The Beijing Subway is the rapid transit system of Beijing Municipality, and consists of 22 lines including 20 conventional track metro lines, one maglev line and one light rail line. The rail network extends 636.8 km (395.7 mi) (or 628.0 km (390.2 mi) if the Xijiao light rail line were excluded) across 12 urban and suburban districts of Beijing, and has 391 stations.[a] By route length in operation, the Beijing Subway is the second longest subway system in the world after the Shanghai Metro. With 3.8484 billion trips delivered in 2018, an average of 10.544 million trips per day, the Beijing Subway is the world's busiest metro system. Single-day ridership set a record of 13.487 million on July 14, 2018.
|Owner||Beijing Municipal Government|
|Transit type||Rapid transit|
|Number of lines||22|
|Number of stations||391[a]|
|Daily ridership||10.544 million (2018 daily avg.)|
13.487 million (17 August 2018 record)
|Annual ridership||3.8484 billion (2018)|
|Began operation||1 October 1969|
|Operator(s)||Beijing Mass Transit Railway Operation Corp., Ltd.|
Beijing MTR Corp., Ltd.
Beijing Metro Operation Administration (BJMOA) Corp., Ltd.
Beijing Public Transit Tramway Co., Ltd.
Beijing Capital Metro Corp., Ltd.
|Number of vehicles||5656 Revenue Railcars (2018)|
|System length||636.8 km (395.7 mi)|
(628.0 km (390.2 mi) if not counting Xijiao light rail line)
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) (standard gauge)|
The Beijing Subway opened in 1969 and is the oldest metro system in mainland China. Before the system underwent rapid expansion since 2002, the subway had only two lines. The existing network still cannot adequately meet the city's mass transit needs. Beijing Subway's extensive expansion plans call for 998.5 km (620.4 mi) of lines serving a projected 18.5 million trips every day by 2021. The most recent expansion came into effect on December 30, 2018 with the opening of the western extension of Line 6 and the southern section of Line 8. At the start of 2019, there are 252.3 km (156.8 mi) of subway under construction in Beijing.
There will be 6 fully automated lines at the level of GoA4, including the Yanfang line which is in operation, and 5 lines under construction (the New Airport line, Line 3, Line 12, Line 17 and Line 19), using domestically developed communications-based train control systems.
|Distance-based fare schedule|
The Beijing Subway switched from a fixed-fare to a distance-based fare schedule for all lines except the Airport Express on December 28, 2014. Fares start at ¥3 for a trip up to 6 km in distance, with ¥1 added for the next 6 km, for every 10 km thereafter until the trip distance reaches 32 km, and for every 20 km beyond the first 32 km. For example, a 40 km trip would cost ¥7. The Airport Express costs ¥25 per ride. Children below 1.3 metres (51 in) in height ride for free when accompanied by a paying adult. Senior citizens over the age of 65, individuals with physical disabilities, retired revolutionary cadres, police and army veterans who had been wounded in action, military personnel and People's Armed Police can ride the subway for free. Riders can look up fares by checking fare schedules posted in stations, calling the subway hotline 96165, going to the Beijing Subway website, or using the subway's smartphone app.
|Discounts for Yikatong card users|
after credit rebate
Passengers must insert the ticket or scan the card at the gate both before entering and exiting the station. The subway's fare collection gates accept single-ride tickets and the Yikatong fare card. Passengers can purchase tickets and add credit to Yikatong card at ticket counters or vending machines in every station. The Yikatong, also known as Beijing Municipal Administration & Communication Card (BMAC), is an integrated circuit card that stores credit for the subway, urban and suburban buses and e-money for other purchases. The Yikatong card itself must be purchased at the ticket counter. To enter a station, the Yikatong card must have a minimum balance of ¥3.00.
To prevent fraud, passengers are required to complete their journeys within four hours upon entering the subway. If the four-hour limit is exceeded, a surcharge of ¥3 is imposed. Each Yikatong card is allowed to be overdrawn once. The overdrawn amount is deducted when credits are added to the card.
Yikatong card users who spend more than ¥100 on subway fare in a calendar month will receive credits to their card the following month. After reaching ¥100 of spending in one calendar month, 20% of any further spending up to ¥150 will be credited. When spending exceeds ¥150, 50% of any further spending up to ¥250 will be credited. Once expenditures exceed ¥400, further spending will not earn any more credits. The credits are designed to ease commuters' burdens of fare increases.
Previous fare schedulesEdit
Prior to the December 28, 2014 fare increase, passengers paid a flat rate of RMB(¥) 2.00 (including unlimited fare-free transfers) for all lines except the Airport Express, which cost ¥25. The flat fare was the lowest among metro systems in China. Before the flat fare schedule was introduced on October 7, 2007, fares ranged from ¥3 to ¥7, depending on the line and number of transfers.
Lines in operationEdit
Beijing Subway lines generally follow the checkerboard layout of the city. Most lines through the urban core (outlined by the Line 10 loop) run parallel or perpendicular to each other and intersect at right angles. As of December 31, 2018, Lines 8 and 14 operated in two separate sections.
- Line 1, a straight east-west line underneath Chang'an Avenue, which bisects the city through Tiananmen Square. Line 1 connects major commercial centres, Xidan, Wangfujing, Dongdan and the Beijing CBD.
- Line 2, the inner rectangular loop line traces the Ming-era inner city wall that once surrounded the inner city, and stops at 11 of the wall's former gates (ending in men), now busy intersections, as well as the Beijing Railway Station.[d]
- Line 4, a mainly north-south line running through the west of city centre with stops at the Summer Palace, Old Summer Palace, Peking and Renmin Universities, Zhongguancun, National Library, Beijing Zoo, Xidan and Beijing South Railway Station.
- Line 5, a straight north-south line running through the east of the city centre. It passes the Temple of Earth, Yonghe Temple and the Temple of Heaven.
- Line 6, a nearly straight east-west line running parallel and to the north of Line 1. It passes through the city centre north of Beihai Park.
- Line 7, an east-west line running parallel and to the south of Line 1 and Batong line, from Beijing West railway station to Jiaohuachang.
- Line 8, a north-south line following the city’s central axis in two sections: from Changping District through Huilongguan and the Olympic Green to Shichahai and Nanluoguxiang inside the Second Ring Road, and from Zhushikou, due south of Qianmen, through Yongdingmen to Daxing District.
- Line 9, a north-south line running west of Line 4 from the National Library through the Military Museum and Beijing West Railway Station to Guogongzhuang in the southwestern suburbs.
- Line 10, the outer loop line runs underneath or just beyond the Third Ring Road. Apart from the Line 2 loop, which is entirely enclosed within the Line 10 loop, every other line through the urban core intersects with Line 10. In the north, Line 10 traces Beijing's Yuan-era city wall.
- Line 13 arcs across suburbs north of the city and transports commuters to Xizhimen and Dongzhimen, at the northwest and northeast corners of Line 2.
- Line 14, operates in two sections: an east-west line from Zhangguozhuang to Xiju on Line 10, in the southwestern suburbs and an inverted L-shaped line from the Beijing South Railway Station east to Beijing University of Technology in the southeast before turning north through the Beijing CBD, Chaoyang Park, Jiuxianqiao, and Wangjing to Shangezhuang in Chaoyang District.
- Line 15 an east-west line which runs from the east of Tsinghua University, through the Olympic Green and Wangjing, turning northeast to suburban Shunyi District.
- Line 16 branches off Line 4 into northwest Haidian District.
- Batong line extends Line 1 eastward from Sihui to suburban Tongzhou District.
- Changping line branches off Line 13 at Xi'erqi and runs north through suburban Changping District. The line passes the Life Science Park, Shahe University Park, and the Thirteen Ming tombs.
- Daxing line extends Line 4 south to suburban Daxing District.
- Fangshan line extends Line 9 south from Guogongzhuang to Fangshan District in the southwestern suburbs.
- Yanfang line extends the Fangshan Line further into western Fangshan District.
- Yizhuang line extends from Line 5's southern terminus to the Yizhuang Economic & Technological Development Zone in the southeastern suburbs.
