Mass Rapid Transit (Singapore)

The Mass Rapid Transit, abbreviated and referred to in local parlance as the MRT, is a heavy rail rapid transit system that constitutes the bulk of the railway network in Singapore, spanning—with the exception of the forested core and the island's rural northwest—the length and width of the city-state's main island.[note 10] The first section of the MRT opened on 7 November 1987, and the network has since grown rapidly in accordance with Singapore's aim of developing a comprehensive rail network as the backbone of the country's public transportation system, with an average daily ridership of 3.384 million in 2019,[note 11] approximately 83% of the bus network's 4.099 million in the same period.[1]

Mass Rapid Transit (MRT)
Singapore MRT logo.svg
CT251 Mandai Depot.png
Overview
Native nameSistem Pengangkutan Gerak Cepat  (Malay)
新加坡地铁系统 (Chinese)
சிங்கப்பூர் துரிதக் கடவு ரயில் (Tamil)
OwnerLand Transport Authority
LocaleSingapore
Transit typeRapid transit
Number of lines9(6 in operation, 2 under planning and 1 under study), excluding LRT
Number of stations187 (122 in operation, 63 more under construction or planning, 2 reserved), excluding LRT
Daily ridership3.4 million (2019), excluding LRT[1]
Annual ridership1.2 billion (2019), excluding LRT
Website
Operation
Began operation7 November 1987; 32 years ago (1987-11-07)
Operator(s)SMRT Trains (SMRT Corporation)
SBS Transit (ComfortDelGro Corporation)
CharacterFully grade separated
Number of vehicles488 trainsets (157 on order, 66 to be decommissioned)
Train length3 cars[note 1]
4 cars[note 2]
6 cars[note 3]
8 cars[note 4]
Headway2–3 minutes (Peak Hours)
5–7 minutes (Off-peak hours)[2]
Technical
System length203 km (126 mi)
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
Minimum radius of curvature400–500 m (1,312.34–1,640.42 ft) (mainline),
190 m (623.36 ft) (depot)[3]
Electrification750 V DC third rail[note 5]
1500 V DC overhead catenary[note 6]
Top speed78 km/h (48 mph)[note 7]
80 km/h (50 mph)[note 8]
90 km/h (56 mph)[note 9]
MRT network map

Singapore MRT Network.svg

Singapore's MRT infrastructure is built, operated, and managed in accordance with a hybridised quasi-nationalised regulatory framework called the New Rail Financing Framework (NRFF), in which the lines are constructed and the assets owned by the Land Transport Authority, a statutory board of the Government of Singapore.[4] The Land Transport Authority allocates operating concessions to two for-profit private corporations, namely SMRT and SBS Transit, both of which are responsible for asset maintenance on their respective lines. These operators also run bus and taxi services, thus facilitating the full integration of public transport services.

As of January 2020, the MRT network encompasses 203 kilometres (126 mi) of route on standard gauge, with 122 stations in operation, spread across six lines set in a circle-radial topology. The network is expected to double to a total length of almost 400 kilometres (250 mi) by 2040 as a result of ongoing expansion works to its six existing lines and the construction of three new lines.[5] The network is complemented by a small number of local Light Rail Transit (LRT) networks in the suburban towns of Bukit Panjang, Sengkang, and Punggol that link MRT stations with HDB public housing estates,[6] bringing the combined length of the domestic heavy and light rail network to 231.6 kilometres (143.9 mi), with a total of 159 stations in operation.[note 12]

The MRT is the oldest, busiest, and most comprehensive rapid transit system (both by length and number of stations) in Southeast Asia.[note 13] More than S$92 billion (US$67 billion) has been spent on the construction of rail infrastructure, the procurement of rolling stock and other rail assets, and the periodical renewal of assets, making the MRT one of the costliest rapid transit networks and public transportation projects in the world on both a per-kilometre and absolute basis.[7][8][9][note 14] The system has the added distinctions of having the longest fully automated and driverless network in the world, as well as some of the longest and deepest subway tunnel sections in the world.[10][11] The MRT is also unique in that the vast majority of underground stations in the network double as purpose-built Singapore Civil Defence Force bunkers and air raid shelters, being built with hardened boundary walls, reinforced concrete floor and roof slabs, and concrete or steel doors for the purpose of withstanding conventional aerial bomb and chemical attacks.[12]

HistoryEdit

Planning and inceptionEdit

The origins of the Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) are derived from a forecast by city planners in 1967 which stated the need for a rail-based urban transport system by 1992.[13][14][15] However, opposition from the government on the feasibility of the MRT from prominent ministers, among them Finance Minister Dr Goh Keng Swee and Trades and Industry Minister Dr Tony Tan, nearly shuttered the program due to financial grounds and concerns of jobs saturation in the construction industry.[16] Dr Goh instead endorsed the idea of an all-bus system recommended by Harvard University specialists, whom argued would reduce the cost by 50% compared to the proposed MRT system. Public opinion was split on the matter, with several expressing concerns on the high cost and others being more focused on increasing the standard of living. Following a debate on whether a bus-only system would be more cost-effective, Communications Minister Ong Teng Cheong came to the conclusion that an all-bus system would be inadequate, as it would have to compete for road space in a land-scarce country. Ong was an architect and town planner by training and through his perseverance and dedication became the main figure behind the initial construction of the system.[17][18]

Construction beginsEdit

 
Opening of the various stages (1987–1990)

The network was planned to be constructed and opened in stages, even as plans had already indicated the decision for two main arterial lines. The North South line was given priority because it passed through the Central Area that has a high demand for public transport. The Mass Rapid Transit Corporation (MRTC)—later renamed SMRT Corporation—was established on 14 October 1983 and took over the roles and responsibilities of the former provisional Mass Rapid Transit Authority.[17][19] On 7 November 1987, the first section of the North South line started operations, consisting of five stations over six kilometres. Within a year, 20 more stations had been added to the network and a direct service existed between Yishun and Lakeside stations, linking up Central Singapore to Jurong in the west by the end of 1988. The direct service was eventually split into the North South and East West lines after the latter's completion of the eastern sector to Tanah Merah station.[20][21][22] By the end of 1990, the Branch line has further linked Choa Chu Kang to the network while the inauguration of Boon Lay station on 6 July 1990 marked the completion of the initial system two years ahead of schedule.[23][24]

