon extension of the Suin Line on 27 February. Incheon Subway Line 2 opened on 30 July, and the Gyeonggang Line on 24 September. The Gyeongui-Jungang Line is extended one station east to Jipyeong station on January 21, 2017, with 4 round trips to Jipyeong station. On 16 June 2018 the Seohae Line opened. Magongnaru station on Line 9 became an interchange station with AREX on 29 September 2018.[21] Bundang line is extended northeastward to Cheongnyangni station, allowing for connections to the Gyeongchun Line and regional rail services on 31 December 2018

Lines and branchesEdit

The system is organized such that numbered lines, with some exceptions, are considered as urban rapid transit lines located within the Seoul National Capital Area (SNCA), whereas wide-area commuter lines operated by Korail provide a metro-like commuter rail service that usually extends far beyond the boundaries of the SNCA, rather similar to the RER in Paris. The AREX is an airport rail link that links Incheon International Airport and Gimpo Airport to central Seoul, and offers both express service directly to Incheon International Airport and all-stop commuter service for people living along the vicinity of the line. While operating hours may vary depending on the line in question, the Seoul Metropolitan Subway generally operates from 5.30 a.m. until 1 a.m. on weekdays, and from 5.30 a.m. until midnight on weekends.

 
System map of the Seoul Metropolitan Subway, showing current and future proposed lines, as of 20 April 2019.
Line name Terminus (Ascending / Descending) Stations Total length Opening Year Last Extension Operator Owner
     Line 1 Soyosan Incheon / Sinchang / Gwangmyeong / Seodongtan 98 200.6 km[22][3][Note 2] 1974 2010 Korail/Seoul Metro Government of South Korea / Seoul Metropolitan Government
     Line 2 City Hall / Seongsu / Sindorim City Hall / Sinseol-dong / Kkachisan 51 60.2 km[3] 1980 1996 Seoul Metro Seoul Metropolitan Government
     Line 3 Daehwa Ogeum 44 57.4 km[22][3][Note 3] 1985 2010 Korail/Seoul Metro Government of South Korea / Seoul Metropolitan Government
     Line 4 Danggogae Oido 48 72.1 km[22][3][Note 4] 1985 2000 Government of South Korea / Seoul Metropolitan Government
     Line 5 Banghwa Sangil-dong / Macheon 51 52.3 km[3] 1995 1996 Seoul Metro Seoul Metropolitan Government
     Line 6 Eungam Bonghwasan 38 35.1 km[3] 2000 2001 Seoul Metropolitan Government
     Line 7 Jangam Bupyeong-gu Office 51 57.1 km[3] 1996 2012 Seoul Metropolitan Government / Bucheon City Council / Incheon Metropolitan City Council
     Line 8 Amsa Moran 17 17.7 km[3] 1996 1999 Seoul Metropolitan Government
     Line 9 Gaehwa VHS Medical Center 38 40.6 km 2009 2018 Seoul Metro Line 9 Corporation Seoul Metropolitan Government / Seoul Metro Line 9 Corporation
     AREX Seoul Station Incheon Int'l Airport T2 14 63.8 km 2007 2018 Airport Railroad Corporation Government of South Korea
     Gyeongui–Jungang Line Munsan Seoul Station / Jipyeong 55 121.7 km[23] 2005 2017 Korail Government of South Korea
     Gyeongchun Line Cheongnyangni / Kwangwoon Univ. Chuncheon 24 81.3 km[22] 2010 2016 Korail Government of South Korea
     Bundang Line Cheongnyangni Suwon 37 55.3 km[24] 1994 2018 Korail Government of South Korea
     Suin Line Oido Incheon 14 19.9 km[22] 2012 2016 Korail Government of South Korea
     Ui LRT Sinseol-dong Bukhansan Ui 15 11.4 km[25] 2017 - UiTrans LRT Co. Seoul Metropolitan Government / UiTrans LRT Co.
     Shinbundang Line Gangnam Gwanggyo 13 31.0 km[26] 2011 2016 NeoTrans Government of South Korea / Shinbundang Line & Gyeonggi Railway[27]
     Incheon Line 1 Gyeyang International Business District 29 29.4 km[28] 1999 2009 Incheon Transit Incheon Metropolitan City Council
     Incheon Line 2 Geomdan Oryu Unyeon 27 29.1 km 2016 - Incheon Transit Incheon Metropolitan City Council
     EverLine Giheung Jeondae – Everland 15 18.1 km[29] 2013 - Yongin Rapid Transit Corporation Yongin Rapid Transit Corporation
     U Line Balgok Tapseok 15 11.1 km[30] 2012 - Uijeongbu LRT Corporation Uijeongbu LRT Corporation / Uijeongbu City Council
     Gyeonggang Line Pangyo Yeoju 11 54.8 km 2016 - Korail Government of South Korea
     Seohae Line Sosa Wonsi 12 23.4 km 2018 - E-Rail (Seoul Metro) Government of South Korea /   & Seohae line Corporation

