Seoul Subway Line 1

Seoul Metropolitan Subway Line 1 of the Seoul Metropolitan Subway is a rapid transit and commuter rail line which links central Seoul, South Korea to Soyosan Station in the northeast, Incheon in the southwest, and Sinchang(Soonchunhyang Univ.) via Suwon and Cheonan in the south. The central underground portion of this rail line is the oldest subway section in the Seoul Metropolitan Subway system. Its branches and services cover a large part of the Seoul Capital Area; totaling 200 km (120 mi) in route length.

Line 1
South Korea subway logo.svg Seoul Metro Line 1.svg
KORAIL EMU5000 6th.jpg Seoul Metro Line 1 train leaving Geumjeong.jpg
Seoul Metro 1000 series EMU in December 2017
Korail Class 311000 series EMU in December 2006
Native name1호선(一號線)
Il Hoseon
Seoul Metro: 10
Korail: 87
TypeRapid transit / Commuter Rail
SystemSeoul Metropolitan Subway
Operator(s)Seoul Metro & Korail
OpenedAugust 15, 1974
Line length200.6 km (124.6 mi)
Seoul Metro: 7.8 km (4.8 mi)[1]
Korail: 192.8 km (119.8 mi)
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge
Electrification1,500 V DC (Hoegi to Namyeong)
25 kV AC at 60 Hz (Soyosan to Hoegi and Namyeong to Incheon / Sinchang(Soonchunhyang Univ.) / Gwangmyeong / Seodongtan)
Operating speed110 km/h (68 mph)
Route map
Gyeongwon Line
0.0 Soyosan
2.5 Dongducheon
4.1 Bosan
5.5 Dongducheon Jungang
6.5 Jihaeng
12.1 Deokjeong
15.0 Deokgye
Majeon Signal Box
20.3 Yangju
21.9 Nogyang
Gyooe Line
23.2 Ganeung
24.4 Uijeongbu
26.0 Hoeryong U Line
27.4 Mangwolsa
29.7 Dobongsan Seoul Metro Line 7.svg
30.9 Dobong
32.2 Banghak
33.9 Chang-dong Seoul Metro Line 4.svg
34.9 Nokcheon
36.3 Wolgye
formal Gyeongchun Line
37.4 Kwangwoon Univ.
38.5 Seokgye Seoul Metro Line 6.svg
Imun Rail Yard
39.9 Sinimun
40.7 Hankuk Univ. of Foreign Studies
     Gyeongui–Jungang Line      Gyeongchun Line
41.5 Hoegi
AC section/DC section↓ (neutral section)
     Gyeongui–Jungang Line      Gyeongchun Line
42.9 Cheongnyangni
     Gyeongui–Jungang Line
43.9 Jegi-dong
Seoul Metro Line 2.svg connection line→
44.8 Sinseol-dong Seoul Metro Line 2.svg Ui LRT
45.5 Dongmyo Seoul Metro Line 6.svg
Since 2005
46.1 Dongdaemun Seoul Metro Line 4.svg
46.9 Jongno 5(o)-ga
47.8 Jongno 3(sam)-ga Seoul Metro Line 3.svg Seoul Metro Line 5.svg
48.6 Jonggak
49.6 City Hall Seoul Metro Line 2.svg
(↖)Gyeongui Line, Seoul Metro Line 4.svg(→)
50.7 Seoul Korail logo.svg KTX logo.svg
(←)Seoul Metro Line Arex.svg, Seoul Metro Line 4.svg(→)
DC section/AC section↓ (neutral section)
52.4 Namyeong
     Gyeongui–Jungang Line
53.9 Yongsan Korail logo.svg KTX logo.svg
Yongsan Triangular line
Yongsan Rail Yard (closed)
Han River
56.5 Noryangjin Seoul Metro Line 9.svg
58.0 Daebang Sillim Line
58.8 Singil Seoul Metro Line 5.svg
59.8 Yeongdeungpo Korail logo.svg KTX logo.svg
61.3 Sindorim Seoul Metro Line 2.svg
62.4 Guro
Gyeongin (to Incheon)
Guro Rail Yard
64.8 Gasan Digital Complex Seoul Metro Line 7.svg
66.8 Doksan
68.0 Geumcheon-gu Office
Gyeongbu high-speed railway (Siheung connecting line)
(72.7) Gwangmyeong Korail logo.svg KTX logo.svg
70.3 Seoksu
72.2 Gwanak
74.6 Anyang Korail logo.svg
76.8 Myeonghak
Seoul Metro Line 4.svg
78.2 Geumjeong
Seoul Metro Line 4.svg
80.4 Gunpo
81.6 Dangjeong
84.6 Uiwang
87.5 Sungkyunkwan Univ.
90.1 Hwaseo
92.2 Suwon Korail logo.svg KTX logo.svg      Suin–Bundang Line
95.1 Seryu
99.4 Byeongjeom
Byeongjeom Rail Yard
(101.6) Seodongtan
101.8 Sema
104.5 Osan Univ.
107.2 Osan Korail logo.svg
111.2 Jinwi
115.0 Songtan
117.2 Seojeongni Korail logo.svg
122.0 PyeongtaekJije
125.7 Pyeongtaek Korail logo.svg
135.1 Seonghwan Korail logo.svg
140.5 Jiksan
144.3 Dujeong
147.3 Cheonan Korail logo.svg
Gyeongbu Line (to Daejeon
148.8 Bongmyeong
150.3 Ssangyong(Korea Nazarene Univ.)
151.8 Asan Korail logo.svg KTX logo.svg
Gyeongbu high-speed railway
156.7 Baebang
161.6 Onyangoncheon Korail logo.svg
166.7 Sinchang(Soonchunhyang Univ.)
Janghang Line (to Iksan station)