- Airport Express connects the Beijing Capital International Airport, 27 km (17 mi) northeast of the city, with Line 10 at Sanyuanqiao and Lines 2 and 13 at Dongzhimen.
- S1 line, a low-speed maglev line connecting suburban Mentougou District with Lines 6 in Shijingshan District.
- Xijiao line, a light rail line that branches off Line 10 at Bagou and extends west to Fragrant Hills.
The Beijing Subway is owned by the city of Beijing and has five operators. The main operator is the wholly state-owned Beijing Mass Transit Railway Operation Corp., which operates 15 lines: Lines 1, 2, 5-10, 13, 15, Batong line, Changping line, Fangshan line, Yizhuang line and S1 line. The second operator is the Beijing MTR Corp., a public–private joint venture with the Hong Kong MTR and Beijing Capital Group, a state owned enterprise under the Beijing Municipality, which operates four lines: Lines 4, 14, 16 and Daxing line. The Beijing Metro Operation Administration (BJMOA) operates the Yanfang line and will operate the New Airport line which is under construction. The Beijing Public Transit Tramway operates the Xijiao line. The Beijing Capital Metro operates the Airport Express.
The Beijing Subway is rapidly expanding and according to the master plan will reach 998.5 km (620.4 mi) of lines by the end of 2021. By then, public transit will comprise 60% of all trips. Of those, the subway will comprise 62%.
At the start of 2019, there were 252.3 km (156.8 mi) of routes under construction. The new lines will significantly expand the subway's coverage, especially south and west of the city. Line 14's two sections will be connected into an inverted L-shaped line that pivots in the southeast. Fangshan line will be extended to the Third Ring Road and be connected with Lines 10 and 16.
|Line||Phase & Section||Terminals
|2019||Phase I||Caoqiao||Daxing Airport||Connecting to Beijing Daxing International Airport||41.4||3||Under Construction|||
|East extension||Jiaohuachang||Universal Resort||16.6||9|||
|infill station||Qinghe Railway Station||infill station on Line 13, to serve the Qinghe railway station (will be reopened in Dec. 2019)||0||1|||
|connects Fangshan Line to Line 10 and Line 16||2016||5.3||4|||
|Phase I North section||Jishuitan||Xingong||North South express line||2015||8|||
|Middle section (Lize section)||Beijing South Railway Station
|Completes Line 14||4.0[a]||5|||
|Jin'anqiao - Pingguoyuan section||Jin'anqiao||Pingguoyuan||1.2||1|||
|Extension to Line 5||2015||1.9||1|||
|2021||Phase III North Section||National Art Museum
|Completes Line 8||2013||4.7||3|||
|Sijiqing||Guanzhuangluxikou||Following the North Third Ring Road||29.6||21|||
|South section||Shilihe||Yizhuang Zhanqianqu South||North South express line||6|||
|Phase I South section||Mudanyuan||Jishuitan||North South express line||2015||2|||
|Branch Line||Zhoukoudian Town
|A branch off the main line that runs to Zhoukoudian||2017||6.1||3|||
|2022||Phase I||Dongsi Shitiao||Caogezhuang North||2017||21.9||15|||
|North & Middle section||Future Science Park North||Shilihe||North South express line||14|||
|North extension||Lize Business District||Caoqiao||3.5||1||Planned|||
|West section (Winter Olympic Branch Line)||Jindingjie||Shougang||3.6||4|||
|Runs through the Central Business District||8.77||9|||
|Line 13 split project||Chegongzhuang||Dazhongsi||16.76||13|||
- 4.0 km is the length from Xiju to Jingfengmen. The length from Jingfengmen to Beijing South Railway Station already counted in the operational length in 2015.
In 2014, Beijing planning authorities assessed mass transit monorail lines for areas of the city in which subway construction or operation is difficult. Straddle beam monorail trains have lower transport capacity and operating speed (60 km/h or 37 mph) than conventional subways, but are quieter to operate, have smaller turning radius and better climbing capability, and cost only one-third to one-half of subways to build. According to the initial environmental assessment report by the Chinese Academy of Rail Sciences, a Yuquanlu Line was planned to have 21 stations over 25 km (16 mi) in western Beijing. The line was to begin construction in 2014 and would take two years to complete. A Dongsihuan Line (named for the Eastern Fourth Ring Road it was to follow) was planned to have 21 stations over 36 km (22 mi). In early 2015, plans for both monorail lines were shelved indefinitely, due to low capacity and resident opposition. Yuquanlu Line remain on the city's future transportation plan, and will be built as conventional below-ground subway line.
Line 28 (CBD line)Edit
According to the most recent plan announced in November 2018, the line is upgraded to a subway line, not an automatic people mover (APM). The line will run 8.77 km (5.45 mi), have 9 stations from Dongdaqiao to Guangqudonglu.
- The most common rolling stock of the Beijing Subway is the Type-B car, which has a carrying capacity of 245 passengers per car and top speed of 80 km/h (50 mph), drawing 750V direct current (DC) power from the third rail. Most lines operate the six-car Type-B train set that can carry 1,460 passengers per train and transport 43,800 passengers per hour. Lines 6 and 7 use eight-car Type-B train sets that can carry 1,960 passengers per train and 58,800 passengers per hour. The Type-B trains sets of Lines 6 and 7 can draw 1,500V DC power and can reach 100 km/h (62 mph). The Yanfang Line operates four-car Type-B train sets with ”driverless” automatic train operation.
- Type-A cars, which run on Lines 14 and 16, are 3.1 meters longer, and 20 cm wider than Type-B cars with a designed capacity of 310 passengers per car and 10 sets of doors per train compared to 8 sets of doors per train on Type-B cars. Type A cars draw 1,500V DC power from overhead wire and can reach 100 km/h (62 mph). Line 14 uses six-car Type A train sets which can carry 1,860 passengers per train and 55,800 passengers per hour. Line 16 uses eight-car Type-A train sets which can carry 2,480 passengers per train and 74,400 passengers per hour.
- The Airport Express has its distinct 4-car linear motor train sets, powered by 750V DC electricity via the third rail, and can reach a maximum speed of 110 km/h (68 mph).
- The S1 Line's maglev trains feature six-car train sets that run on 1,500V DC power and can reach 100 km/h (62 mph). Compared to subway trains that run on conventional track, the maglev train has a smaller minimum turning radius of 75 meters compared to 200 meters, can climb steeper slope of 53‰ versus 40‰ and emits less noise. The six-car train set can carry 1,032 passengers.
- The Xijiao light rail transit (LRT) line operates five-car trams that draw 750V alternating current (AC) from overhead lines and can reach 70 km/h (43 mph).
- The New Airport line is reported to have Type-D cars with top operational speed of 160 km/h (99 mph). The eight-car train sets will have seven passenger cars and one car to carry luggage.
Until 2003 nearly all trains were manufactured by the Changchun Railway Vehicles Company Ltd., now a subsidiary of the China CNR Corporation. The newest Line 1 trains and those on Lines 4, 8, Batong, Changping and Daxing are made by Qingdao Sifang Locomotive & Rolling Stock Co., a subsidiary of China South Locomotive and Rolling Stock Industry Corp.. Line S1’s maglev trains were produced by CRRC Tangshan.
The subway was proposed in September 1953 by the city's planning committee and experts from the Soviet Union. After the end of the Korean War, Chinese leaders turned their attention to domestic reconstruction. They were keen to expand Beijing's mass transit capacity but also valued the subway as an asset for civil defense. They studied the use of the Moscow Metro to protect civilians, move troops and headquarter military command posts during the Battle of Moscow, and planned the Beijing Subway for both civilian and military use.