Subsequent expansionsEdit

The MRT has been continuously expanded ever since. On 10 February 1996, a S$1.2 billion expansion of the North South line into Woodlands was completed, merging the Branch line into the North South line and joining Yishun and Choa Chu Kang stations.[25] The concept of having rail lines that bring people almost directly to their homes led to the introduction of the Light Rail Transit (LRT) lines connecting with the MRT network.[25][26] On 6 November 1999, the first LRT trains on the Bukit Panjang LRT went into operation.[27] The Expo and Changi Airport stations were opened on 10 January 2001[28] and 8 February 2002 respectively.[29] The very first infill station of the MRT network to be built on an existing line, Dover station opened on 18 October 2001.[30] The North East line, the first line operated by SBS Transit, opened on 20 June 2003, is one of the first fully automated heavy rail lines in the world.[31][32] On 15 January 2006, after intense two-and-a-half years lobbying by the public,[33] Buangkok station was opened.[34][35], followed by Woodleigh station much later on 20 June 2011.[36] The Boon Lay Extension of the East West line, consisting of Pioneer and Joo Koon stations, opened on 28 February 2009.[37][38]

The Circle line opened in four stages with Stage 3 on 28 May 2009,[39] Stages 1 and 2 on 17 April 2010,[40] Stages 4 and 5 on 8 October 2011[41] and the Marina Bay Extension on 14 January 2012.[42] Stage 1 of Downtown line opened on 22 December 2013[43] with its official opening made on 21 December 2013 by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong.[44] Stage 2 opened on 27 December 2015, after being officially opened on 26 December by Prime Minister Lee.[45] The Tuas West Extension of the East West line, consisting of Gul Circle, Tuas Crescent, Tuas West Road, and Tuas Link stations, opened on 18 June 2017.[46] Stage 3, the final stage of the Downtown line, opened on 21 October 2017 with its official opening made on 20 October 2017 by Coordinating Minister for Infrastructure and Minister for Transport Khaw Boon Wan.[47] The second infill station, Canberra station opened on 2 November 2019.[48] Stage 1 of the Thomson–East Coast line opened on 31 January 2020.[49]

InfrastructureEdit

NetworkEdit

The following table lists the Mass Rapid Transit lines that are currently operational:

Name and color Commencement Last extension Next extension Terminus Stations Length Depot Operator Control Center
North South line 7 November 1987 2 November 2019[note 15] 2030s[note 16] Jurong East
Marina South Pier
27[50] 45 km (28 mi)[50] Bishan Depot
Ulu Pandan Depot
Changi Depot
Tuas Depot
SMRT Trains Kim Chuan Depot
East West line 12 December 1987 18 June 2017[note 17] N/A Pasir Ris
Changi Airport
Tuas Link
35[51] 57.2 km (35.5 mi)[51]
Circle line 28 May 2009 14 January 2012[note 18] 2025[note 19] Dhoby Ghaut
HarbourFront
Marina Bay
30[52][note 20] 35.5 km (22.1 mi)[52] Kim Chuan Depot
Thomson–East Coast line 31 January 2020 31 January 2020[note 21] 2021[note 22] Woodlands North
Woodlands South
3 4.2 km (2.6 mi) Mandai Depot Mandai Depot
Subtotal (lines under SMRT Trains): 95 141.9 km (88.2 mi)[52]
North East line 20 June 2003 20 June 2011[note 23] 2023[note 24] HarbourFront
Punggol
16[53] 19.2 km (11.9 mi)[53] Sengkang Depot SBS Transit Sengkang Depot
Downtown line 22 December 2013 21 October 2017[note 25] 2024[note 26] Bukit Panjang
Expo
34[43] 41.9 km (26.0 mi)[43] Tai Seng Facility Building
Gali Batu Depot
Gali Batu Depot
Subtotal (lines under SBS Transit): 50 61.1 km (38.0 mi)
Total: 122[note 27] 203 km (126 mi)


Schematic map of the Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) and Light Rail Transit (LRT) network in Singapore (an official version can be found at the Land Transport Authority's website).

Facilities and servicesEdit

 
An SMRT Active Route Map Information System panel showing the current location of a train and upcoming stops
 
Active Route Map Information System of Downtown line equipped on C951/C951A train

Except for the partly at-grade Bishan MRT station (North South line), the entirety of the MRT is elevated or underground. Most below-ground stations are deep and hardened enough to withstand conventional aerial bomb attacks and to serve as bomb shelters.[54][55][56] Mobile phone, 3G and 4G service are available in every part of the network.[57] Underground stations and trains are air-conditioned, while above-ground stations have ceiling fans installed.

Every station is equipped with General Ticketing Machines (GTMs), a Passenger Service Centre and LED or plasma displays that show train service information and announcements. All stations are equipped with restrooms and payphones; some restrooms are located at street level.[58] Some stations, especially the major ones, have additional amenities and services, such as retail shops and kiosks, supermarkets, convenience stores, automatic teller machines, and self-service automated kiosks for a variety of services.[59] Most heavy-duty escalators at stations carry passengers up or down at a rate of 0.75 m/s, which is 50% faster than conventional escalators. The Land Transport Authority (LTA) announced a plan to introduce dual speeds to escalators along the North South and East West lines, to make it safer for senior citizens using them. As a result, all escalators on the two lines, through a refurbishment programme, will be able to operate at a different speed of 0.5 m/s during off-peak hours, with completion being targeted for 2021.[60]

All stations constructed before 2001 initially lacked barrier-free facilities and wider AFC faregates such as lifts, ramps & tactile guidance systems for the elderly and disabled.[61] A retrofitting programme was completed in 2006, with every station provided with at least one barrier-free access route.[62] Works are still ongoing to provide stations with additional barrier-free facilities.[63][64][65]

Hours of operationEdit

MRT lines operate from 5:30 am to 1:00 am daily, with the exception of selected periods before COVID-19 pandemic in Singapore such as New Year's Eve, Chinese New Year, Deepavali, Hari Raya, Christmas, eves of public holidays and special occasions such as the state funeral of Lee Kuan Yew (2015), when most of the lines stay open throughout the night or extended till later.[66] Additionally, some stretches of the line ends earlier, opens later and closes on a few days of the weekend.[67] The nightly closures are used for maintenance. During the COVID-19 pandemic in Singapore, train services ended earlier and service extensions on the eves of public holidays ceased from 7 April 2020. However, from 1 June, train services were reverted to the usual hours from 5.30am to 12am (except for CNY Eve, where it will end at 30 minutes earlier from then on), and train services are no longer extended on all eves of public holidays.

Architecture and artEdit

 
Expo MRT station, situated adjacent to the Singapore Expo exhibition facility, sports a futuristic design by Foster and Partners.
 
Bras Basah station has a water feature to allow sunlight from above the station to filter in.