The underground section between Seoul Station and Cheongnyangni station, which is referred to as Seoul Metro Line 1 (7.8 kilometers [4.8 mi]), is currently operated by Seoul Metro.[1][2] The line first opened in 1974 as the '''Korean National Railroad of Seoul''' with through services to national mainline railways from Seongbuk station (now: Kwangwoon University station) to Incheon and Suwon Stations.[3] At the time, the 7.8 km underground portion run by Seoul Metro Corporation—one of Seoul Metro's predecessors—was called Line 1 and labeled red on maps. On the other hand, the remaining sections of the rail line run by Korail were labeled either blue or gray on maps, and the express lines were red. In 2000, the adjacent through-running Korail services from the Gyeongbu, Gyeongin and Gyeongwon Lines were officially bundled together as part of a greater Line 1, and the labeling on maps was changed to the current dark blue color.

Frequent service is provided between Soyosan, Dongducheon, Uijeongbu, Cheongnyangni, Seoul, Yongsan, and Guro, where trains split between Incheon in the west and Byeongjeom and Cheonan in the south. Express trains operate from Yongsan and Seoul stations to Dongincheon and Sinchang(Soonchunhyang Univ.) stations. Trains run every 3-6 min in the central route between Seoul Station and Cheongnyangni, every 6-9 min between Seoul and Guro, every 8-10 min between Guro and Incheon and between Guro and Byeongjeom, every 10-15 min from Byeongjeom to Cheonan, and every 35 min between Cheonan and Sinchang and service up to the Dongducheon area and Soyosan station.

Trains travel along Gyeongbu (Seoul-Cheonan), Gyeongin (Guro-Incheon), Janghang (Cheonan-Sinchang(Soonchunhyang Univ.)), and Gyeongwon (Hoegi-Soyosan) railway lines. The line runs on the left-hand side of the track, as opposed to the right-hand side of the track like all other Seoul Metropolitan Subway lines (another exception to this is Seoul Subway Line 4 although it runs on the right-hand side until Namtaeryeong station, and operates on the left-hand side for the parts afterwards)[4] since railways in Korea generally run on the left side.