The Chinese lacked expertise in building subways and drew heavily on Soviet and East German technical assistance. In 1954, a delegation of Soviet engineers, including some who had built the Moscow Metro, was invited to plan the subway in Beijing. From 1953 to 1960, several thousand Chinese students were sent to the Soviet Union to study subway construction. An early plan unveiled in 1957 called for one ring route and six other lines with 114 stations and 172 km (107 mi) of track. Two routes vied for the first to be built. One ran east-west from Wukesong to Hongmiao, underneath Changan Avenue. The other ran north-south from the Summer Palace to Zhongshan Park, via Xizhimen and Xisi. The former was chosen due to more favorable geological foundation and greater number of government bureaus served. The second route would not be built until construction on Line 4 began forty years later.
The deterioration of relations between China and Soviet Union disrupted subway planning. Soviet experts began to leave in 1960, and were completely withdrawn by 1963. In 1961, the entire project was halted temporarily due to severe hardships caused by the Great Leap Forward. Eventually, planning work resumed. The route of the initial line was shifted westward to create an underground conduit to move personnel from the heart of the capital to the Western Hills. On February 4, 1965, Chairman Mao Zedong personally approved the project.
1965–1981: the slow beginningEdit
Construction began on July 1, 1965, at a ceremony attended by national leaders including Zhu De, Deng Xiaoping, and mayor Peng Zhen. The most controversial outcome of the initial subway line was the demolition of the Beijing's historic inner city wall to make way for the subway. Construction plans for the subway from Fuxingmen to the Beijing Railway Station called for the removal of the wall, as well as the gates and archery towers at Hepingmen, Qianmen, and Chongwenmen. Leading architect Liang Sicheng argued for protecting the wall as a landmark of the ancient capital. Chairman Mao favored demolishing the wall over demolishing homes. In the end, Premier Zhou Enlai managed to preserve several walls and gates, such as the Qianmen gate and its arrow tower by slightly altering the course of the subway.
The initial line was completed and began trial operations in time to mark the 20th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic on October 1, 1969. It ran 21 km (13 mi) from the army barracks at Fushouling to the Beijing Railway Station and had 16 stations. This line forms parts of present-day Lines 1 and 2. It was the first subway to be built in China, and predates the metros of Hong Kong, Seoul, Singapore, San Francisco, and Washington, D.C., but technical problems would plague the project for the next decade.
Initially, the subway hosted guest visits. On November 11, 1969, an electrical fire killed three people, injured over 100 and destroyed two cars. Premier Zhou Enlai placed the subway under the control of the People's Liberation Army in early 1970, but reliability problems persisted.
On January 15, 1971, the initial line began operation on a trial basis between the Beijing railway station and Gongzhufen. Single ride fare was set at ¥0.10 and only members of the public with credential letters from their work units could purchase tickets. The line was 10.7 km (6.6 mi) in length, had 10 stations and operated more than 60 train trips per day with a minimum wait time of 14 minutes. On August 15, the initial line was extended to Yuquanlu and had 13 stations over 15.6 km (9.7 mi). On November 7, the line was extended again, to Gucheng Lu, and had 16 stations over 22.87 km (14.21 mi). The number of trains per day rose to 100. Overall, the line delivered 8.28 million rides in 1971, averaging 28,000 riders per day.
From 1971 to 1975, the subway was shut down for 398 days for political reasons.[e] On December 27, 1972, the riders no longer needed to present credential letters to purchase tickets. In 1972, the subway delivered 15 million rides and averaged 41,000 riders per day. In 1973, the line was extended to Pingguoyuan and reached 23.6 km (14.7 mi) in length with 17 stations and 132 train trips per day. The line delivered 11 million rides in 1973, averaging 54,000 riders per day.
Despite its return to civilian control in 1976, the subway remained prone to closures due to fires, flooding, and accidents. Annual ridership grew from 22.2 million in 1976 and 28.4 million in 1977 to 30.9 million in 1978, and 55.2 million in 1980.
1981–2000: two lines for two decadesEdit
On April 20, 1981, the Beijing Subway Company, then a subsidiary of the Beijing Public Transportation Company, was organized to take over subway operations. On September 15, 1981, the initial line passed its final inspections, and was handed over to the Beijing Subway Company, ending a decade of trial operations. It had 19 stations and ran 27.6 kilometres (17.1 miles) from Fushouling in the Western Hills to the Beijing railway station. Investment in the project totaled ¥706 million. Annual ridership rose from 64.7 million in 1981 and 72.5 million in 1982 to 82 million in 1983.
On September 20, 1984, a second line was opened to the public. This horseshoe-shaped line was created from the eastern half of the initial line and corresponds to the southern half of the present-day Line 2. It ran 16.1 km (10.0 mi) from Fuxingmen to Jianguomen with 16 stations. Ridership reached 105 million in 1985.
On December 28, 1987, the two existing lines were reconfigured into Lines 1, which ran from Pingguoyuan to Fuxingmen and Line 2, in its current loop, tracing the Ming city wall. Fares doubled to ¥0.20 for single-line rides and ¥0.30 for rides with transfers. Ridership reached 307 million in 1988. The subway was closed from June 3–4, 1989 during the suppression of the Tiananmen Square demonstrations. In 1990, the subway carried more than one million riders per day for the first time, as total ridership reached 381 million. After a fare hike to ¥0.50 in 1991, annual ridership declined slightly to 371 million.
On January 26, 1991, planning began on the eastward extension of Line 1 under Chang'an Avenue from Fuxingmen. The project was funded by a 19.2 billion yen low-interest development assistance loan from Japan. Construction began on the eastern extension on June 24, 1992, and the Xidan station opened on December 12, 1992. The remaining extension to Sihui East was completed on September 28, 1999. National leaders Wen Jiabao, Jia Qinglin, Yu Zhengsheng and mayor Liu Qi were on hand to mark the occasion. The full-length of Line 1 became operational on June 28, 2000.
Despite little track expansion in the early 1990s, ridership grew rapidly to reach a record high of 558 million in 1995, but fell to 444 million the next year when fares rose from ¥0.50 to ¥2.00. After fares rose again to ¥3.00 in 2000, annual ridership fell to 434 million from 481 million in 1999.
2001–2008: planning for the OlympicsEdit
In the summer of 2001, the city won the bid to host the 2008 Summer Olympics and accelerated plans to expand the subway. From 2002 to 2008, the city planned to invest ¥63.8 billion (US$7.69 billion) in subway projects and build an ambitious "three ring, four horizontal, five vertical and seven radial" subway network. Work on Line 5 had already begun on September 25, 2000. Land clearing for Lines 4 and 10 began in November 2003 and construction commenced by the end of the year. Most new subway construction projects were funded by loans from the Big Four state banks. Line 4 was funded by the Beijing MTR Corporation, a joint-venture with the Hong Kong MTR. To achieve plans for 19 lines and 561 km (349 mi) by 2015, the city planned to invest a total of ¥200 billion ($29.2 billion).
The next additions to the subway were surface commuter lines that linked to the north and east of the city. Line 13, a half loop that links the northern suburbs, first opened on the western half from Huilongguan to Xizhimen on September 28, 2002 and the entire line became operational on January 28, 2003. Batong line, built as an extension to Line 1 to Tongzhou District, was opened as a separate line on December 27, 2003. Work on these two lines had begun respectively in December 1999 and 2000. Ridership hit 607 million in 2004.
Line 5 came into operation on October 7, 2007. It was the city's first north-south line, extending from Songjiazhuang in the south to Tiantongyuan in the north. On the same day, subway fares were reduced from between ¥3 and ¥7 per trip, depending on the line and number of transfers, to a single flat fare of ¥2 with unlimited transfers. The lower fare policy caused the Beijing Subway to run a deficit of ¥600 million in 2007, which was expected to widen to ¥1 billion in 2008. The Beijing municipal government covered these deficits to encourage mass transit use, and reduce traffic congestion and air pollution. On a total of 655 million rides delivered in 2007, the government's subsidy averaged ¥0.92 per ride.
In the summer of 2008, in anticipation of the Summer Olympic Games, three new lines—Line 10, the Olympic Branch Line and the Airport Express—opened on July 19 for trial operation. The use of paper tickets, hand checked by clerks for 38 years, was discontinued and replaced by electronic tickets that are scanned by automatic fare collection machines upon entry and exit of the subway. Stations are outfitted with touch screen vending machines that sell single-ride tickets and multiple-ride Yikatong fare cards. The subway set a daily ridership record of 4.92 million on August 22, 2008, the day of the Games' closing ceremony In 2008, total ridership rose by 75% to 1.2 billion.