Early stages of the MRT's construction paid scant attention to station design, with an emphasis on functionality over aesthetics. This is particularly evident in the first few stages of the North South and East West lines that opened between 1987 and 1988 from Yio Chu Kang to Clementi. An exception to this was Orchard, chosen by its designers to be a "showpiece" of the system and built initially with a domed roof.[68] Architectural themes became more important only in subsequent stages, and resulted in such designs as the cylindrical station shapes on all stations between Kallang and Pasir Ris except Eunos, and west of Boon Lay, and the perched roofs at Boon Lay, Lakeside, Chinese Garden, Bukit Batok, Bukit Gombak, Choa Chu Kang, Khatib, Yishun, and Eunos stations.[69][70][71]

Art pieces, where present, are seldom highlighted; they primarily consist of a few paintings or sculptures representing the recent past of Singapore, mounted in major stations. The opening of the Woodlands Extension introduced bolder pieces of artwork, such as a 4,000 kg sculpture in Woodlands.[72] With the opening of the North East line, a series of artworks under a programme called "Art in Transit" were commissioned by the Land Transport Authority (LTA). Created by 19 local artists and integrated into the stations' interior architecture, these works aim to promote the appreciation of public art in high-traffic environments. The artwork for each station is designed to suit the station's identity. All stations on the North East, Circle and Downtown lines come under this programme.[73][74] An art contest was held to implement a similar scheme for the Circle line.[75]

Expo station, located on the Changi Airport branch of the East West line, is adjacent to the 100,000-square-metre Singapore Expo exhibition facility. Designed by Foster and Partners and completed in January 2001, the station features a large, pillarless, titanium-clad roof in an elliptical shape that sheathes the length of the station platform. This complements a smaller 40-metre reflective stainless-steel disc overlapping the titanium ellipse and visually floats over a glass elevator shaft and the main entrance. The other station with similar architecture is Dover.[76][77]

Changi Airport station, the easternmost station on the MRT network, has the widest platform in any underground MRT station in Singapore. In 2011, it was rated 10 out of 15 most beautiful subway stops in the world by BootsnAll.[78] Various features have been incorporated into the design to make the station aesthetically pleasing to travellers.[79] The station is designed by architectural firm Skidmore, Owings and Merrill, featuring a large interior space and an illuminated 150-metre (490 ft) linkbridge spanning over the island platform.[80]

Two Circle line stations—Bras Basah and Stadium—were commissioned through the Marina line Architectural Design Competition, which was jointly organised by the Land Transport Authority and the Singapore Institute of Architects. The competition did not require any prior architectural experience from competitors and is acknowledged by the industry as one of the most impartial competitions held in Singapore to date. The winner of both stations was WOHA. In 2009, "Best Transport Building" was awarded to the designers at WOHA Architects at the World Architecture Festival for their design of Bras Basah station.[81]

Rolling stock and signallingEdit

Rolling stockEdit

This table lists the network's rolling stock.

Name Supplier Line Cars
(per train)
No. of trainsets Service commencement Withdrawal Power supply Speed Limit Price
C151 Kawasaki Heavy Industries NSL
EWL
6 66[82] 7 November 1987 From June 2020 750 V DC
third rail
80 km/h (50 mph) S$581.5 million[83][84]
C651 Siemens 19[85][86] 2 May 1995 From 6 September 2020 S$259 million[87]
C751B Kawasaki Heavy Industries
& Nippon Sharyo
21[82][88][a] 8 May 2000 N/A S$231 million
C151A Kawasaki Heavy Industries
& CRRC Qingdao Sifang
35[89][90] 27 May 2011 S$368 million[91]
C151B 45 16 April 2017 S$281.5 million[92]
C151C 12 30 September 2018[93] $136.8 million[94][95]
CR151 Bombardier Transportation 66 2021[96] S$827 million[97]
C751A Alstom NEL 25 20 June 2003 1500 V DC
overhead catenary
90 km/h (56 mph) $260 million
C751C 18 1 October 2015 S$234.9 million[98]
C830 CCL 3 40 28 May 2009 750 V DC
third rail[99]
78 km/h (48 mph) S$282 million[100]
C830C 24 26 June 2015 S$134 million[101]
C851E 23[102][103] 2020s S$249.9 million[104]
NEL 6 6 2020s 1500 V DC
overhead catenary
90 km/h (56 mph)
C951/C951A Bombardier Transportation DTL 3 92 22 December 2013 750 V DC
third rail[105][106]
80 km/h (50 mph) S$689.9 million[105][107][b]
CT251 Kawasaki Heavy Industries
& CRRC Qingdao Sifang
TEL 4 91 31 January 2020 90 km/h (56 mph) S$749 million[108]
CJ151 Hyundai Rotem JRL 3 62 2026 TBD S$416.5 million[109]
  1. ^ Kawasaki Heavy Industries manufactured 66 cars and Nippon Sharyo manufactured 60 cars.
  2. ^ Two separate orders of the C951 were made. The figure listed is the total amount.

At present, all lines run with fixed-length trains between three and six cars,[83][110][111] with the Thomson–East Coast line using four cars. Since the system's conception in 1987, all train lines have been powered by the 750 volt DC third rail, with the exception of the North East line which is powered by 1500 volt DC overhead lines. The North South and East West lines use an automatic train operation system similar to London Underground's Central line.[112][111]

The oldest C151 trains will be the first to be decommissioned starting in April 2020.[83] Older trains have been renewed over the years under refurbishment schemes to enhance their lifespan as well as to adhere to updated safety and usability codes.[113][114] Refurbished and new trains have improved passenger information systems such as the SMRT Active Route Map Information System, more grab poles, wider seats, more space near the doors, spaces for wheelchairs, and CCTV cameras.[115][116] As a trial run, luggage racks were installed on the C751B trains to serve travellers on the Changi Airport branch line.[117] The scheme was withdrawn in June 2002 and the luggage racks removed.[118][119]

All trains are contracted by open tender, with their contract numbers forming the most recognised name of the stock. Official sources occasionally refer to the trains of the North South and East West lines as numbered generation trains, with the C151 train being the first and the newest C151C train being the sixth.[120]

In addition to aforementioned passenger electric multiple units, MRT operators also have their own engineering rolling stock used for maintenance purposes. These include Plasser and Theurer tamping machines, multi-function vehicles for rail inspection, Speno railgrinders, cranes, tunnel cleaning wagons, viaduct inspection wagons, CKG diesel locomotives for shunting purposes and Deli diesel locomotives and Schöma electric locomotives for hauling maintenance trains.[121][122]

