Lee Hsien Loong

Lee Hsien Loong (born 10 February 1952) is a Singaporean politician serving as the 3rd Prime Minister of Singapore since August 2004. Lee is the eldest son of the first prime minister, Lee Kuan Yew. He has served as Leader and Secretary-General of the People's Action Party (PAP) since December 2004, when his predecessor, Goh Chok Tong, stepped down to become the Senior Minister. Lee then led the party to victory in the 2006, 2011, 2015 and 2020 general elections. His current term began on 27 July 2020, after the 2020 general elections.

Lee Hsien Loong

Lee Hsien Loong June 2018.JPG
Lee Hsien Loong in 2018
3rd Prime Minister of Singapore
Assumed office
12 August 2004
PresidentS. R. Nathan (2004–2011)
Tony Tan (2011–2017)
Halimah Yacob (2017–present)
DeputyTony Tan (2004–2005)
S. Jayakumar (2004–2009)
Wong Kan Seng (2005–2011)
Teo Chee Hean (2009–2019)
Tharman Shanmugaratnam (2011–2019)
Heng Swee Keat
Preceded byGoh Chok Tong
ConstituencyAng Mo Kio GRC
3rd Secretary-General of the People's Action Party
Assumed office
3 December 2004
Preceded byGoh Chok Tong
Minister for Finance
In office
10 November 2001 – 1 December 2007
Serving with Tony Tan
Prime MinisterGoh Chok Tong
DeputyTony Tan
Preceded byRichard Hu
Succeeded byTharman Shanmugaratnam
Deputy Prime Minister of Singapore
In office
28 November 1990 – 12 August 2004
Prime MinisterGoh Chok Tong
Preceded byGoh Chok Tong
Succeeded byS. Jayakumar
Member of the Singapore Parliament
for Ang Mo Kio GRC
Teck Ghee SMC (1984 - 1991)
Assumed office
22 December 1984
Preceded byConstituency established
Personal details
Born (1952-02-10) 10 February 1952 (age 68)
Political partyPeople's Action Party (PAP)
Wong Ming Yang
m. 1978; died 1982)

m. 1985)
  • Li Xiuqi (daughter)
  • Li Yipeng (son)
  • Li Hongyi (son)
  • Li Haoyi (son)
MotherKwa Geok Choo
FatherLee Kuan Yew
RelativesLee Hsien Yang (brother)
Lee Wei Ling (sister)
Alma materTrinity College, Cambridge
Harvard University
United States Army Command and General Staff College
WebsiteLee Hsien Loong on Facebook
Military service
Allegiance Singapore
Branch/service Singapore Army
Years of service1971–1984
Rank08-RSA-OF06.svg Brigadier-General
CommandsDirector of the Joint Operations and Plans Directorate
Chief of Staff of the General Staff
Lee Hsien Loong
Lee Hsien Loong (Chinese characters).svg
Lee's name in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese李显龙
Traditional Chinese李顯龍

Lee graduated from Trinity College, Cambridge University, as Senior Wrangler, the top mathematics undergraduate in 1974, and gained a Diploma in Computer Science with distinction as well. He later earned a Master of Public Administration at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government. From 1971 to 1984, he served in the Singapore Armed Forces where he rose to the rank of brigadier general. He won his first election for Member of Parliament in 1984, contesting as a member of the People's Action Party. Under the leadership of Singapore's second prime minister, Goh Chok Tong, Lee had served as the Minister for Trade and Industry, Minister for Finance and Deputy Prime Minister.


The eldest child of Singapore's first Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew and his wife Kwa Geok Choo, Lee Hsien Loong was born at KK Women's and Children's Hospital in Singapore on 10 February 1952. [2]His paternal grandmother, Chua Jim Neo, was a Hokkien Hakka Nyonya, and his mother has ancestry from Tong'an District and Shantou in China.[3][4] According to Lee Kuan Yew's biography, the younger Lee had learnt the Jawi script from the age of five, and has always been interested in the affairs of Singapore, often following his father to the rally grounds since 1963.


