Circle MRT line

The Circle MRT Line (CCL) is a medium-capacity Mass Rapid Transit line in Singapore operated by SMRT Corporation. It runs a currently incomplete loop from Dhoby Ghaut station in the city area of Singapore to HarbourFront station in the south via Bishan station in Central Singapore. It also has a branch to Marina Bay station from Promenade station, which will be extended to Harbourfront station in the future to form a complete loop. Coloured orange on the rail map, the fully-underground line is 35.5 kilometres (22.1 mi) long with 30 stations. Travelling from one end of the line to the other takes about an hour.

MRT Singapore Destination 8 (1).png MRT Singapore Destination 9.png MRT Singapore Destination 10.png
Circle Line
Circle Line logo.svg
CC15 Bishan MRT Platform B.jpg
C830C trainset at Bishan station bound for Marina Bay station during morning peak hours
Overview
Native nameLaluan MRT Bulatan  (Malay)
地铁环线 (Chinese)
இணைப்பு எம்ஆர்டி வழி (Tamil)
TypeRapid transit
SystemMass Rapid Transit (Singapore)
StatusOperational
Under construction (Stage 6)
LocaleSingapore
TerminiDhoby Ghaut
Stadium[a]
HarbourFront
Marina Bay
Stations30 (Operational)
3 (Under construction)
Services3
Daily ridership398,000 (May 2015)
Operation
Planned opening2025; 5 years' time (2025) (Stage 6)
Future (Bukit Brown MRT station)
Opened28 May 2009; 11 years ago (2009-05-28) (Stage 3)
17 April 2010; 10 years ago (2010-04-17) (Stages 1 and 2)
8 October 2011; 8 years ago (2011-10-08) (Stages 4 and 5)
14 January 2012; 8 years ago (2012-01-14) (Circle Line extension)
OwnerLand Transport Authority
Operator(s)SMRT Trains Ltd (SMRT Corporation)
CharacterFully Underground
Depot(s)Kim Chuan
Rolling stockC830
C830C
C851E (Future)
Technical
Line length35.5 km (22.1 mi) (Operational)
4 km (2.5 mi) (Under construction)
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge
Electrification750 V DC third rail
Operating speedlimit of 78 km/h (48 mph)
Route map
Circle MRT Line
Left arrow Jurong East
 
Left arrow HarbourFront
  Punggol Right arrow
 CC1  NS24  NE6 
Dhoby Ghaut
 
  Expo Right arrow
 CC2 
Bras Basah
 CC3 
Esplanade
 CE2  NS27  TE20 
Marina Bay
Left arrow Marina South Pier
 
 CE1  DT16 
Bayfront
 CC4  DT15 
Promenade
Bukit Panjang Right arrow
 
 CC5 
Nicoll Highway
 CC6 
Stadium
 CC7 
Mountbatten
 CC8 
Dakota
Geylang River
 CC9  EW8 
Paya Lebar
Left arrow Pasir Ris
  Tuas Link Right arrow
 CC10  DT26 
MacPherson
Left arrow Expo
  Bukit Panjang Right arrow
 CC11 
Tai Seng
Kim Chuan Depot
 CC12 
Bartley
Left arrow Punggol
  HarbourFront Right arrow
 CC13  NE12 
Serangoon
 CC14 
Lorong Chuan
 CC15  NS17 
Bishan
Left arrow Jurong East
  Marina South Pier Right arrow
 CC16 
Marymount
Left arrow Woodlands North
 
 CC17  TE9 
Caldecott
  Gardens by the Bay Right arrow
 
 CC18 
Bukit Brown
Left arrow Bukit Panjang
  Expo Right arrow
 CC19  DT9 
Botanic Gardens
 CC20 
Farrer Road
 CC21 
Holland Village
Left arrow Tuas Link
  Pasir Ris Right arrow
 CC22  EW21 
Buona Vista
 CC23 
one-north
 CC24 
Kent Ridge
 CC25 
Haw Par Villa
 CC26 
Pasir Panjang
 CC27 
Labrador Park
 CC28 
Telok Blangah
 CC29  NE1 
HarbourFront
  Punggol Right arrow
 
 CC30 
Keppel
 CC31 
Cantonment
 CC32 
Prince Edward Road

The line is the fourth MRT line to be opened, with the first stage (from Bartley to Marymount stations) commencing operations on 28 May 2009 after delays due to the Nicoll Highway collapse. The next stage to Dhoby Ghaut station was completed on 17 April 2010 and the next stage to Harbourfront opened on 8 October 2011. A two-station extension to Marina Bay station was completed on 14 February 2012. The last stage of the line from Harbourfront to Marina Bay will be completed in 2026, completing the loop.