2008–present: rapid expansionEdit
After the Chinese government announced a ¥4 trillion economic stimulus package in November 2008, the Beijing urban planning commission further expedited subway building plans, especially for elevated lines to suburban districts that are cheaper to build. In December 2008, the commission moved completion dates of the Yizhuang and Daxing Lines to 2010 from 2012, finalized the route of the Fangshan Line, and unveiled the Changping and Xijiao Lines.
Line 4 started operation on September 28, 2009, bringing subway service to much of western Beijing. It is managed by the MTR Corporation through a joint venture with the city. In 2009, the subway delivered 1.457 billion rides, 19.24% of mass transit trips in Beijing.
In 2010, Beijing's worsening traffic congestion prompted city planners to move the construction of several lines from the 13th Five Year Plan to the 12th Five Year Plan. This meant Lines 8 (Phase III), 3, 12, 16, the Yanfang Line, as well as additional lines to suburban districts of Changping, Tiantongyuan, and Haidian were to begin construction before 2015. Previously, Lines 3, 11, 12 and 16 were being planned for the more distant future. On December 30, 2010, five suburban lines: Lines 15 (Phase I from Wangjing West to Houshayu except Wangjing East station), Changping, Fangshan (except Guogongzhuang station), Yizhuang (except Yizhuang railway station), and Daxing, commenced operation. The addition of 108 km (67 mi) of track, a nearly 50% increase, made the subway the fourth longest metro in the world. One year later, on December 31, 2011, the subway surpassed the New York City Subway to become the third longest metro in revenue track length with the extension of Line 8 north from the Olympic Green to Huilongguan, the opening of Line 9 in southwest Beijing from Beijing West railway station to Guogongzhuang (except Fengtai Dongdajie station, which opened on October 12, 2012), the extension of the Fangshan Line to Guogongzhuang, and the extension of Line 15 from Houshayu to Fengbo in central Shunyi. In the same year, the Beijing government unveiled an ambitious expansion plan envisioning the subway network to reach a track density of 0.51 km per km2 (0.82 mi per sq. mi.) inside the Fifth Ring Road where residents would on average have to walk 1 km (0.62 mi) to the nearest subway station. Ridership reached 2.18 billion in 2011.
In February 2012, the city government confirmed that Lines 3, 12, 17 (also known as R2), 19 (also known as R3) were under planning as part of Phase II expansion. Retroactively implying that the original three ring, four horizontal, five vertical and seven radial plan was part of Phase I expansion. Line 17 was planned to run north-south, parallel and to the east of Line 5, from Future Science Park North to Yizhuang Zhanqianqu South. Line 19 was planned to run north-south, from Mudanyuan to Xingong.
On December 30, 2012, Line 6 (Phase I from Haidian Wuluju to Caofang), the extension of Line 8 from Beitucheng south to Guloudajie (except Andelibeijie), the remainder of Line 9 (except Military Museum station) and the remainder of the Line 10 loop (except the Xiju-Shoujingmao section and Jiaomen East station) entered service. The addition of 69.8 km (43 mi) of track increased the network length to 442 km (275 mi) and allowed the subway to overtake the Shanghai Metro, for several months, as the world’s longest metro. The subway delivered 2.46 billion rides in 2012.
On May 5, 2013, the Line 10 loop was completed with the opening of the Xiju-Shoujingmao section and the Jiaomen East Station. The 57 km (35 mi) loop line became the longest underground subway loop in the world. On the same day, the first section of Line 14 from Zhangguozhuang to Xiju also entered operation, ahead of the opening of the Ninth China International Garden Expo in Fengtai District. The subway's total length reached 456 km (283 mi). On December 28, 2013, two sections were added to Line 8, which extended the line north to Zhuxinzhuang and south to Nanluoguxiang. In 2013, the subway delivered 3.209 billion rides, an increase of 30% from the year before.
On December 28, 2014, the subway network expanded by 62.2 km (38.6 mi) to 18 lines and 527 km (327 mi) with the opening of Line 7, the eastern extension of line 6 (from Caofang to Lucheng), the eastern section of line 14 (from Jintailu to Shangezhuang), and the western extension of line 15 (from Wangjing West to Qinghuadongluxikou). At the same time, the ¥2 flat-rate fare was replaced with a variable-rate fare (a minimum of ¥3), to cover operation costs. In 2014, the subway delivered 3.387 billion rides, an increase of 5.68% from the year before. Average daily and weekday ridership also set new highs of 9.2786 million and 10.0876 million, respectively.
From 2007 to 2014, the cost of subway construction in Beijing rose sharply from ¥0.571 billion per km to ¥1.007 billion per km. The cost includes land acquisition, compensation to relocate residents and firms, actual construction costs and equipment purchase. In 2014, city budgeted ¥15.5 billion for subway construction, and the remainder of subway building costs was financed by the Beijing Infrastructure Investment Co. LTD, a city-owned investment firm.
On December 26, 2015, the subway network expanded to 554 km (344 mi) with the opening of the section of Line 14 from Beijing South railway station to Jintailu (11 stations; 16.6 km (10.3 mi)), Phase II of the Changping line from Nanshao to Changping Xishankou (5 stations; 10.6 km or 6.6 mi), Andelibeijie station on Line 8, and Datunlu East station on Line 15. Ridership in 2015 fell by 4% to 3.25 billion due to a fare increase from a flat fare back to a distance based fare.
With the near completion of the three ring, four horizontal, five vertical and seven radial subway network, work began on Phase II expansion projects. These new extensions and lines will be operational in 2019~2021. On December 9, 2016, construction started on 126 km (78 mi) of new line with the southern extension of Batong Line, the southern extension of Changping line, the Pinggu line, phase one of the New Airport line, and Line 3 Phase I breaking ground. The northern section of Line 16 opened on December 31, 2016. Ridership reached a new high of 3.66 billion. On December 30, 2017, a one-station extension of Fangshan Line (Suzhuang - Yancun East), Yanfang line, Xijiao line and S1 line (Shichang - Jin'anqiao) opened. On December 30, 2018, the western extension on Line 6 (Jin'anqiao - Haidian Wuluju), the South section on Line 8 (Zhushikou - Yinghai), a one-station extension on Line 8 North section (Nanluoguxiang - National Art Museum), a one-station extension on Yizhuang line (Ciqu - Yizhuang Railway Station) was opened.
|Source: 北京地铁大事记回顾 1965-2006 • 北京市2010年暨"十一五"期间国民经济和社会发展统计公报 • 北京市2011年国民经济和社会发展统计公报 • 北京市2012年国民经济和社会发展统计公报 • 北京市2013年国民经济和社会发展统计公报 •  • 北京市2015年暨“十二五”时期国民经济和社会发展统计公报 •  •  • |
With new lines drawing more riders to the network, the subway has experienced severe overcrowding, especially during the rush hour. As of 2015, significant sections of Lines 1, 4 - Daxing, 5, 10, 13, Batong and Changping are officially over capacity during rush hour. In short term response, the subway upgraded electrical, signal and yard equipment to increase the frequency of trains to add additional capacity. Peak headways has been reduced to 1 min. 43 sec. on Line 4; 2 min. on Lines 1, 2, 5 and 10; 2 min. 27 sec. on Line 6; 2 min. 40 sec. on Line 13; 3 min. on Batong; 3 min. 30 sec. on Line 8; and 15 min. on the Airport Express.
Lines 13 and Batong have converted 4-car to 6-car trains. Lines 6 and 7 have longer platforms that can accommodate 8-car type B trains, while lines 14 and 16 uses higher capacity wide-body type A trains. New lines that cross the city center such as Lines 3, 12, 17 and 19, now under construction, will adopt high capacity 8-car type A trains with a 70 percent increase in capacity over older lines using 6 car type B. When completed these lines are expected to greatly relieve overcrowding in the existing network.