Lee studied at Nanyang Primary School and received his secondary education at Catholic High School, before going on to National Junior College (where he learned the clarinet under the tutelage of Adjunct Associate Professor Ho Hwee Long). In 1971, he was awarded a President's Scholarship and Singapore Armed Forces Overseas Scholarship by the Public Service Commission to study mathematics at Trinity College, University of Cambridge. He was Senior Wrangler in 1973,[5][6] and graduated in 1974 with first-class honours in Mathematics and a Diploma in Computer Science (now equivalent to a master’s degree in Computer Science) with distinction. In 1980, he completed his master's degree in Public Administration at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.

Military careerEdit

Lee joined the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF) in 1971, and served as an officer from 1974 to 1984. In 1978, he attended the United States Army Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, and held various staff and command posts, including the Director of the Joint Operations and Plans Directorate (Director, JOPD), and Chief of Staff of the General Staff (COS, GS). Lee rose quickly through the ranks in the Singapore Army, becoming the youngest brigadier-general in Singaporean history after his promotion in July 1983. Notably, he was put in command of the rescue operations following the Sentosa Cable Car Disaster. Lee served as commanding officer (CO) of 23rd Singapore Artillery (23SA) in the Singapore Army before he left the SAF in 1984 to pursue civilian politics.[7][8]

Early political careerEdit

In the 1980s, Lee was regarded as the core member of the next batch of new leaders in the People's Action Party (PAP) leadership transition that was taking place in the mid-1980s, as Lee Kuan Yew had declared that he would step down as prime minister in 1984. Following the 1984 general election, all of the old Central Executive Committee members resigned on 1 January 1985, except for Lee Kuan Yew himself.[9]

Lee was first elected Member of Parliament (MP) for the Teck Ghee Single Member Constituency in 1984, at the age of 32. After his first election, he was appointed Minister of State in the Ministry of Trade and Industry and the Ministry of Defence by his father, who was prime minister at that time.

In 1985, Lee chaired the government's economic committee, which recommended changes to established government policies to reduce business costs, foster longer-term growth and revive the Singapore economy, which was experiencing a recession at the time. The committee's recommendations included reductions in corporate and personal taxes and the introduction of a consumption tax.

In 1986, Lee was appointed the acting minister for Trade and Industry. In 1987, he became a full member of the Cabinet as the minister for trade and Industry and second minister for defence.

Lee was the chairman of the PAP Youth Committee, the predecessor to the Young PAP, when it was established in 1986. Lee said the youth wing would be a channel to communicate dissent; otherwise they might be "tempted" to vote for the opposition political parties and bring the PAP government down.[10]

Deputy Prime MinisterEdit

On 28 November 1990, Goh Chok Tong took over from Lee Kuan Yew as Singapore's prime minister, and Lee Hsien Loong was made one of two Deputy Prime Ministers (along with Ong Teng Cheong). He also continued to serve as the Minister for Trade and Industry until 1992.

In 1992, Lee was diagnosed with lymphoma and underwent a three-month period of chemotherapy. When his treatment began, he relinquished his position as the Minister for Trade and Industry, though he continued to be a deputy prime minister. His chemotherapy was successful, and his cancer has since gone into remission.

Lee was appointed chairman of the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) in January 1998,[11] and in 2001 he was made the Minister for Finance.

To ease the growing budget deficit due to falling tax revenues from cuts in corporate and personal income taxes and other factors such as the Iraq War and SARS outbreak, Lee proposed on 29 August 2003 to raise the GST from three percent to five percent, a change which took place in January 2004.

Lee initiated several amendments to render requirements for Singapore citizenship less restrictive; notably for foreign-born children of Singaporean women.[12] The changes were made after repeated pleas from MPs and the Remaking Singapore Committee.

Prime MinisterEdit


On 12 August 2004, Lee succeeded Goh Chok Tong as Prime Minister and relinquished his chairmanship of the Monetary Authority of Singapore to Goh. Chief Justice Yong Pung How swore Lee in at the Istana.