SignallingEdit

Line Supplier Solution Type [note 28] Commission Date Level of Automation Remarks
North South line Thales SelTrac[123] Moving Block CBTC 2017 Unattended Train Operation

(UTO)

BrownField
East West line 2018
North East line Alstom Urbalis 300[124][125] 2003 N/A
Circle line 2009
Downtown line Siemens
(formerly Invensys Westinghouse)
Sirius CBTC[126] 2013
Thomson–East Coast line Alstom Urbalis 400[127] 2020
Former
North South line Westinghouse FS2000 ATP[128] Fixed Block-Speed Coded 1987 Semi-automated Operation Mode

(STO)

Decommissioned
2 January 2019
East West line Decommissioned
23 November 2018
 
Wayside signal equipment used on the North South and East West Lines, which include a two-aspect signal light and an antenna

A key component of the signalling system on the MRT is the automatic train control (ATC) system, which in turn is made up of two sub-systems: the automatic train operation (ATO) and automatic train protection (ATP). The ATC has trackside and trainborne components working together to provide safe train separation by using train detection, localisation, and end of authority protection. It also provides safe train operation and movement by using train speed determination, monitoring, over-speed protection and emergency braking. The safety of alighting and departing passengers will also be provided by using a station interlocking system. The ATO drives the train in automatic mode, providing the traction and braking control demands to the train rolling stock system, adjusts its speed upon approaching the station, and provides the control of opening and closing of train and platform screen doors once the train has stopped at the station. The ATP ensures safe train separation by using the ATP track circuit status and by location determination, monitors the speed of the train to maintain safe braking distance, and initiate emergency braking in the event of overspeed.[129] The MRT also uses an automatic train supervision system to supervise the overall operation of the train service according to a prescribed timetable or train interval.[130][131]

The oldest lines, the North South line and East West line, were the only lines running with fixed block signalling. The North South line was upgraded to moving block CBTC in 2017, and the East West line upgraded in 2018. As of 27 May 2018, all MRT lines use the CBTC Moving Block system in normal daily operations and from 2 January 2019, the old signalling system ceased operations.[132] In comparison to the original fixed block system, the CBTC can reduce train intervals from 120 seconds to 100 seconds, allowing for a 20% increase in capacity and is able to support bidirectional train operations on a single track, enabling trains to be diverted onto another track in the event of a fault on one track. The CBTC system also permits for improved braking performance in wet weather as compared to the original fixed-block ATC.[133][134][135][136]

All new MRT lines built since the North East line in 2003 were equipped with CBTC from the outset, and have the capability to be completely driverless and automated, requiring no on-board staffing. Operations are monitored remotely from the operations control centre of the respective lines. Trains are equipped with intercoms to allow passengers to communicate with staff during emergencies.[137][138][126]

DepotsEdit

 
Several MRT trains and a Deli diesel locomotive stabled at Ulu Pandan Depot

SMRT Corporation has five train depots: Bishan Depot is the central maintenance depot for the North South line with train overhaul facilities,[139] while Changi Depot and Ulu Pandan Depot inspect and house trains overnight.[140] The newer Tuas Depot, opened in 2017, provides the East West line with its own maintenance facility,[141] while Mandai Depot services trains for the Thomson–East Coast line.[142] The underground Kim Chuan Depot houses trains for the Circle and Downtown lines, now jointly managed by the two MRT operators.[143][144][145]

SBS Transit has three depots: Sengkang Depot houses trains for the North East line, the Sengkang LRT line, and the Punggol LRT line. Kim Chuan Depot is currently jointly operated with SMRT for the Downtown line. Major operations were shifted to the main Gali Batu Depot in 2015, although the Kim Chuan Depot will continue to operate on a minor capacity. Gali Batu Depot is the first MRT depot in Singapore to achieve the certification of Building and Construction Authority (BCA) Green Mark Gold.[146]

In August 2014, plans for the East Coast Integrated Depot, the world's first four-in-one train and bus depot were announced. It will be built at Tanah Merah beside the original Changi Depot site to serve the East West, Downtown, and Thomson–East Coast lines.[147] The new 36ha depot can house about 220 trains and 550 buses and integrating the depot for both buses and trains will help save close to 66.12 acres (26.76 ha), or 60 football fields of land.[148]

The Tengah Depot for the Jurong Region line will be situated at the western perimeter of Tengah, and an additional depot facility will be added near Peng Kang Hill station to support the operations of the JRL.[149] Rolling stock for the Jurong Region line will be stabled at both facilities. Tengah Depot will house the JRL Operations Control Centre and have a bus depot integrated with it to optimise land use.[150]

The Changi East Depot will serve the future Cross Island line, and the depot is to be placed at the eastern end of the line.[151]

An Integrated Rail Testing Centre with several test tracks for different situations and workshops for maintenance and refurbishment is also to be built at Tuas by 2022, with the main function being to test trains and integrated systems robustly before they are deployed on operational lines.[152][153]

Future expansionEdit

InfrastructureEdit

The following table lists the upcoming lines and stations that have been officially announced:

Line Stage Between Opening No. of
stations
Length
(km)
Depot Operator
New lines
Thomson–East Coast line 2 Springleaf Caldecott 2021 6 38.8 Mandai
East Coast
SMRT Trains
3 Mount Pleasant Gardens by the Bay 2021 13
4 Tanjong Rhu Bayshore 2023 7
5 Bedok South Sungei Bedok 2024 2
Jurong Region line 1 Choa Chu Kang Tawas
Boon Lay
2026 10 24 Tengah TBC
2 Tengah Plantation Pandan Reservoir 2027 6
3 Enterprise
Jurong Pier
Nanyang Gateway
Peng Kang Hill
2028 6
Cross Island line 1 Aviation Park Bright Hill 2029 12 29 Changi East TBC
Extensions / Single stations
North East line Extension Punggol Coast 2023 1 1.6 Sengkang SBS Transit
Downtown line 3e Xilin Sungei Bedok 2024 2 2.2 Gali Batu
East Coast
SBS Transit
Infill Hume 2025 1 0
Circle line 6 Keppel Prince Edward Road 2025 3 4 Kim Chuan SMRT Trains
Thomson–East Coast line 5e Sungei Bedok Tanah Merah 2040s TBC TBC Mandai
East Coast
SMRT Trains
Infill Founders' Memorial 2027 1 0
North South line Infill Brickland 2030s 1 0 Bishan
Ulu Pandan
SMRT Trains
Infill Sungei Kadut 2030s 1 0
Cross Island line Extension Elias Punggol 2031 3 7.3 Changi East TBC