Despite these efforts, during the morning rush hour, conductors at line terminals and other busy stations must routinely restrict the number of passengers who can board each train to prevent the train from becoming too crowded for passengers waiting at other stations down the line. Some of these stations have built queuing lines outside the stations to manage the flow of waiting passengers. As of August 31, 2011, 25 stations mainly on Lines 1, 5, 13, and Batong have imposed such restrictions. By January 7, 2013, 41 stations on Lines 1, 2, 5, 13, Batong, and Changping had instituted passenger flow restrictions during the morning rush hour. The number of stations with passenger flow restrictions reached 110 in January 2019, affecting all lines except Lines 15, 16, Fangshan, Yanfang and S1.
Interchange stations that permit transfers across two or more subway lines receive heavy traffic passenger flow. The older interchange stations are known for lengthy transfer corridors and slow transfers during peak hours. The average transfer distance at older interchange stations is 128 m (420 ft) The transfer between Lines 2 and 13 at Xizhimen was over 200 m (660 ft) long and required 15 minutes to complete during rush hours. In 2011, this station was rebuilt to reduce the transfer distance. There are plans to rebuild other interchange stations such as Dongzhimen.
In newer interchange stations, which are designed to permit more efficient transfers, the average transfer distance is 63 m (207 ft). Many of the newer interchange stations including Guogongzhuang (Lines 9 and Fangshan), Nanluoguxiang (Lines 8 and 6), Zhuxinzhuang (Changping and Line 8), Beijing West Railway Station (Lines 9 and 7), National Library (Lines 9 and 4), Yancun East (Fangshan Line and Yanfang Line) feature cross platform transfers. Nevertheless, longer transfer corridors must still be used when the alignment of the lines do not permit cross-platform transfer. The transfer corridors between Lines 1 and 9 at the Military Museum, which opened on December 23, 2013, are 160 m (520 ft) in one direction and just under 300 m (980 ft) in the other.
Cellular network coverageEdit
Each station is equipped with ramps, lifts, or elevators to facilitate wheelchair access. Newer model train cars now provide space to accommodate wheelchairs. Automated audio announcements for incoming trains are available in all lines except for Line 1. On all lines, station names are announced in Mandarin Chinese and English. Under subway regulations, riders with mobility limitations may obtain assistance from subway staff to enter and exit stations and trains, and visually impaired riders may bring assistance devices and guide dogs into the subway.
Information hotline and appEdit
The Beijing Subway telephone hotline was initiated on the eve of the 2008 Summer Olympic Games to provide traveler information, receive complaints and suggestions, and file lost and found reports. The hotline combined the nine public service telephones of various subway departments. On December 29, 2013, the hotline number was switched from (010)-6834-5678 to (010)-96165 for abbreviated dialing. In December 2014, the hotline began offering fare information, as the subway switched to distance-based fare. The hotline has staffed service from 5 am to midnight and has automated service during unstaffed hours.
The Beijing Subway has an official mobile application and a number of third-party apps.
Automatic fare collectionEdit
To ensure public safety during the 2008 Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games, the subway initiated a three-month heightened security program from June 29 to September 20, 2008. Riders were subject to searches of their persons and belongings at all stations by security inspectors using metal detectors, X-Ray machines and sniffer dogs. Items banned from public transportation such as "guns, ammunition, knives, explosives, flammable and radioactive materials, and toxic chemicals" were subject to confiscation. The security program was reinstituted during the 2009 New Year Holiday and has since been made permanent through regulations enacted in February 2009.
After witnessing several serious subway accidents in South Korea (e.g. Daegu subway fire in February 2003), the subway removed all shops and vendors from the inside of stations and installed self-illuminating exit signs to facilitate emergency evacuation. The popular underground mall at Xidan station was closed.
Accidents and incidentsEdit
The subway was plagued by numerous accidents in its early years, including a fire in 1969 that killed six people and injured over 200. But its operations have improved dramatically and there have been few reported accidents in recent years. Most of the reported fatalities on the subway are the result of suicides. Authorities have responded by installing doors on platforms of newer lines.
There have been several reported fatal incidents at subway construction sites in recent years. On October 8, 2003, the collapse of steel beams at the construction site of Line 5's Chongwenmen station killed three workers and injured one. On March 29, 2007, the construction site at the Suzhoujie station on Line 10 collapsed, burying six workers. On June 6, 2008, prior to the opening of Line 10, a worker was crushed to death inside an escalator in Zhichunlu station when an intern turned on the moving staircase. On July 14, 2010, two workers were killed and eight were injured at the construction site of Line 15's Shunyi station when the steel support structure collapsed on them. On September 17, 2010, Line 9 tunnels under construction beneath Yuyuantan Lake were flooded, killing one worker. A city official who oversaw waterworks contracts at the site was convicted of corruption and given a death sentence with reprieve. On June 1, 2011, one worker was killed when a section of Line 6 under construction in Xicheng District near Ping'anli collapsed. A collapse of an escalator at the Beijing Zoo Station on July 5, 2011, caused the death of one 13-year-old boy and injuries to 28 others.
On May 4, 2013, a train derailed when it overran a section of track on Line 4. The section was not open to the public and was undergoing testing. There were no injuries.
On November 6, 2014, a woman was killed when she tried to board the train at Huixinxijie Nankou station on Beijing Subway's Line 5. She became trapped between the train door and the platform edge door and was crushed to death by the departing train. The accident happened on the second day of APEC China 2014 meetings in the city during which the municipal government has banned cars from the roads on alternate days to ease congestion and reduce pollution during the summit – measures which the capital’s transport authorities have estimated would lead to an extra one million passengers on the subway every day.
The subway's logo, a capital letter "G" encircling a capital letter "D" with the letter "B" silhouetted inside the letter D, was designed by Zhang Lide, a subway employee, and officially designated in April 1984. The letters B, G, and D form the pinyin abbreviation for "北京高速电车" (pinyin: Běijīng gāosù diànchē; literally: 'Beijing high-speed electric carriage').
Subway Culture ParkEdit
The Beijing Subway Culture Park, located near Xihongmen in Daxing District, opened in 2010 to commemorate the 40-year history of the Beijing Subway. The 19 ha (47 acres) park was built using dirt and debris removed from the construction of the Daxing Line and contains old rolling stock, sculpture, and informational displays. Admission to the park is free.
Beijing Suburban RailwayEdit
The Beijing Suburban Railway, a suburban commuter train service, is managed separately from the Beijing Subway. The two systems, although complementary, are not related to each other operationally. Beijing Suburban Railway is run as part of the Beijing Railway Bureau.
- a. ^ Transfer stations are counted more than once. There are 59 transfer stations (3 of them are 3-Line transfer stations, 56 of them are 2-Line transfer stations). If transfer stations are counted only once, the result will be 329 stations. The following stations haven't been opened and not included in the station count: Pingguoyuan, Erligou and Tongyunmen on Line 6; Shuangjing on Line 7; Dahongmen on Line 8 (South section); Taoranqiao and Gaojiayuan on Line 14 (East section).
- b. ^ With the opening of the Daxing Line on December 30, 2010 the Beijing MTR Corporation operates service on Lines 4 and Daxing as follows:
- A loop that covers both lines, from Anheqiao North, the northern terminus of Line 4, to Tiangongyuan, the southern terminus of the Daxing Line.
- A loop that covers Line 4 plus one stop on the Daxing Line, from Anheqiao North to Xingong, the northernmost stop on the Daxing Line. Travelers wishing to proceed further south on the Daxing Line have to switch to a south-bound full-route train.
- c. ^ The subway operated throughout the night from Aug. 8-9, 2008 to accommodate the Opening Ceremonies of the Olympic Games, and is extending evening operations of all lines by one to three hours (to 1-2 a.m.) through the duration of the Games.
- d. ^ There is no subway stop at the 12th gate, Deshengmen, between Jishuitan station and Guloudajie station.