Rapid (Express) trainsEdit

Korail operates a variety of express "rapid" (급행, 急行) trains for long distance commuter services on Line 1. These services include:

  • Gyeongin line express services from Yongsan to Dongincheon, operating express between Guro and Dongincheon, including:
    • Regular express services, introduced on January 29, 1999, following quadruple-tracking of the Gyeongin Line.
    • Faster limited express (특급) trains, introduced on July 7, 2017.
  • Gyeongbu line express services from Cheongnyangni to Cheonan or Sinchang, operating express between Gasan Digital Complex and Cheonan and running local elsewhere.
  • Green Gyeongbu line express service from Seoul Station to Cheonan or Sinchang, originating at a platform adjacent to Seoul Station, skipping all stations between Seoul Station and Geumcheon-gu Office Station, making intermediate stops at Anyang, Gunpo, Uiwang, and Sungkyunkwan University, and then following the red Gyeongbu line express service pattern south of Suwon. Northbound services (departing from Cheonan/Sinchang and terminating at Seoul Station) stop at Yeongdeungpo station, but southbound services are unable to due to the lack of a raised platform. This service was introduced on September 25, 1982.[5]
  • Gyeongwon line express services from Dongducheon (although several trains originate from Soyosan) to Incheon, operating express between Dongducheon and Kwangwoon University and running local between Incheon and Kwangwoon University.

Former express services include:

  • One late night Gyeongin line express service that originated at Soyosan, made all stops to Guro, then made express stops until Incheon.
  • Yeongdeungpo-Byeongjeom Gyeongbu line express service, skipping all stations between Yeongdeungpo and Anyang and then following the Yeongsan-Cheonan/Sinchang express service pattern south of Anyang until Byeongjeom. This service was introduced on August 25, 2014 and was discontinued on December 9, 2016.
  • Two faster Yongsan-Sinchang limited express trains (one in each direction), introduced in 2013. This train only operated on weekends and holidays. It was discontinued on July 1, 2018.

Electric currentEdit

Seoul Subway Line 1 is powered by 1500 V direct current between Cheongnyangni station and Seoul Station, and by 25000 V alternating current elsewhere. Because of this different manner of offering electric current, there are neutral sections between Cheongnyangni station and Hoegi station, as well as between Seoul Station and Namyeong station.

Cheongnyangni-Hoegi DC-AC Deadsection


Main LinesEdit

Local lines:

  • Soyosan, Dongducheon, Uijeongbu or Yangju — Incheon
  • Uijeongbu (3 times only on weekdays), Kwangwoon Univ. or Cheongnyangni — Cheonan, Sinchang, or Seodongtan
  • Yeongdeungpo — Gwangmyeong (shuttle)

Express lines:

  • GW: Gyeongwon Express (Soyosan or Dongducheon - Incheon)
  • GI: Gyeongin Express (Yongsan – Dongincheon)
  • GI LE: Gyeongin Limited Express (Yongsan – Dongincheon)
  • GB A: Gyeongbu Express (Cheongnyangni – Cheonan or Sinchang(Soonchunhyang Univ.))
  • GB B: Gyeongbu Express (Seoul – Cheonan or Sinchang(Soonchunhyang Univ.))

※ Only Korail trains are used for express trains.