The MRT system relied on its two main lines, the North South and East West lines, for more than a decade until the opening of the North East line in 2003. While plans for these lines as well as those currently under construction were formulated long before, the Land Transport Authority's publication of a White Paper titled "A World Class Land Transport System" in 1996 galvanised the government's intentions to greatly expand the system.[154][155] It called for the expansion of the 67 kilometres of track in 1995 to 360 in 2030.[154] It was expected that daily ridership in 2030 would grow to 6.0 million from the 1.4 million passengers at that time.[156]

New lines and extensions are mostly announced as part of the Land Transport Master Plan, which is announced every five years and outlines the government's intentions for the future of the transport network in Singapore. The latest plan, the Land Transport Master Plan 2040, was announced on 25 May 2019, and provides for line extensions to the Downtown and Thomson-East Coast lines, a new MRT line under study, and 2 new stations on the North South line.[157][158]

Downtown lineEdit

 
Map of the Downtown line

The 42-kilometre (26 mi), 34 station fully underground Downtown line connects the north-west and eastern regions of Singapore with a loop travelling through the city center. It commenced operations in three stages, with the initial Bugis to Chinatown segment in 2013, Bukit Panjang to Rochor in 2015 and Fort Canning to Expo in 2017.[43][159][160] An extension from Expo is planned to begin operations in 2024, adding an additional 2.2 kilometres and 2 stations to the line, terminating at Sungei Bedok and interchanging with the Thomson-East Coast line.[161] Hume is an infill station between Hillview and Beauty World and expected to open by 2025.[162] Upon Hume's opening, the entire line will be 44 kilometres long and have 37 stations in total.

A proposal has further been mooted to extend the line from Bukit Panjang towards Sungei Kadut which will interchange with the North South line. The extension is expected to be completed by the mid-2030s.[157]

Thomson–East Coast lineEdit

 
Map of the Thomson-East Coast line
 
Looking down from the concourse level onto the island platform of Woodlands station

The 43-kilometre (27 mi), 32 station fully underground Thomson–East Coast line is designed to connect the northern region of Singapore to the south,[163] running parallel to the existing North South line passing through Woodlands, Sin Ming, Upper Thomson, and Marina Bay[164] before turning east and running through Tanjong Rhu, Siglap, Marine Parade, and Bedok.[148] It commenced operation starting with Stage 1 from Woodlands North to Woodlands South on 31 January 2020.[165] The other four stages follow suit, with Stage 2 from Springleaf to Caldecott in Q1 2021[166], Stage 3 from Mount Pleasant to Gardens by the Bay in 2021,[167] Stage 4 from Tanjong Rhu to Bayshore in 2023 and Stage 5 from Bedok South to Sungei Bedok in 2024.[148] The northern terminus of Woodlands North is expected to interchange with the Johor Bahru–Singapore Rapid Transit System to provide access to Johor Bahru and the future Iskandar Malaysia Bus Rapid Transit. Founders' Memorial station is an infill station along Stage 4, but is scheduled to instead open in tandem with the Founders' Memorial in 2027.[168] In addition, the line would be the first in Singapore to provide for only cashless transactions.[169]

Line extension to Changi AirportEdit

In addition to the previously announced alignment of the Thomson–East Coast line, an extension has been proposed to connect it to Changi Airport, with the line passing through Terminal 5, and eventually absorbing the existing Changi Airport branch on the East West line. With such an extension, there would be a direct connection between Changi Airport and the city. This extension is expected to start operating by 2040.[170][157]

Jurong Region lineEdit

 
Map of the proposed Jurong Region line

First proposed as an LRT line when originally announced in 2001, the 20-kilometre (12 mi) Jurong Region line has since been upgraded to be a medium capacity line after the project was revived in 2013. The new configuration encompasses West Coast, Tengah and Choa Chu Kang and Jurong.

West Coast extensionEdit

Besides the original announced alignment of the line, a West Coast extension to the Circle line from the Jurong Region line is currently under study,[171] linking the West Coast region directly to Haw Par Villa, and allowing commuters on the Jurong Region line access to the central area of the city easily. If feasible, the extension would be ready by 2030.[172]

Cross Island lineEdit

 
Map of the proposed Cross Island line

The 50-kilometre (31 mi) Cross Island line is expected to span the island of Singapore, passing through Tuas, Jurong, Sin Ming, Ang Mo Kio, Hougang, Punggol, Pasir Ris, and Changi. The new line provides commuters with another alternative for East-West travel to the current East West line and Downtown line. Connected to all the other major lines, it is designed to serve as a key transfer line, complementing the role currently fulfilled by the orbital Circle line. Stage 1 of the line has been announced and consists of 29 kilometres and 12 stations, and is planned to be completed in 2029.[151] In addition, the extension to Punggol consists of three stations spanning 7.3 kilometers, and is planned to be completed by 2031.[157][173][174][175] Completion of the line is expected to take an even longer timeframe due to the environmental study aspects, targeted to be completed by 2030.[176]

Circle line Stage 6Edit

 
Map of the Circle line with Stage 6

The 4-kilometre (2.5 mi) extension Stage 6 from Marina Bay through Keppel, ending at HarbourFront, effectively completes the circle and links the current ends of the line, allowing for thorough service through the future Southern Waterfront City without the need to change to other lines.[176] Stage 6 comprises the Keppel, Cantonment, and Prince Edward Road stations. It is forecast to commence operations in 2025.

North East line extensionEdit

Originally scheduled to be completed by 2030, the 1.6-kilometre (0.99 mi) extension is being built from Punggol through Punggol North including the new Punggol Downtown to the new tentatively named Punggol Coast station. It is projected to open in 2023, a few years ahead of the expected opening date.[177][178] Construction of the extension commenced in the first half of 2018.[179]

Brickland and Sungei Kadut MRT stationsEdit

Two new stations are planned along the existing North South line. Brickland station is expected to be built between Bukit Gombak and Choa Chu Kang stations, while Sungei Kadut station is expected to be built between Yew Tee and Kranji stations. Both are expected to be completed by the mid-2030s.[157]

Proposed new line along north-east corridorEdit

As part of the Land Transport Master Plan 2040, a possible new rail line will be studied for feasibility. The proposed line runs from the Woodlands planning area to the Greater Southern Waterfront, passing through areas such as Sembawang, Sengkang, Serangoon North, Whampoa and Kallang. The line would potentially benefit 400,000 households and save up to 40 minutes of travel time to the city centre. If built, the line would be about 30 km long, and be completed as early as 2040.[170][157]

Fares and ticketingEdit

 
General Ticketing Machines (GTM) at Expo MRT station, where passengers can purchase a Standard Ticket, or add value to their EZ-Link card
 
Cubic ticket barriers at Woodlands North station, one type of the many access control gates in the MRT system.