- e. ^ From August 12, 1973 to June 30, 1974 and in January 1975, the subway was closed due to defense mobilization. It was closed from September 13 to November 6, 1971 in the aftermath of the Lin Biao incident and on September 18, 1976 after the death of Chairman Mao.
- f. ^ Currently, Line 14 has two sections in operation—from Zhangguozhuang to Xiju in the west and Beijing South Railway Station to Shangezhuang in the east. The two sections operate separately but will eventually be connected and is therefore counted as a single line.
- g. ^ Currently, Line 8 has two sections in operation—from Zhuxinzhuang to National Art Museum in the north and Zhushikou to Yinghai in the south. The two sections operate separately but will eventually be connected and is therefore counted as a single line.
- 北京地铁七夕客运量创纪录. 新华. August 19, 2018. Retrieved August 26, 2018.
- 未来五年再建12条地铁. September 29, 2015. Archived from the original on March 12, 2016. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
- Li Song (李松). "Beijing's subway is going full bore - China - Chinadaily.com.cn". www.chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved January 19, 2017.
- 北京2020年轨道交通线路预计将达1000公里左右. www.chinanews.com.cn (in Chinese). December 30, 2010.
- Xin, Dingding (July 31, 2012). "Experts fear subway costs could go off the rails". China Daily.
- 公交地铁今年“一码通乘” 三条轨道交通年内开通试运营 (in Chinese).
- Beijing to Increase Public Transportation Fare Prices Next, CRI 2014-11-27
- 北京地铁票价今起可上网查询 客户端15日起可查 (in Chinese). Xinhua News. December 10, 2014.
- Lin Ye (林野) (December 17, 2014). 北京地铁各站公布最新里程票价儿童免票身高提高 (in Chinese). The Beijing News.
- 北京地铁告别 '两元时代' 车票设四小时时限 [Beijing Subway says farewell to the "2 yuan era"; tickets now set to a four-hour limit] (in Chinese). December 28, 2014.
- "Beijing MTR website". Mtr.bj.cn. Archived from the original on September 11, 2010. Retrieved January 5, 2011.
- 北京28日起公交上下车均刷卡 余额不足3元禁坐地铁 (in Chinese). December 20, 2014.
- 北京地铁票首设4小时时限 中途换卡将遭10倍罚款 (in Chinese). December 4, 2014.
- "Archived copy" 北京地铁调价后"大考" 公交增车超"APEC标准 (in Chinese). 29 December 2014. Archived from the original on 29 December 2014. Retrieved 29 December 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Dong, Liu. "Beijing subway jumps on board mobile payment system". China Daily. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
- Liu, Charles. "Pay Beijing Metro Fares With Mobile Phone QR Codes Beginning in May". The Beijinger. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
- "Beijing airport express rail on trial run," China Daily July 15, 2008
- "Archived copy" 杭州地铁拟定票价 "贵"为全国前三 市民喊吃不消. Xinhuanet Zhejiang (in Chinese). Qianjiang Evening News. 20 July 2012. Archived from the original on 23 July 2012. Retrieved 1 May 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- See "History" section of this article.
- the Beijing Subway website  reported that the total 2015 passenger ridership on the 15 lines under its control was 2.832 billion. Total network ridership including the three Beijing MTR lines were not provided.
- Beijing MTR website Archived 2016-01-06 at the Wayback Machine
- 国家发展改革委关于北京市城市轨道交通第二期建设规划（2015～2021年）的批复. 中华人民共和国国家发展和改革委员会 [National Development and Reform Committee]. September 29, 2015. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
- Liang Qi (梁琦) (March 1, 2014). 房山线北延 衔接16号线" 北青网-北京青年报. Beijing Youth Daily.
- 京轨建指［2012］8号关于印发《2012年轨道交通建设工作要点》. March 15, 2012. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
- Huang Hailei (黄海蕾) (23 April 2015). "Archived copy" 3号线一期等6条地铁年内开建. jinghua.cn. Archived from the original on 7 January 2016. Retrieved 30 May 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Pu Changting (蒲长廷) (November 17, 2011). "Archived copy" 新机场线跑7站半小时到城区. 法制晚报. Archived from the original on December 13, 2013. Retrieved October 28, 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Chen Lin (陈琳) (February 16, 2013). 北京新机场线三套方案公布 计划明年开工. Sina News. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
- "Archived copy" 新机场线城区起点为牡丹园站 (in Chinese). Beijing Daily. 9 February 2014. Archived from the original on 29 December 2014. Retrieved 29 December 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- 我区全力推进轨道交通燕房线建设. Fangshan District People's Government. August 14, 2013. Archived from the original on February 25, 2014. Retrieved August 29, 2013.
- "编制轨道交通新一轮建设规划". bjwb.bjd.com.cn. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- Cao Zheng (曹政); Wang Feiyan (王飞雁) (January 29, 2015). 地铁14号线中段大部分年内开通. Beijing Daily. Archived from the original on January 29, 2015. Retrieved January 29, 2015.
- 北京机场线西延工程2018年开通 地铁5号线北新桥站可换乘. chinanews. June 21, 2015.
- "Archived copy" 《北京市轨道交通首都机场线西延工程》环境影响评价公众参与第二次公示. 北京市环境保护科学研究院 [Beijing Environmental Protection Science Research Institute]. Archived from the original on December 29, 2014. Retrieved June 18, 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- 16号线南段11座车站主体完工 2021年底前建成通车. www.bjd.com.cn. March 28, 2019.
- "北京地铁28号线预计明年开工 2022年建成-新华网". www.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved December 8, 2018.
- 北京首条"空中小火车"拟今年开工. The Beijing News 2014-02-24.
- 北京建空中东四环：跨座式单轨 造价为地铁1/3. 法制晚报. February 24, 2012.
- 北京轨道交通玉泉路线工程环境影响评价公众参与第一次公示 - 中国铁道科学研究院新闻中心通知公告正文. January 7, 2014.
- Monorail planned for eastern Beijing 2014-02-26
- Beijing canceled air train monorail line construction program 2015-02-03
- Cao Zheng (曹政) (13 August 2015). "Archived copy" CBD拟通'地下小火车:初步设8站 呈Z形斜穿'. Beijing Daily. Archived from the original on 26 November 2015. Retrieved 12 November 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- 北京磁悬浮S1线西段通过环评 不会造成电磁污染 (in Chinese). 京华时报. August 4, 2010.
- 北京地铁16号线将首次采用"8A"车辆编组 运能提高70% (in Chinese). Xinhua. April 24, 2013.
- 北京14号线5月初先开7站 "大肚列车"可并肩站5人 (in Chinese). Xinhua News. April 29, 2014.
- <New Beijing subway to ease traffic congestion, Wu Wenjie, deputy director of China Railway Tunnel Group, China Daily. Reporter ZHENG Xin. 2012-11-26.
- "Linear Motor Commuter for Beijing" CNR website Archived 13 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine Accessed Mar. 27, 2010
- 北京首条磁浮将开通 一条线路为何耗时18年 (in Chinese). 解放日报. November 20, 2017.
- 北京新机场线全面铺轨 车辆采用7节载客车+1节行李车 (in Chinese). 新京报. December 6, 2018.
- The M-series train that appeared on Lines 2 and 13 were made by Japan's Tokyu Car Corporation "东急"[dead link] Accessed Mar. 28, 2010
- "Archived copy" 中国南车中标北京地铁大兴线、八号线. Ccmetro.com (in Chinese). 30 July 2009. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 29 March 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy" 北京地铁再添"青岛造" 最高运营时速100公里 (in Chinese). Xinhua News Shandong. 31 December 2009. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 29 March 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- 北京地铁诞生记:周总理称筹建地铁是为备战 (in Chinese). Beijing Daily. September 28, 2007.
- News.xinhuanet.com Id. Part 2
- "Archived copy" 1965 -- 1970年 地铁大事记 (in Chinese). Beijing Subway. 24 April 2009. Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 29 April 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- The ceremony was not publicized at the time because the project was classified for its national security implications.
- 北京地铁诞生记:周总理称筹建地铁是为备战 (in Chinese). Beijing Daily. September 28, 2008.