Stops at the station
Does not stop at the station
Limited service
Station Name
Station Name
Station Name
GW GI GI LE GB A GB B Transfer Line Name Distance
in km
100 Soyosan 소요산 No service No service No service   Commuter Train (Suspended) Gyeongwon Line --- 0.0 Gyeonggi-do Dongducheon-si
101 Dongducheon 동두천   Commuter Train (Suspended) 2.5 2.5
102 Bosan 보산 1.6 4.1
103 Dongducheon Jungang 동두천중앙 1.4 5.5
104 Jihaeng 지행 1.0 6.5
105 Deokjeong
(Seojeong Univ.)
5.6 12.1 Yangju-si
106 Deokgye 덕계 2.9 15.0
107 Yangju
(Kyungdong Univ.)
5.3 20.3
108 Nogyang 녹양 1.6 21.9 Uijeongbu-si
109 Ganeung
(Eulji Univ. Medical Center)
1.3 23.2
110 Uijeongbu 의정부 1.2 24.4
111 Hoeryong 회룡   1.6 26.0
112 Mangwolsa
(Shinhan Univ. Campus Number 1)
(신한대 제1캠퍼스)
1.4 27.4
113 Dobongsan 도봉산   2.3 29.7 Seoul Dobong-gu
114 Dobong 도봉 1.2 30.9
115 Banghak
(Dobong-gu Office)
1.3 32.2
116 Chang-dong 창동   1.7 33.9
117 Nokcheon 녹천 鹿 1.0 34.9
118 Wolgye
(Induk Univ.)
1.4 36.3 Nowon-gu
119 Kwangwoon Univ. 광운대   1.1 37.4
120 Seokgye 석계 Makes all stops   1.1 38.5
121 Sinimun 신이문 1.4 39.9 Dongdaemun-gu
122 Hankuk Univ. of Foreign Studies 외대앞 0.8 40.7
123 Hoegi 회기     0.8 41.5
124 Cheongnyangni
(University of Seoul)
Makes all stops      
  Mugunghwa-ho, Nuriro, A-Train, DMZ Train & ITX-Cheongchun services
Seoul Metro Line 1 1.4 42.9
125 Jegi-dong
(Korea Association of Health Promotion)
1.0 43.9
126 Sinseol-dong 신설동   (Seongsu Branch)   0.9 44.8
127 Dongmyo 동묘앞   0.7 45.5 Jongno-gu
128 Dongdaemun 동대문   0.6 46.1
129 Jongno 5(o)-ga 종로5가 5 0.8 46.9
130 Jongno 3(sam)-ga 종로3가 3     0.9 47.8
131 Jonggak
(Standard Chartered Bank Korea)
0.8 48.6
132 City Hall 시청   1.0 49.6 Jung-gu
133 Seoul Station 서울역 서울       (Seoul Station branch)
  Mugunghwa-ho, ITX-Saemaeul, S-Train & DMZ Train services
1.1 50.7
134 Namyeong 남영 Gyeongbu Line 1.7 52.4 Yongsan-gu
135 Yongsan 용산  
  Mugunghwa-ho, Saemaeul-ho, ITX-Saemaeul, ITX-Cheongchun & G-Train services
1.5 53.9
136 Noryangjin 노량진   2.6 56.5 Dongjak-gu
137 Daebang 대방   1.5 58.0 Yeongdeungpo-gu
138 Singil 신길   0.8 58.8
139 Yeongdeungpo 영등포   Mugunghwa-ho, Saemaeul-ho & ITX-Saemaeul services
1.0 59.8
140 Sindorim 신도림   1.5 61.3 Guro-gu
141 Guro 구로   1.1 62.4
142 Guil
(Dongyang Mirae Univ.)
No service Gyeongin Line 1.4 63.8
143 Gaebong 개봉 1.0 64.8
144 Oryu-dong 오류동 1.3 66.1
145 Onsu
(Sungkonghoe Univ.)
  1.9 68.0
146 Yeokgok
(The Catholic Univ. of Korea)
1.3 69.3 Gyeonggi-do Bucheon-si
147 Sosa
(Seoul Theological Univ.)
  1.5 70.8
148 Bucheon
(Bucheon Univ.)
1.1 71.9
149 Jung-dong 중동 1.7 73.6
150 Songnae 송내 1.0 74.6
151 Bugae 부개 1.2 75.8 Incheon Bupyeong-gu
152 Bupyeong
(The Catholic Univ. of Korea Incheon St. Mary's Hospital)
(가톨릭대 인천성모병원)
  1.5 77.3
153 Baegun 백운 1.7 79.0
154 Dongam 동암 1.5 80.5
155 Ganseok 간석 1.2 81.7 Michuhol-gu
156 Juan 주안   1.2 82.9
157 Dohwa 도화 1.0 83.9
158 Jemulpo
(Incheon Univ. Jemulpo Campus)
(인천대학교 제물포캠퍼스)
1.0 84.9
159 Dowon 도원 1.4 86.3 Jung-gu
160 Dongincheon 동인천 1.2 87.5
161 Incheon 인천 No service   1.9 89.4
↑ It uses the same track as Line 1 (Gyeongin Line) from Guro Station ↑
141 Guro 구로   Gyeongbu Line 1.1 62.4 Seoul Guro-gu
P142 Gasan Digital Complex
(Mario Outlet)
디지털 No service   2.4 64.8 Geumcheon-gu
P143 Doksan 독산 禿 2.0 66.8
P144 Geumcheon-gu Office 금천구청   1.2 68.0
P145 Seoksu 석수 2.3 70.3 Gyeonggi-do Anyang-si
P146 Gwanak
(Anyang Art Park)
1.9 72.2
P147 Anyang 안양   Mugunghwa-ho (limited service) 2.4 74.6
P148 Myeonghak
(Sungkyul Univ.)
2.2 76.8
P149 Geumjeong 금정   1.4 78.2 Gunpo-si
P150 Gunpo 군포 2.2 80.4
P151 Dangjeong
(Hansei Univ.)
1.2 81.6
P152 Uiwang
(Korea Nat'l Univ. of Transportation)
3.0 84.6 Uiwang-si
P153 Sungkyunkwan Univ. 성균관대 2.9 87.5 Suwon-si
P154 Hwaseo 화서 西 2.6 90.1
P155 Suwon 수원  
  Mugunghwa-ho, Saemaeul-ho, ITX-Saemaeul, G-Train, & S-Train services
2.1 92.2
P156 Seryu 세류 2.9 95.1
P157 Byeongjeom
(Hanshin Univ.)
  4.3 99.4 Hwaseong-si
P158 Sema 세마 2.4 101.8 Osan-si
P159 Osan Univ. 오산대 2.7 104.5
P160 Osan 오산   Mugunghwa-ho (limited service) 2.7 107.2
P161 Jinwi 진위 4.0 111.2 Pyeongtaek-si
P162 Songtan 송탄 3.8 115.0
P163 Seojeongni
(Kookje College)
西   Mugunghwa-ho (limited service) 2.2 117.2
P164 PyeongtaekJije
(Korea Nat'l Univ. of Welfare)
  4.8 122.0
P165 Pyeongtaek 평택   Mugunghwa-ho, Saemaeul-ho (limited service) & ITX-Saemaeul (limited service) 3.7 125.7
P166 Seonghwan
(Namseoul Univ.)
  Mugunghwa-ho (limited service) 9.4 135.1 Chungcheongnam-do Cheonan-si
P167 Jiksan 직산 5.4 140.5
P168 Dujeong 두정 3.8 144.3
P169 Cheonan 천안   Mugunghwa-ho, Saemaeul-ho, ITX-Saemaeul & S-Train services 3.0 147.3
P170 Bongmyeong 봉명 Makes all stops (limited service) Janghang Line 1.3 148.6
P171 Ssangyong(Korea Nazarene Univ.) 쌍용(나사렛대) () 1.6 150.2
P172 Asan
(Sun Moon Univ.)
  Mugunghwa-ho, Saemaeul-ho & G-Train
  (at Cheonan-Asan Station)
1.6 151.8 Asan-si
P173 Tangjeong 탕정 1.8 153.6
P174 Baebang 배방 3.1 156.7
P175 Punggi (2025) 풍기 豊基
P176 Onyangoncheon 온양온천   Mugunghwa-ho, Saemaeul-ho, & G-Train services 4.9 161.6
P177 Sinchang(Soonchunhyang Univ.) 신창(순천향대) () 5.1 166.7