Stations are divided into two areas, paid and unpaid, which allow the rail operators to collect fares by restricting entry only through the fare gates, also known as access control gates.[180] These gates, connected to a computer network, can read and update electronic tickets capable of storing data, and can store information such as the initial and destination stations and the duration for each trip.[181] General Ticketing Machines sell standard tickets that can be used up to 6 times within 30 days from the day of purchase.[182] The machines also allow the customer to buy additional value for stored-value smartcards. Such smartcards require a minimum amount of stored credit.[183]

As the fare system has been integrated by TransitLink, commuters need to pay only one fare and pass through two fare gates (once on entry, once on exit) for an entire journey for most interchange stations, even when transferring between lines operated by different companies.[181] Commuters can choose to extend a trip mid-journey, and pay the difference when they exit their destination station.[184]

FaresEdit

Because the rail operators are government-assisted, profit-based corporations, fares on the MRT system are pitched to at least break-even level.[54][185] The operators collect these fares by selling electronic data-storing tickets, the prices of which are calculated based on the distance between the start and destination stations.[181] These prices increase in fixed stages for standard non-discounted travel. Fares are calculated in increments based on approximate distances between stations, in contrast to the use of fare zones in other subway systems, such as the London Underground.[186][187][188]

Although operated by private companies, the system's fare structure is regulated by the Public Transport Council (PTC), to which the operators submit requests for changes in fares.[185][189] Fares are kept affordable by pegging them approximately to distance-related bus fares, thus encouraging commuters to use the network and reduce heavy reliance on the bus system. Fare increases have caused public concern.[190][191] Historically, fares on the fully underground North East, Circle, and Downtown lines had been higher than those of the North South and East West lines (NSEWL), a disparity that was justified by citing higher costs of operation and maintenance on a completely underground line. However, the Public Transport Council (PTC) announced in 2016 that fares for the three underground lines would be reduced to match those on the NSEWL, which took effect along with the yearly-applied fare changes, on 30 December 2016.[192][193]

After the opening of Downtown line Stage 3, Transport Minister Khaw Boon Wan announced that public transport fare rules will be reviewed to allow for transfers across MRT lines at different stations due to the increasing density of the rail network. At the time, commuters were charged a second time when they made such transfers. He added that the PTC would review distance-based fare transfer rules to ensure they continue to facilitate "fast, seamless" public transport journeys. The review of distance-based fare rules on MRT lines was completed, and a waiver on the second boarding fee incurred when making such transfers was announced on 22 March 2018. The scheme was implemented on 29 December of the same year.[194][195][196]

TicketingEdit

The ticketing system uses the EZ-Link and NETS FlashPay contactless smart cards based upon the Symphony for e-Payment (SeP) system for public transit built on the Singapore Standard for Contactless ePurse Application (CEPAS) system. This system allows for up to 4 card issuers in the market.[197] The EZ-Link card was introduced on 13 April 2002 as a replacement for the original TransitLink farecard,[198] while its competitor the NETS FlashPay card entered the smartcard market on 9 October 2009.[199]

A card may be purchased at any TransitLink ticket office or passenger service centre for immediate use.[197][200] The card may be topped up via cashless means at ticketing machines and ATMs or via cash at several stations or convenience stores. Additional credit of a predetermined value may also be automatically credited into the card when the card value runs low via an automatic recharge service provided by Interbank GIRO or credit card. An Adult Monthly Travel Card for unlimited travel on MRT, LRT, and buses may also be purchased and is non-transferable.

In 2017, TransitLink became the first public transport provider in Southeast Asia to accept contactless bank cards, which is called SimplyGo.[201][202][203] Support for adult EZ-Link cards is expected to be added in the near future, with a trial underway as of September 2020.[203][204]

A Standard Ticket contactless smart card for single or return journeys may also be purchased at the GTM for the payment of MRT and LRT fares. A S$0.10 deposit is levied on top of the fare to be paid. The deposit will be automatically refunded through an offset of the fare to be paid for the third journey on the same ticket while an additional discount of S$0.10 will be given for the sixth journey on the same ticket. No refund of the deposit is provided if the card is used for fewer than 3 journeys. The ticket can be used for the purchase of single or return journeys to and from pre-selected stations up to a maximum of six journeys over 30 days. Fares for the Standard Ticket are always higher than those charged for the stored-valued CEPAS (EZ-Link and NETS FlashPay) cards for the same distance traveled. The ticket is retained by the user after each journey and does not need to be returned. Identical to the usage of CEPAS cards, the ticket is tapped onto the faregate reader upon entry and exit.

For tourists, a Singapore Tourist Pass contactless smartcard may be purchased for use on the public transport network.[205] The card may be bought at selected TransitLink ticket offices and Singapore Visitors Centres.[206]

SafetyEdit

Operators and authorities have stated that numerous measures had been taken to ensure the safety of passengers, and SBS Transit publicised the safety precautions on the driverless North East line before and after its opening.[115][207] Safety campaign posters are highly visible in trains and stations, and the operators frequently broadcast safety announcements to passengers and to commuters waiting for trains. Fire safety standards are consistent with the strict guidelines of the US National Fire Protection Association.[56][208]

Full-height platform screen doors were already installed in underground stations since 1987, supplied by Westinghouse.[209] There were calls for platform screen doors to be installed at elevated stations after several incidents in which passengers were killed by oncoming trains when they fell onto the railway tracks at elevated stations. The authorities initially rejected such calls by casting doubts over functionality and concerns about the high installation costs.[210] Nevertheless, the LTA reversed its decision and made plans to install half-height platform screen doors in all elevated stations on 25 January 2008.[211][212] The first platform screen doors by ST Electronics[213] were installed at Jurong East, Pasir Ris, and Yishun stations in 2009 under trials to test their feasibility.[214]

By 14 March 2012, all elevated stations have been retrofitted with the doors and are operational.[215] These doors prevent suicides and unauthorised access to restricted areas. Under the Rapid Transit Systems Act, acts such as smoking, eating or drinking in stations and trains, the misuse of emergency equipment and trespassing on the railway tracks are illegal, with penalties ranging from fines to imprisonment.[216][217]

There were a few major accidents in the history of the MRT that raised safety concerns among the public. On 5 August 1993, two trains collided at Clementi station because of an oil spillage on the track, which resulted in 132 injuries.[218] During the construction of the Circle line on 20 April 2004, a tunnel being constructed under Nicoll Highway collapsed and led to the deaths of four people.[219] On 15 November 2017, at 8:20 a.m., two trains collided at Joo Koon station, injuring 36 passengers and 2 SMRT staff.[220][221]