Rolling stockEdit

Fares and ticketingEdit

 
T-money smart card

The Seoul Metropolitan Subway system operates on a unified transportation fare system, meaning that subways and buses in Seoul, Incheon and Gyeonggi-do are treated as one system when it comes to fares. For example, a subway rider can transfer to any other line for free (with the exception of Shinbundang Line, EverLine and U Line, which add flat extra charges, amounting to 900, 200 and 300 won respectively). One can also transfer to any city buses for free, regardless of whether it is from Seoul, Incheon or Gyeonggi-do. In the case of Shinbundang Line, if one crosses Jeongja Station, 300 won is charged on top of the 900 won extra charge, although a cashback is offered to frequent riders between Pangyo Station and Dongcheon/Suji-gu Office Station.[27]

Fare payments in Seoul are mainly handled by T-money and Cash Bee, which can also be used on buses, convenience stores and many other popular retail places. Riders must touch in a phone, card or other metro card and enabled device at the entry gates. Popular methods of payments are using NFC-enabled Android smartphones (topped up or billed to the owner's credit/debit card via the T-money app) or credit or check (debit) cards with built-in RFID technology issued by the bank or card company.

The current single-use ticket is a credit card-sized plastic card with RFID technology, which can be obtained from automated machines in every subway station. A 500 won deposit fee is included in the price, and is refunded when the ticket is returned at any station. Multiple use cards are sold in convenience stores and the functionality is included in many credit/debit cards.

Fares (except for single-use tickets) are currently 1,250 won for a trip up to 10 km, with 100 won added for each subsequent 5 km.[31] Once 50 km has been passed, 100 won will be added every 8 km. Single-use ticket users must pay RFID deposit 500 won plus 100 won surcharge to fare.

Half-priced children's tickets are available. The city government also uses Seoul Citypass as a transportation card. Senior citizens and disabled people qualify for free transit and can get a free ticket or enter and exit using side gates rather than turnstiles.

International travelers can also use a Metropolitan Pass (MPASS) which provides up to 20 trips per day during the prepaid duration of 1 day to 7 days. Depending on where you purchase the card, the service is limited to the Seoul metropolitan area or Jeju Island and does not work in taxis or certain convenience stores.[32][33]

Current constructionEdit

Opening 2019Edit

Opening 2020Edit

Opening 2021Edit

Opening 2022Edit

Opening 2023Edit

Opening 2024Edit

Under planningEdit

Seoul CityEdit

The Seoul Metropolitan government published a ten year plan for expansion of the subway with the following projects under consideration.[44][45]