Yeongdeungpo – Gwangmyeong shuttle serviceEdit

Station Name
Station Name
Station Name
Transfer Line Name Distance
in km
Geumcheon-gu Office 금천구청   (Main Lines)
Gwangmyeong 광명  

Byeongjeom Depot spur serviceEdit

Station Name
Station Name
Station Name
Transfer Distance
in km
(Hanshin Univ.)
Seodongtan 서동탄 西

Historical TimelineEdit

Seoul Subway map in the early 1980s, which shows the Korail-managed portions of Line 1 in blue and its underground portion as red.


August 15: Line 1 is officially opened with 9 stations from Seoul to Cheongnyangni (7.8 kilometers (4.8 mi)),[1] creating a system of 28 stations (excluding the 9 metro stations) on national railroads from Seongbuk station (now: Kwangwoon University station, the then-northern terminus) to Incheon Station and Suwon Station. Korail is named Korean National Railroad, with Line 1 just referring to the Seoul–Cheongnyangni section.


December 9: The Gyeongwon Line from Yongsan to Seongbuk opens as a new branch, with Ichon and Seongsu (now part of the Jungang Line).


February 1: Yuljeon Station is opened.


January 5: Sinimun Station is opened.
April 1: Seobinggo, Hannam and Hoegi (now part of the Jungang Line) are opened.
July 10: Seongsu is renamed Eungbong Station


August 2: Seoksu Station is opened.


January 1: Yuljeon Station is renamed Seongdae-ap Station.
May 22: Sindorim Station is opened.
November 20: Baegun Station is opened.