- The initial line, originally slated for completion by 1968, was delayed by the onset of the Cultural Revolution. The original director of the project, General Yang Yong and much of the city government were purged in 1967.  "杨勇小传(5)" in "毛泽东瞩目的著名将帅（二）" (2003)
- "Archived copy" 1971 -- 1980年 地铁大事记 (in Chinese). Beijing Subway. 24 April 2009. Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 29 April 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy" 1981 -- 1990年 地铁大事记 (in Chinese). Beijing Subway. 24 April 2009. Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 29 April 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy" 地铁公司1991 -- 2000年 (in Chinese). Beijing Subway. 24 April 2009. Archived from the original on 31 October 2010. Retrieved 31 May 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) P1:1991-1993
- "Archived copy" 地铁公司1991 -- 2000年 (in Chinese). Beijing Subway. 24 April 2009. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) P2: 1994-1997
- "Archived copy" 地铁公司1991 -- 2000年 (in Chinese). Beijing Subway. 24 April 2009. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 31 May 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) P3:1998-2000
- 北京十条地铁同时建 将实现三环四横五纵七放射_网易奥运. 2008.163.com. 163.com. Retrieved February 10, 2018.
- 1991 – 2000年 地铁大事记 (in Chinese).
- 北京地铁四号、十号线年底开工 征地拆迁已启动"] Nov. 14, 2003 (in Chinese).
- "H.K. subway operator seeks Beijing projects". International Herald Tribune. March 29, 2009. Retrieved January 5, 2011.
- "Archived copy" 到2015年北京地铁建设静态投资将达2000亿元 (in Chinese). 第一财经日报. 29 October 2008. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 25 January 2009.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy" 2001 – 2004年 地铁大事记 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 3 December 2007. Retrieved 21 July 2008.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- 1991 – 2000年 地铁大事记 (in Chinese).
- 2007年北京地铁运送乘客6.55亿人次 (in Chinese). 中广网. January 2, 2008.
- "Beijing opens three new subways ahead of Olympics" China Daily July 19, 2008
- Beijing subway system busy during Olympics Xinhua Aug. 27, 2008
- 北京地铁2008年运送乘客突破12亿人次 (in Chinese). Beijing Subway. Retrieved January 3, 2009.
- Zhang Nan; Meng Huan (11 December 2008). "Archived copy" 西郊线通往香山两年内有望开通 (in Chinese). Beijing Evening News. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 7 January 2009.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Line 4 was originally scheduled to be completed by the end of 2007 see (Chinese) Gzuda.gov.cn Archived 2011-07-07 at the Wayback Machine "北京地铁4号和10号线获审批2007年底投入运营" September 4, 2004; & Bh.buaa.edu.cn; 北京地铁4号线特许经营案例 Xinhuanet.com "北京地铁4号线今日开通 站内设施服务全接触"
- Including 1.372 billion passengers of eight lines operated by Beijing Subway Operating Company, and 52.60 million passengers of Line 4 operated by Beijing MTR Corporation (Chinese)北京地铁公司为轨道交通大发展做好充分准备. Archived from the original on January 10, 2010. Retrieved January 1, 2010.; "北京地铁4号线元旦期间运送乘客超过180万人次" Jan. 1, 2010
- 谁的地铁，谁做主？ (in Chinese). 财经文摘. March 23, 2010.
- 北京10条地铁五年内开建 远郊进市区1小时(图) (in Chinese). Sohu. December 31, 2010.
- 北京地铁15号线有望年内开工 (in Chinese). 北京商报. October 9, 2008.
- 北京地铁西郊线确定设五站 (in Chinese). The Beijing News. January 15, 2009.
- "Chinadaily US Edition".
- Xu Wei, "Beijing launches three new subway sections" China Daily 2012-01-01
- 本市5年建成"1—1—2"交通圈" (in Chinese). Beijing Municipal People's Government. January 21, 2011.
- 北京轨道交通有望添6条新线 12号线缓三环拥堵". China Huanqiu (in Chinese). February 14, 2012.
- 北京市城市轨道交通第二期建设规划（2015～2021 年） (PDF). National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC).
- 北京地铁19号线将设10座车站8座能换乘 年内开建 (in Chinese). Beijing Daily. August 27, 2015.
- "Beijing Subway largest in the world". Voice of Russia. December 30, 2012. Retrieved January 2, 2013.
- 北京市2012年国民经济和社会发展统计公报. Beijing Stats. February 7, 2013. Archived from the original on October 3, 2013. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
- 北京地铁10号线一圈57公里 创地下铁之最. xinhuanet.com (in Chinese). May 6, 2013.
- 京地铁8号线南北新线周六开通 中国美术馆站暂缓开通. Xinhua News (in Chinese). Beijing Evening News. December 25, 2013.
- Du Yan (杜燕) (January 2, 2014). 北京地铁一年运客超32亿人次 同比增长近30%. 中国新闻网. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
- 北京：4条地铁新线开通 轨道线路总里程达527公里. Xinhua News. December 28, 2014. Retrieved December 28, 2014.
- 北京地铁4条新线全景图公布(图) (in Chinese). December 26, 2014.
- 北京地铁平价时代终结 将按里程收费(双语). September 25, 2014.
- "Archived copy" 北京市2014年国民经济和社会发展统计公报. 北京市统计局. 12 February 2014. Retrieved 12 February 2015.[Beijing Municipal Bureau of Statistics] |deadurl=yes |archiveurl= |archivedate=2016-03-12 |df= }}
- "Archived copy" 北京市2015年暨"十二五"时期国民经济和社会发展统计公报. 北京市统计局. 15 February 2016. Retrieved 18 February 2015.[Beijing Municipal Bureau of Statistics] |deadurl=yes |archiveurl= |archivedate=2015-01-21 |df= }}
- Wei Fangchao (魏方超) (April 10, 2015). 北京地铁建设投入已达2500亿 每公里成本超10亿 (in Chinese). 中国网.
- 发改委：北京地铁每公里造价已超过10亿元 (in Chinese). 中国新闻网. June 30, 2015.
- Ding Jing (丁静) (December 26, 2015). 北京地铁14号线中段、昌平线二期开通试运营 (in Chinese). Xinhua News.
- 首次披露 北京地铁未来5-10年这样建……. news.sina.com.cn. Retrieved February 10, 2018.
- Jin, Zhang. "Beijing starts building five more subway lines". CRIenglish.com. China Radio International. Retrieved December 14, 2016.
- 体验北京地铁：没有"最挤"只有更挤 小窍门多. January 20, 2017. Retrieved January 25, 2017.
- 申通地铁集团董事长学习北京地铁应对客流之法 (in Chinese). Xinmin Evening News. March 9, 2010.
- 明起北京地铁10号线发车间隔将缩短10秒. news.sohu.com. July 20, 2015.
- "Archived copy" 我市轨道交通网络化运营效果凸显. 北京市交通委员会. 7 February 2013. Retrieved 15 September 2013.[Beijing Municipal Transportation Committee] |deadurl=yes |archiveurl= |archivedate=2014-01-09 |df= }}
- 近10年增长2倍 日客运量超1000万人次 -- 北京轨道交通建设凸显"北京速度"-新华网. www.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved December 31, 2017.
- 北京地铁1号线发车间隔有望再快5秒 为世界最快. Retrieved December 31, 2017.
- 北京地铁1号线、5号线、10号线年底最快两分钟一趟-新华网. news.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved December 31, 2017.
- 地铁2号线发车间隔将缩短为2分钟. Beijing Subway. April 16, 2009. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
- 地铁4号线晚高峰最小间隔缩短至2分10秒 早高峰最小行车间隔为2分钟. Beijing MTR Ltd. March 26, 2012. Archived from the original on March 16, 2013. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
- 12月13日起6号线再次缩短晚高峰列车间隔. www.bjsubway.com. Retrieved January 24, 2018.
- 下周一起北京地铁8号线早高峰列车间隔缩短15秒] 2014-12-26 (in Chinese).