Incheon CityEdit

  • Incheon Subway line 3 is planned to be a semi-circular subway line of Incheon. It will intersect at Korail line 1 at Dowon station and Dongmak station at Incheon Subway line 1.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ With the exception of AREX on Yeongjong Island (extra charge applied depending on distance) and Shinbundang Line (extra flat charge of 700KRW). EverLine and U Line will allow free transfers from 2014.
  2. ^ Of which 192.8 km is operated by Korail and 7.8 km by Seoul Metro.
  3. ^ Of which 19.2 km is operated by Korail and 38.2 km by Seoul Metro.
  4. ^ Of which 40.4 km is operated by Korail and 31.7 km by Seoul Metro.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "자료실 : 알림마당>자료실>자료실". www.seoulmetro.co.kr.
  2. ^ http://info.korail.com/mbs/www/subview.jsp?id=www_020203010000 Korail
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i 지하철건설현황 [Status of Subway Construction] (in Korean). Seoul City Government. Retrieved 22 February 2014.
  4. ^ Beijing's Incredible Subway Expansion In One GIF. The World Post. 29 December 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2015. Invalid |script-title=: missing prefix (help)
  5. ^ 2012 Korail Statistics See p.400 for Seoul Metropolitan Subway (수도권 전철). Archived 27 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ "Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs of South Korea: Definition of Urban Rail and Wide-area Rail". Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  7. ^ "Seoul Metropolitan Subway". railway-technology.com. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
  8. ^ "서울 지하철 1호선" (in Korean). Seoul Metropolitan Government. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
  9. ^ "Seoul's first subway line opened in 1974". Korea Times. 13 February 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
  10. ^ "Introducing Korail". Korail. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
  11. ^ "The world's longest metro and subway systems". Railway-technology.com. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
  12. ^ a b "What are the world's best metro systems?". CNN. 9 January 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
  13. ^ Raphael Orlove. "The Best Subway Systems In The World". Jalopnik.
  14. ^ "Underground world: Seoul's 'super highway' v London's 'rude tube'". BBC News. 3 April 2013. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
  15. ^ Screen doors installed in the Seoul Metropolitan Subway. Koreatimes.co.kr (5 May 2009). Retrieved on 12 July 2013.
  16. ^ "대중교통 커뮤니티 - SBM (철도, 버스 이용자들의 공간) : 네이버 카페". cafe.naver.com. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
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  18. ^ a b "낙후한 지하철 1~4호선, 첨단 디스플레이 기술로 새단장 나선다" [1-4 outdated subway line, state-of-the-art display technology sets out renovation]. etnews (in Korean). 15 March 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  19. ^ Malang Studio Co. Ltd. "Subway Korea - Android Apps on Google Play". google.com.
  20. ^ 문화일보 [Munhwailbo] (16 May 2006). "<오후여담>좌측통행" [<Afternoon digression> left side of the road]. Naver (in Korean). Naver Corp. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  21. ^ "내년 지하철 9호선 마곡나루역 급행역사로 전환". 이데일리. 22 March 2017. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  22. ^ a b c d e "Metro Lines & Trains in Operation". Korail. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
  23. ^ "Southern portion of inter-Korean railway to reopen". Hankyoreh. 25 December 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
  24. ^ "Final Bundang Line Extension Opens". Kojects. 30 November 2013. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
  25. ^ "우이신설도시철도에 오신결 환영합니다". www.ui-line.com. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  26. ^ "무인운전 시스템의 장점" (in Korean). Shinbundang Line & NeoTrans. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
  27. ^ a b "경기철도주식회사 - 신분당선". shinbundang2.co.kr. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  28. ^ "General information". Incheon Transit Corporation. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
  29. ^ "노선안내" (in Korean). Yongin Rapid Transit Corporation. Archived from the original on 10 August 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  30. ^ "사업개요" (in Korean). Uijeongbu LRT Corporation. Archived from the original on 2 November 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  31. ^ "9호선/수도권 전철 읍데이트들 - Misc Subway Updates" (Blog). Rick&Nyo. 19 April 2012. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
  32. ^ "Exclusive Tourist Cards". Korea Tourism Organization. 2 August 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  33. ^ "Tmoney Only for Foreigners: We would like to introduce Tmoney for Foreign Tourists". T-Money. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  34. ^ 김포도시철도사업 (in Korean). Gimpo City. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
  35. ^ "수인선, 전 구간 내년 상반기 개통…서수원 지하화 - OBS경인TV". www.obsnews.co.kr.
  36. ^ ""25분 거리를 10분만에… 지역경제도 살아났으면"… 27일 완전 재개통 앞둔 수인선 시범 운행". news.kmib.co.kr. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  37. ^ "지하철 7호선 인천 연장 2년 지연...2020년 개통". KBS 뉴스.
  38. ^ "김영선 "대곡-소사 복선전철 사업 예산확보 힘쓸 터"". www.newsprime.co.kr. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  39. ^ "固贰枚档DB". wo.to.
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  42. ^ "서울 경전철 위례선 - 나무위키".
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  44. ^ a b c d 수정: 2019-02-20 17:58, 기사입력: 2019-02-20 11:00 L. (20 February 2019). "[서울 도시철도망]강북횡단선 등 경전철 6개 노선 신설…서울 교통지도 바뀐다". 이투데이.
  45. ^ "News View :: The World On Arirang".
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External linksEdit