January 14: Seokgye Station is opened.
April 20: Chang-dong is opened as a northward extension.
August 22: Wolgye and Nokcheon are opened.
October 18: Oksu Station (now part of the Jungang Line) is opened.


September 2: 6 stations from Uijeongbu to Chang-dong are opened as a northward extension.


October 5: Uijeongbu Bukbu Station is opened.
December 31: Jung-dong Station is opened.


January 16: Onsu Station is opened.
October 25: The Ansan Line is opened as a southward branch, from Geumjeong Station to Ansan Station.


July 11: Ganseok and Dowon are opened.
December 1: Seongdae-ap Station is renamed to Sungkyunkwan University.


February 16: Guil Station is opened.


January 1: Hwigyeong Station is renamed to Hankuk University of Foreign Studies Station
March 28: Bugae Station is opened.


April 30: Sosa Station is opened.


January 7: Singil and Doksan are opened.


Korea National Railroad and Line 1 are integrated as Seoul (Metropolitan) Subway Line 1.


November 30: Dohwa Station is opened.


April 30: Seryu and Byeongjeom are opened as a southward extension. The Ansan Line service is replaced with an extended Seoul Subway Line 4.


August 25: Bugok Station is renamed Uiwang Station.


January 20: 8 stations from Byeongjeom to Cheonan are opened as another southward extension.
December 16: The Gyeongwon Line branch from Yongsan Station to Hoegi Station and the Jungang Line from Hoegi Station to Deokso Station open and are renamed to the separate Yongsan-Deokso Line. This service was the predecessor to the current Jungang Line.
December 21: Dongmyo Station is opened.
December 27: Sema and Osan College Stations are opened.


June 30: Jinwi and Jije Stations are opened.
July 1: Garibong Station is renamed to Gasan Digital Complex.
December 15: 8 stations from Soyosan to Uijeongbu Bukbu are opened as a northward extension. A spur line to Gwangmyeong Station is created. Uijeongbu Bukbu Station is renamed to Ganeung.


December 28: Deokgye Station is opened.


December: 6 stations from Cheonan to Sinchang(Soonchunhyang Univ.) are opened as another southward extension. Siheung Station is renamed to Geumcheon-gu Office.


January 21: Dangjeong Station is opened.
February 26: Seodongtan Station is opened.


February 3: Gyeongin Line express trains start stopping at Gaebong and Jemulpo stations.


July 6: A new limited express service was launched between Yongsan and Dongincheon stations.


December 30: All Gyeongbu Line express trains start stopping at Geumjeong and Sungkyunkwan University stations and are extended to Cheongnyangni. Gyeongbu Line express trains no longer stop at Gunpo station.


August Tangjeong station will be opened.

Future PlansEdit

Line 1 will be extended northward from Soyosan Station to Yeoncheon Station on the Gyeongwon Line, replacing the current "Commuter Train" service operating there. Construction on this extension began in September 2014 and is expected to be completed in May 2023.

Rolling stockEdit



  • Seoul Metro 1000 series
    • Rheostat-controlled electric car (1st batch) – 1974-2002
  • Korail Class 1000
    • First generation – 1974-2004 (some non-driving cars lasted until 2014)
    • Second generation – 1986-2017 (some non-driving cars lasted until 2019)
    • Third generation – 1994-2020

Depots and facilitiesEdit

(from north to south)

  • Majeon signal box between Deokye and Yangju Stations
  • Chang-dong Depot (shared with Line 4)
  • Seongbuk Depot
  • Imun Depot
  • Guro Depot
  • Siheung Depot (actually after Oido Station on Line 4, also used for heavy maintenance of Line 1 trains owned by Korail, accessed by a crossover located after Geumjeong Station)
  • Byeongjeom Depot

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c 지하철건설현황 [Status of Subway Construction] (in Korean). Seoul City Government. Retrieved 2014-02-22.
  2. ^ "서울교통공사 블로그 : 네이버 블로그". Retrieved 2021-05-31.
  3. ^ "Seoul's first subway line opened in 1974". Korea Times. 2011-02-13. Retrieved 2014-07-25.
  4. ^ (in Korean) <오후여담>좌측통행, Munhwailbo
  5. ^ "20일부터 하루3회 서울驛(역)~水原(수원) 직통電鐵(전철)운행".

External linksEdit