COVID-19 measuresEdit

 
Social distancing markers were pasted in the MRT train to remind commuters to minimize contact with each other

Before the circuit breaker measures (a government term for a partial stay home order), many commuters had criticized the public transport operators and the LTA for not controlling the crowds and failing to enforce social distancing on public transport.[222] In response, the LTA rolled out a series of precautionary measures, such as social distancing measures and making the wearing of masks in public transport mandatory.[223][224][225] Social distancing markers were progressively implemented in the MRT trains and stations which commuters must adhere to; enforced by auxiliary officers and transport ambassadors.[226] The significant reduction of commuters resulted in the transport operators reducing train frequencies and closing stations earlier from 17 April.[227][228][229] This was met with public backlash as it caused overcrowding on certain routes of the system. The train frequencies were subsequently reverted back to normal upon review.[230][231][232]

Since June 2020, the MRT system had returned back to pre-circuit breaker operations. Regulations for social distancing on public transport are no longer applicable by law. Social distancing stickers on seats were removed. However, commuters are encouraged to social distance wherever possible. Mask wearing continues to be mandatory on public transport and all other public places in Singapore. This is because all employees are being required to report back to work as soon as possible and all students resume physical schooling.[233][234][235][236] Cleaning efforts on the trains and MRT stations have since been stepped up, with hand sanitizers provided at the stations.[237]

PerformanceEdit

Disruptions to the system from 2011 to 2018, the cause of which often being cited by a lack of maintenance coupled with increased ridership due to population growth,[238][239] have also raised concerns among the public.

Beginning with the major train disruptions on the North South line in 2011, this incident led to a Committee of Inquiry, which uncovered serious shortcomings in SMRT Corporation's maintenance regime.[240] For the December 2011 disruptions, the Land Transport Authority imposed a maximum punishment of S$2 million on SMRT (approximately US$1.526 million) for the two train disruptions along the North South line on 15 and 17 December 2011.[241] A Committee of Inquiry discovered shortcomings in the maintenance regime and checks, prompting then-CEO Saw Phaik Hwa to resign.[242] Since then, every MRT line had since been plagued with disruptions of various degrees of severity.

A much larger power-related incident than the December 2011 event occurred on 7 July 2015, when train services on both the North South and East West lines were shut down in both directions following a major power trip.[243] The disruption lasted for more than 3 hours, affecting 250,000 commuters. This was considered the worst disruption to the MRT network since it first began operations in 1987 – surpassing the December 2011 event. Independent experts from Sweden and Japan were hired to conduct investigation into the cause of the disruption. The cause was identified as damage to a third rail insulator due to a water leak at Tanjong Pagar station. Consequently, a program was implemented to replace insulators liable to similar failure.[244] For the July 2015 disruption, LTA imposed a higher penalty of S$5.4 million on SMRT.[245]

On 22 March 2016, a fatal accident occurred off Pasir Ris station. Two of SMRT's track-maintenance trainee staff were lethally run over by an approaching C151 at a signalling box of the station.[246] They were part of a technical team of 15 staff led by a supervisor and were asked to go down to the tracks to investigate an alarm triggered by a possible signalling equipment fault. The operator said the team had permission to access the tracks, but did not coordinate with a signal unit in the station control to ensure train captains in the area where the team was exercised caution while pulling into Pasir Ris station.[247] This incident resulted in a 2.5-hour service delay between Tanah Merah and Pasir Ris Stations, affecting at least 10,000 commuters.[248]

Impact and criticismEdit

While Singaporeans began to notice some issues with the MRT system in terms of overcrowding, the December 2011 disruptions brought the state of public transportation as a whole to national and international prominence.[249] LTA also noted a marked increase in dissatisfaction with public transport with the release of the 2012 Public Transport Customer Satisfaction Survey, and promised government action to deal with issues relating to MRT and LRT disruptions.[250]

The government reviewed the penalties for train disruptions,[249] and made free travel available for all bus services passing MRT stations affected during any train disruptions. Exits were also made free.[251]

To increase satisfaction with the public transport, free off-peak morning travel, later changed to a discount, was introduced while improvements are ongoing.[249]

Despite efforts to increase maintenance efforts, on 7 October 2017, a poorly maintained float and pump system at Bishan station caused a tunnel flood from a torrential rainstorm. It was the worst train disruption since 2011 and the first ever flooding incident in MRT history that lasted almost a day, disrupting services underground.[252] This also resulted in further loss of public confidence and a huge debate among netizens and Singaporeans about the "high rankings" that manage the system, with calls being made for the resignation of Transport Minister Khaw Boon Wan.[253] Urban transport expert Dr Park Byung Joon has said that the negligence displayed by SMRT in this regard is tantamount to a criminal offence, and after an internal investigation, found that the maintenance crew of the Bishan Station's pump system had submitted maintenance records for nearly a year without actually carrying out the works.[254]

Despite these setbacks, efforts in both maintenance and renewal are starting to pay off with the MRT system clocking an average of 690,000 km between delays in 2018 – 3.8 times better than in 2017. The North South line, which was hit by the tunnel flood in 2017, in particular saw its train-km between delays increase by ten-fold from 89,000 km between delays in 2017 to 894,000 km in 2018.[255] By July 2019, the Mean Kilometres Between Failure (MKBF) for the North South and East West lines had jumped to 700,000 km and 1,400,000 km respectively, with the latter now on par with the Hong Kong MTR and Taipei Metro.[256] The new challenges encountered by the Government were now on keeping the funding of the renewals required sustainable.[257]

SecurityEdit

 
Closed-circuit television cameras monitor activities at City Hall station. A real-time video feed is broadcast and shown at the station concourse.
 
Airport scanners and security seen at Tampines MRT station.