It is the second in Singapore to be completely automated and driverless and is among the world's longest driverless rapid transit lines.[1] As of May 2015, the daily ridership is 398,000.[2] It is also the first medium capacity line in Singapore, with each Circle Line train, the C830 and C830C, having a three-car configuration.

HistoryEdit

Original plansEdit

The Circle Line dates back to 1989, when then Minister for Communications and Information, Yeo Ning Hong stated that such a system would be "feasible when the population reaches four million", noting the slow population growth and demand.[3]

Feasibility studies for the proposed line commenced on 11 October 1994. The line, then named the Marina Line, was announced on 12 June 1998, as a 12-station underground line (upgraded from LRT to a 3-car MRT line), starting from Chinatown and Dhoby Ghaut via the National Stadium to either Kallang or Paya Lebar stations.[4] However, the Chinatown leg was later removed and the line was reduced to 6 stations up to Stadium station. A part of the removed leg later became part of the Downtown line.[5] On the other hand, a further extension towards Upper Paya Lebar was announced on 28 April 2001.[6] The Marina Line was also merged with a planned LRT line that goes from Paya Lebar to Buona Vista via Serangoon and Bishan to form Circle Line Stage 3 on 20 January 2003,[7] and subsequently Circle Line Stage 4 and 5 on 12 December 2003 when Stage 4 was extended from Buona Vista to World Trade Centre to close up the link and to provide connectivity from the west to Sentosa, becoming the Circle Line.[8][9] On 8 August 2001, SMRT won the bid and was appointed the operator of the Circle Line.[10] Names for the stations for the first three stages of the Circle line were finalised on July 2005 after the Land Transport Authority (LTA) conducted a public consultation exercise on the naming of stations.[11][12] In November 2005, the names of the stations in Stages 4 and 5 were finalised.[13][14][15]

Construction of the initial stagesEdit

 
The construction of Bishan station.

Construction started on 13 March 2002 for Stage 1, 5 September 2002 for Stage 2, May 2003 for Stage 3, and January 2005 for Stages 4 and 5. Initially planned to be opened in stages from 2006 to 2010, at an estimated cost of S$6.7 billion, the Nicoll Highway collapse delayed the opening of the first stage to 2009. When the line fully opened on 8 October 2011, the cost of construction had risen to nearly S$10 billion.[16][17] Due to the collapse, the station was relocated to a new site two-thirds the size of the original 100 metres (330 ft) away.[18] Three stations on the Circle Line were initially designed as 'shell stations', but the decision was made to open two of them, Caldecott and Haw Par Villa (previously Thomson and West Coast respectively), leaving Bukit Brown as the only unopened station on the line.[16]

The first section of the line, Stage 3, a 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) five-station segment stretching from Bartley to Marymount, opened on 28 May 2009.[19][20] Initial ridership on this section was lower than estimated, at 32,000 passengers per day (ppd) instead of the estimated 55,000 ppd.[21] Tunneling works for the entire line were completed on 17 August 2009.[22] Stages 1 and 2 started operations on 17 April 2010,[23][24] followed by Stages 4 and 5 (from the Marymount to HarbourFront stations) on 8 October 2011.[25][26][27][28] A two-station extension to Marina Bay opened on 14 January 2012.[29][30][31][32]

Circle Line Stage 6Edit

On 17 January 2013, the Land Transport Authority (LTA) announced 'Circle Line Stage 6' which will 'close the circle', set to be completed by 2025.[33] The 4 km extension will run between Marina Bay and HarbourFront.[34][35] The extension will connect commuters between the HarbourFront to Marina Bay stations and expand the rail network to the southern edge of the Central Business District. On 29 October 2015, LTA announced the station locations for Stage 6, with the working names of the stations being Keppel, Cantonment and Prince Edward. Tenders were called for construction between 2016 and 2017.[36][37][38]

On 15 May 2017, the LTA invited the public to send in suggestions for names of the three MRT stations or propose to keep their current names.[39][40] The Keppel and Cantonment stations kept their names, while Prince Edward station has been changed to 'Prince Edward Road' station.[41]