- 三条新线将开 北京地铁奥运最高日客流将达587万 (in Chinese). Xinhua News. July 17, 2008.
- "Archived copy" 13号线加挂两节车厢 (in Chinese). Beijing Youth Daily. Archived from the original on 27 May 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2008.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) July 21, 2008
- "Archived copy" 北京地铁2号线全部更换空调车 (in Chinese). The Beijing News. 8 August 2008. Archived from the original on 10 December 2008. Retrieved 16 August 2008.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Aug. 8, 2008
- "Archived copy" 北京四条新地铁线30日开通 首末车时间确定. Xinhua News. 26 December 2012. Archived from the original on 31 December 2012. Retrieved 27 December 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy" 4条地铁线将装屏蔽门 (in Chinese). 法制晚报. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) |date=2010-01-20}}
- 首列北京地铁14号线A型地铁车辆在青岛下线. www.gov.cn. Retrieved December 31, 2017.
- "Archived copy" 北京地铁十四号线工程列车编组7B改6A方案专题报告论证会召开 (in Chinese). 北京市重大项目建设指挥部办公室. Archived from the original on 15 December 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2011.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) |date=2010-12-30}}
- 北京地铁16号线有望用A型车 每趟多运500人 (in Chinese). Sina News. October 26, 2009.
- 北京地铁17号线两站率先开工 一车站将建最长站台-新华网. news.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved October 31, 2016.
- 北京地铁重点车站为应对大客流早晚高峰将限流" 新京报] Nov. 11, 2007 (in Chinese).
- (Video) 北京八通线公布早高峰拥挤度与限流挂钩 (in Chinese). 中国新闻网. September 5, 2011.
- 北京25个地铁站高峰常态限流. ifeng.com, Ifeng news (in Chinese). August 31, 2011.
- 北京41地铁站公布常态限流时间 将精确到分钟 (in Chinese). The Beijing News. January 7, 2013.
- "北京地铁4号线、大兴线工作日早高峰将限流-千龙网·中国首都网". beijing.qianlong.com. Retrieved January 25, 2019.
- "Archived copy" 国贸东直门等四大换乘站拟择机改造 换乘不超5分钟 (in Chinese). Beijing Municipal People's Government. 7 July 2012. Archived from the original on 11 July 2012. Retrieved 9 July 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- 北京：地铁西直门站换13号线不再绕大圈 (in Chinese). CCTV News. August 28, 2009.
- 24日地铁西直门站地下换乘通道正式启用 换乘方式变化大 (in Chinese). Beijing Subway. September 22, 2011.
- 南锣鼓巷地铁站可双向同台换乘. baic.gov.cn (in Chinese). May 17, 2012. Archived from the original on November 27, 2012.
- 公主坟地铁站新建四个换乘厅 换乘不超过100米 (in Chinese). Beijing Municipal People's Government. March 28, 2012.
- 北京地铁"最复杂换乘站"开通：用时最少7分钟 (in Chinese). Beijing Morning News. December 23, 2013.
- "Mobile network to be accessible in Beijing subway". Chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved January 5, 2011.
- Beijing promises integrated subway service for disabled xinhua Aug. 27, 2008
- All stations on Line 5 have elevators. Some of the older stations on Lines 1 and 2 have escalators that descend from the station entrances to the ticket counters one level below ground level but do not extend to the platform two levels below. In the summer of 2008, mechanical wheelchair lifts were installed next to staircases in these stations.北京地铁安装轮椅升降平台(组图) [Beijing Subway installs wheelchair lifts]. Hexun News. Xinhua News. June 20, 2008.
- "New Beijing Subway Line 5 is passenger-friendly", Beijing2008 Archived 2008-08-01 at the Wayback Machine Sept. 30, 2007
- 北京市人民代表大会常务委员会公告第7号 《北京市轨道交通运营安全条例》（2014年11月28日通过，2015年5月1日施行 ）第38条 [Beijing Municipal People's Congress Standing Committee Report No. 7, Beijing Municipal Rail Transportation Safe Operations Ordnance (Enacted 2014-11-28, Effective 2015-05-01) Art. 38] (in Chinese). Beijing People's Government.
- "Archived copy" 北京地铁热线25日开通 解答8类问题 [Beijing Subway telephone hotline opens on the 25th, intending to answer 8 types of question] (in Chinese). Beijing Daily. 24 July 2008. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 5 April 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- 北京地铁开通服务热线可查询地铁公交换乘信息 [Beijing Subway opens service hotline to look up Subway to Bus transfers] (in Chinese). July 24, 2008.
- "Archived copy" 8号新线通了 地铁热线改成96165 (in Chinese). Beijing Youth Daily. 29 December 2013. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 5 April 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- CityWeekend: The Official Beijingology Subway AFC Cheat Sheet (Part 3)/
- The AFC machines are supplied by the following companies: Thales (Lines 1, 2 and Batong), Samsung SDS (Lines 4, 8 and 10), Founder, OMRON (Line 5), Nippon Signal (Lines 13 & Airport Express)
- "Beijing starts passenger security checks in all subway stations",Chinaview.com.cn June 29, 2008
- 元旦期间地铁客流将达840万 恢复"逢包必检" (in Chinese). 千龙网. December 30, 2008.
- "北京：拒不接受地铁安全检查将被处理" (in Chinese). Beijing Times. March 18, 2009.
- "Backgrounder: Major metro accidents in China".
- For example, 北京地铁一号线一男子跳轨事故最新情况. July 17, 2009. Archived from the original on July 20, 2009. and 北京地铁一号线因乘客跳下站台晚点 已恢复运营. February 14, 2014.
- 北京地铁五号线"10•8"事故 (in Chinese). November 14, 2018.
- "Archived copy" 北京地铁实习生误操作 一维修工电梯内被挤死 (in Chinese). 法制晚报. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2010.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)|date=2009-06-21}}
- "Two killed in Beijing subway construction site accident" Xinhua 2010-07-14
- 北京地铁透水事故涉事官员贪贿近6千万被判死缓 (in Chinese). Legal Daily. January 30, 2014.
- 北京地铁6号线工地发生塌方 一工人被埋身亡. 163.com news (in Chinese). June 1, 2011.
- "Xinhuan News - One dead, 28 injured in Beijing subway escalator accident" 2011-07-05
- "Beijing Subway Hostage Taker Shot: Armed Standoff At Hujialou Station Ends In Bloodshed". Huffington Post. July 25, 2012.
- "Beijing subway train derails during testing of new section of tracks". South China Morning Post. May 3, 2014.
- http://www.scmp.com/news/china/article/1634392/beijing-subway-passengers-tried-raise-alarm-accident-victim-was-dragged "South China Morning Post — Beijing subway passengers tried to raise alarm before accident victim was dragged to her death"
- 中国地铁标志花样迭出 地铁建设如火如荼 (in Chinese). 中国建筑新闻网. June 1, 2012. Archived from the original on June 26, 2013. Retrieved June 4, 2012.
- Li Zhiyong (October 28, 2010). 北京建成首座地铁主题文化公园 [Beijing constructs first subway-themed culture park] (in Chinese). Xinhua News.
- 北京京港地铁有限公司. Mtr.bj.cn. December 29, 2010. Archived from the original on January 1, 2011. Retrieved January 5, 2011.
- "Beijing MTR Corporation Limited". Mtr.bj.cn. September 27, 2010. Archived from the original on October 9, 2011. Retrieved January 5, 2011.
- 北京地铁今起至23日延长运营时间. Bjsubway.com. August 13, 2008.
- 地铁公司1971 -- 1980年 (in Chinese). Beijing Subway.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to:|
- Official Beijing Subway website. Detailed information only for the 15 lines operated by Beijing Subway.
- Official Beijing MTR Website (Chinese). For the 4 lines operated by Beijing MTR.
- Official Beijing MTR Website (English)
- Official Beijing Metro Operation Administration (BJMOA) Website For the Yanfang line (and the under construction New Airport line) operated by Beijing Metro Operation Administration (BJMOA).
- Beijing Subway Information on UrbanRail.net