Security concerns related to crime and terrorism were not high on the agenda of the system's planners at its inception.[258] After the Madrid train bombings in 2004 and the foiled plot to bomb the Yishun MRT station in 2001,[259] the operators deployed private, unarmed guards to patrol station platforms and conduct checks on the belongings of commuters, especially those carrying bulky items.[260]

Recorded announcements are frequently made to remind passengers to report suspicious activity and not to leave their belongings unattended. Digital closed-circuit cameras (CCTVs) have been upgraded with recording-capability at all stations and trains operated by SMRT Corporation.[261][262] Trash bins and mail boxes have been removed from station platforms and concourse levels to station entrances, to eliminate the risk of bombs planted in them.[263] Photography without permission was also banned in all MRT stations since the Madrid bombings, but it was not in the official statement in any public transport security reviews.[264]

In 2005, the Singapore Police Force announced plans to step up rail security by establishing a specialised security unit for public transport, then known as the Police MRT unit. The unit today expanded to become Public Transport Security Command (TRANSCOM) since 2009.[265][266] These armed officers began overt patrols on the MRT and LRT systems on 15 August 2005, conducting random patrols in pairs in and around rail stations and within trains.[267] They are trained and authorised to use their firearms at their discretion, including deadly force if deemed necessary.[268] The unit over time went on to handle other crimes committed on the MRT network, such as theft and molestation. Recently, on its tenth anniversary in 2019, it has formally evolved to become a hybrid, community-based force, and has launched an initiative to get commuters to aid Transcom officers. Since then, 26,000 people have volunteered, far above the 3000 target.[266]

Civil exercises are regularly conducted to maintain preparedness for contingencies. In January 2006, Exercise Northstar V involved over 2,000 personnel from 22 government agencies responding to simulated bombings and chemical attacks at Dhoby Ghaut, Toa Payoh, Raffles Place and Marina Bay stations.[269] In August 2013, Exercise Greyhound tested the response of SBS Transit's Operations Control Centre and the implementation of its contingency plans for bus bridging, free bus service and deployment of Goodwill Ambassadors (GAs) during a simulated prolonged train service disruption. About 300 personnel including representatives from LTA, SBST, SMRT, the Singapore Police Force's Transport Command (TransCom), Traffic Police and Singapore Civil Defence Force (SCDF) participated in the exercise.[270]

Security concerns were brought up by the public when two incidents of vandalism at train depots occurred within two years.[271] In both incidents, graffiti on the affected trains was discovered after they entered revenue service.[272] The first incident, on 17 May 2010, involved a breach in the perimeter fence of Changi Depot and resulted in the imprisonment and caning of a Swiss citizen, and an Interpol arrest warrant for his accomplice.[273][274] SMRT Corporation received a S$50,000 fine by the Land Transport Authority for the first security breach.[274] Measures were put in place by the Public Transport Security Committee to enhance depot security in light of the first incident, but works were yet to be completed by SMRT Corporation when the second incident, on 17 August 2011, occurred at Bishan Depot.[271][272]

Network mapEdit

 

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Circle Line, Downtown Line
  2. ^ Thomson-East Coast Line, Jurong Region Line
  3. ^ North South Line, East West Line, North East Line
  4. ^ Cross Island Line
  5. ^ North South Line, East West Line, Circle Line, Downtown Line, Thomson-East Coast Line, Jurong Region Line
  6. ^ North East Line, Cross Island Line
  7. ^ Circle Line (service)
  8. ^ North South Line, East West Line, Downtown Line (service)
  9. ^ North East Line, Thomson-East Coast Line (service)
  10. ^ Singapore's heavy rail network is composed of four distinct systems. Two of the four are rapid transit networks, chiefly the MRT system, which falls entirely within the city-state and forms the core of the network, and the planned two-station cross-border Johor Bahru–Singapore rapid transit system, which is expected to open in the mid-2020s, and will link to the mainline MRT.

    The other two systems include one currently operational cross-border intercity service from Singapore's Woodlands Train Checkpoint to Malaysia, as well as the planned Kuala Lumpur–Singapore high-speed rail system.
  11. ^ Excluding ridership figures for the Light Rail Transit (LRT).
  12. ^ Excluding privatised light rail and people mover systems that operate outside of the purview of the state and are thus not part of the mainline public transportation network, like the Sentosa Express and the Changi Airport Skytrain.
  13. ^ Although the MRT opened 3 years after the Manila Light Rail Transit System in the Philippines, the latter opened as a light rail system and operated as one for several years before gradually transitioning to a rapid transit system. In this respect, Singapore's MRT is the first operational rapid transit system in Southeast Asia.
  14. ^ NSEWL: S$12.0 billion
    NEL: S$5.39 billion
    CCL: S$15.67 billion
    DTL: S$20.7 billion
    TEL: S$25.0 billion
    JRL, various stages + Tengah Depot: S$2.55 billion
    East Coast Integrated Depot: S$3.2 billion
    Integrated Train Testing Centre (ITTC): S$639.5 million
    Rolling stock: S$5.7 billion
    NSEWL asset renewal (excluding CR151 asset cost, including CR151 service support cost): >S$1.68 billion
    NEL asset renewal: S$117 million
    CCL asset renewal: Figures unavailable
  15. ^ Canberra infill station
  16. ^ Sungei Kadut and Brickland infill stations
  17. ^ Tuas West extension
  18. ^ Circle line extension
  19. ^ Circle line Stage 6
  20. ^ Excluding Bukit Brown MRT Station, which is not in operation
  21. ^ Thomson–East Coast line Stage 1
  22. ^ Thomson–East Coast line Stage 2
  23. ^ Woodleigh station
  24. ^ North East line extension
  25. ^ Downtown line Stage 3
  26. ^ Downtown line Stage 3e
  27. ^ Excluding duplicating interchange stations.
  28. ^ Fixed Block = Conventional Fixed Block using line of Sight. Fixed Block-Speed Coded = Fixed Block using Coded Track Circuits. DTG-TC = Fixed Block-Distance to Go using Track Circuits. DTG-R = Fixed-Block-Distance-to-Go using Radio. Moving Block TBTC = Moving Block using Induction Loops. Moving Block CBTC = Moving Block using Radio.

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Academic publicationsEdit

  • Sock, Y.P. & Walder, Jay H. (1999). Singapore's Public Transport.

Corporate and governmental sourcesEdit

  • Sharp, Ilsa (2005). The Journey — Singapore's Land Transport Story. SNP:Editions. ISBN 978-981-248-101-6.
  • Land Transport Authority, Singapore (2 January 1996). A World Class Land Transport System — White Paper presented to Parliament. ISBN 978-9971-88-488-8.
  • Mass Rapid Transit Corporation, Singapore (1993). Stored Value — A Decade of the MRTC. ISBN 978-981-00-5034-4.
  • Mass Rapid Transit Corporation, Singapore (1988). The MRT Story. ISBN 978-981-00-0251-0.
  • Singapore MRT Limited (1987). MRT Guide Book. ISBN 978-981-00-0150-6.
  • Mass Rapid Transit Corporation (MRTC) and Institution of Engineers Singapore (IES) (1987). Mass Rapid Transit System : Proceedings of the Singapore Mass Rapid Transit Conference, Singapore 6–9 April 1987. ISBN 978-9971-84-636-7.

External linksEdit