Construction of Stage 6 commenced in late 2017. A joint venture – by China State Construction Engineering (The Singapore branch) and Nishimatsu Construction – won the contract to build the new Keppel MRT station and its associated tunnels.[42][43]

IncidentsEdit

Nicoll Highway collapseEdit

On 20 April 2004, a section of the tunnel being built for the Circle Line collapsed, when a retaining wall used in the tunnel's construction gave way. This incident occurred near the proposed site of the Nicoll Highway station, not far from the Merdeka Bridge. The accident left a collapse zone that was 150 metres (490 ft) wide, 100 metres (330 ft) long, and 30 metres (98 ft) deep. Four workers were killed, and three were injured.[44]

A criminal inquiry found the main contractor Nishimatsu Construction Company and joint venture partner firm Lum Chang Construction Company and their officers, as well as key Land Transport Authority officers responsible for the collapse. Several other officers and subcontractors were reprimanded and issued warnings in connection with the accident.[44]

As a result of this accident, the first phase of the Circle Line, previously scheduled to open in 2008, was completed in 2009 instead. The affected station has been shifted about 100 metres (330 ft) away from the accident site and is now located at Republic Avenue.

This accident also resulted in stricter safety regulations for the construction of all future MRT lines. The shifting of the Nicoll Highway station also meant it can no longer serve as a terminus for the Bukit Timah Line, partially influencing the creation of the current Downtown Line.[citation needed]

Other incidentsEdit

On 16 August 2007, the Building and Construction Authority (BCA) issued a stop-work order and revoked the contractor's tunnelling permit after a 7-metre (23 ft) stretch of two lanes close to the junction of Telok Blangah Road and Alexandra Road sank about 20 centimetres (7.9 in) that evening.[45]

A section of the road above a construction site near Holland Road caved in on the morning of 24 May 2008, creating a hole. The hole, directly in front of two private houses along Cornwall Gardens, measured 8 by 7 metres and was 3 metres deep. No one was injured, but the road was temporarily closed to traffic.[46]

Line disruptionsEdit

On 20 September 2011, a power fault disrupted train services at all 16 stations on the Circle Line. The four-hour delay left thousands of commuters stranded during rush-hour. It was reported that leaks and a damaged electrical cable along the Circle Line were the cause of the disruption.[47] The disruption started at about 5.30 am. Train services were gradually restored from 8 am and all services were restored just before 10 am. Dakota and Mountbatten stations were the last two to resume operations.[48] Investigations were carried out, and the fault was traced back to a faulty cable beneath the platform level at Dakota station.[49] 27,000 passengers were affected by the disruption during the four hour delay, with bus bridging services plying the Circle Line route.[50]

In late August 2016, intermittent signal interference led to a five-day series of train disruptions. The issue reappeared in November.[51][52] A team of data scientists explored the data and discovered via a Marey Chart visualization that it was caused by hardware problems, sending errant signals from a "rogue" train, PV46.[53][54]

Network and operationsEdit

RouteEdit

 
Geographically accurate map of the Circle line.

The 35.5-kilometre (22.1 mi) Circle line forms an incomplete loop from Dhoby Ghaut in the Central Region of Singapore, north to Serangoon and Bishan, and south to HarbourFront, with a branch from Promenade to Marina Bay station which will be extended to HarbourFront in the future. The fully-underground circular route also makes several links with the other MRT lines.[55] The line begins at Dhoby Ghaut station, which has an interchange with the North South and North East lines,[56] going eastwards and paralleling Bras Basah Road and Raffles Boulevard, before joining the Circle line extension at Promenade station, which also interchanges with the Downtown line.[57][58] From Promenade station, the line goes northwards and towards the east, passing beneath the Kallang Basin.[59] Between the Stadium and Dakota stations, the line parallels Stadium Boulevard and Old Airport Road, then the line continues northwards and follows the route of Paya Lebar Road and Upper Paya Lebar Road between the Paya Lebar (which interchanges with the East West line) and Tai Seng stations.[60]

The line curves and continues westwards between the Bartley and Marymount stations, also interchanging with the North East and North South lines at Serangoon and Bishan stations respectively,[61] and then it continues in a general southwest direction between Caldecott and Kent Ridge,[62]passing through Bukit Brown Cemetery between the Caldecott and Botanic Gardens stations.[63] The line also interchanges with the Downtown line at Botanic Gardens station and the East West line at Buona Vista station. After Kent Ridge station, the line curves eastwards, paralleling the West Coast Highway and then terminating at HarbourFront station, where it interchanges with the North East line.[64]

From 2026, upon the completion of Stage 6, the Circle line will continue westwards from Harbourfront, paralleling Keppel Road and Ayer Rajah Expressway, and joins the Circle line extension at Marina Bay station.[65] The Circle line extension from Marina Bay to Promenade station generally parallels the Downtown line and Bayfront Avenue, also passing underneath Marina Bay Sands at Bayfront station, which it serves and has cross-platform interchange with the Downtown line.[66]

StationsEdit

Station Number Station Name Images Interchange/Notes
 CC1  NS24  NE6  Dhoby Ghaut   Interchange with the North South line and the North East line
 CC2  Bras Basah  
 CC3  Esplanade  
 CC4  DT15  Promenade   Interchange with the Downtown line

Change for train services towards Bayfront or Marina Bay stations

 CC5  Nicoll Highway    
 CC6  Stadium   Marina Bay shuttle terminus during off-peak hours
 CC7  Mountbatten  
 CC8  Dakota    
 CC9  EW8  Paya Lebar   Interchange with the East West line
 CC10  DT26  MacPherson   Interchange with the Downtown line
 CC11  Tai Seng    
 CC12  Bartley    
 CC13  NE12  Serangoon   Interchange with the North East line
 CC14  Lorong Chuan    
 CC15  NS17  Bishan   Interchange with the North South line
 CC16  Marymount    
 CC17  TE9  Caldecott   Interchange with the Thomson-East Coast line (2020)
 CC18  Bukit Brown   Reserve station to be open at a later date
 CC19  DT9  Botanic Gardens   Interchange with the Downtown line
 CC20  Farrer Road    
 CC21  Holland Village    
 CC22  EW21  Buona Vista   Interchange with the East West line
 CC23  one-north    
 CC24  Kent Ridge    
 CC25  Haw Par Villa    
 CC26  Pasir Panjang    
 CC27  Labrador Park    
 CC28  Telok Blangah    
 CC29  NE1  HarbourFront   Interchange with the North East line
Stage 6 (under construction, to be ready by 2025)
 CC30  Keppel
 CC31  Cantonment
 CC32  Prince Edward Road
Circle Line extension
 CE1  DT16 
 CC34  DT16  (from 2025)
Bayfront   Cross-Platform Interchange with the Downtown line
 CE2  NS27  TE20 
 CC33  NS27  TE20  (from 2025)
Marina Bay   Interchange with the North South line and the Thomson-East Coast line (2021)

The Circle Line's numbering scheme reserves station code "CC18" for future use.

Rolling stockEdit

The rolling stock consists of 40[67] Alstom Metropolis C830 trains[68] running in three-car formation. They are stabled at Kim Chuan Depot, which was the world's largest underground depot when it opened in 2009.[69] 24 new Alstom Metropolis & Shanghai Electric C830C trains were delivered to SMRT from end July 2014.[70][71] They began operation on 26 June 2015. Currently, all 24 C830Cs are in revenue service.

The automated CBTC system on board relies on "continuous two-way digital communication" between each controlled train and the control centre.

To facilitate the extension of the line with the construction of Stage 6, a tender for additional trains for the line was published on 31 March 2017.[72]

Train controlEdit

The Circle Line is equipped with Alstom Urbalis 300 Communications-based train control (CBTC) moving block signalling system on the MASTRIA system with Automatic train control (ATC) under Automatic train operation (ATO) GoA 4 (UTO).[73][74] The subsystems consist of Automatic train protection (ATP) to govern train speed, Iconis Automatic Train Supervision (ATS) to track and schedule trains and Smartlock Computer-based interlocking (CBI) system that prevents incorrect signal and track points to be set.

Train Data Management System (TDMS) which concentrate and dispatch the rolling stock information with fixed equipment. The IAGO Waveguide communications network has the capability to transmit video and is almost maintenance-free. Base stations are located within the signalling equipment room.

Automatic platform screen doors supplied by Westinghouse provide safety for commuters, offering protection from arriving and departing trains.

Notes and referencesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Terminus for Marina Bay shuttle during off-peak hours

ReferencesEdit

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External linksEdit