Socio-economic policiesEdit

In his maiden National Day Rally on 22 August 2004, Lee initiated the policy of the "five-day work week", a plan that would remove a half-working day on Saturday.[citation needed] The plan took effect on 1 January 2005.

Lee proposed a two-month paid maternity leave for mothers of newborn children and financial incentives to mothers who give birth to a fourth child.[citation needed] These policies were in response to Singapore's declining birth rate.

In November 2004, Lee sparked a national debate when he proposed to build two Integrated Resorts (IRs), or hotel-casinos. In April 2005, despite some public opposition, Lee approved the proposal.[13] The IRs were built in Marina Bay and Sentosa. To limit the negative social impact of casino gambling, Lee suggested safeguards such as prohibiting minors from the casinos and charging an entrance fee for Singaporeans of S$100 (or S$2000 for a yearly pass).

Three months before the 2006 Singaporean general election, Lee announced a S$2.6 billion Progress Package[14][15] to distribute budget surpluses in the form of cash, top-ups to the Central Provident Fund, rental and utilities rebates, and educational funds. The cash bonuses were distributed in early May 2006. Critics, especially members of the opposition, called the Progress Package a "vote-buying exercise".

Effective 1 June 2011, Lee was named chairman of the Government of Singapore Investment Corporation (GIC) which manages more than S$100 billion in assets. He succeeded his father, Lee Kuan Yew, who remained as senior advisor to the fund until his death.[16]

Speaking at his party convention on 19 November 2017, Lee suggested raising taxes to fund future government expenses.[17] Reports by state media such as The Straits Times and Today all suggested that taxes raised would be in the form of GST.[18][19]

Political reformsEdit

In May 2010, Lee instituted electoral reforms to the electoral system by reducing the number of group representation constituencies (GRC) and increasing the number of Non-constituency Members of Parliament (NCMPs) to a maximum of nine (inclusive of the number of elected opposition members of Parliament) and the number of Nominated Members of Parliament (NMPs) to nine. Also part of the reforms was the legalization of Internet activism and a "cooling-off" day where campaigning is prohibited except for party political broadcasts.

11th CabinetEdit

In that election, the PAP won 82 of the 84 seats, including 37 walkovers. The Ang Mo Kio Group Representation Constituency (GRC) was contested for the first time in 15 years. The Workers' Party (WP) claimed that they wanted to give Ang Mo Kio residents a chance to exercise their vote. Lee and his six-member GRC team won 60.42% of the votes against WP's inexperienced team.

12th CabinetEdit

In the 2011 Singaporean general election, the PAP saw a 6.46% swing downwards to 60.14%, its lowest since independence.[20] While the PAP swept into power winning 81 out of 87 seats, it lost Aljunied Group Representation Constituency to the Workers' Party (WP), a historic win by an opposition party. Foreign Minister George Yeo and Minister in the Prime Minister's Office Lim Hwee Hua of the GRC were defeated.[21]

Following the election, Minister Mentor Lee Kuan Yew and Senior Minister Goh Chok Tong resigned as part of a rejuvenation process in the government.[22] Lee and Goh were appointed as senior advisers to the Government of Singapore Investment Corporation (GIC) and the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) respectively.[23][24]

Lee was sworn in to a second term on 21 May 2011. His new cabinet included three newly appointed ministers: S. Iswaran as Minister in the Prime Minister's Office, and Second Minister for Home Affairs and for Trade and Industry; Heng Swee Keat as Minister for Education; and Chan Chun Sing as Acting Minister for Community Development, Youth and Sports and Minister of State for the Ministry of Information, Communications and the Arts.[25][26] Heng became the first newly elected MP to be directly appointed a full minister since 1984.[27][28]

13th CabinetEdit

In the 2015 Singaporean general election, held on 11 September, the PAP won 83 out of 89 seats in Parliament. Lee has since been reelected seven times, most recently as an MP for the Ang Mo Kio Group Representation Constituency in 2015.

When the new 13th Cabinet lineup was formed on 1 October 2015, it was announced that it would have 3 coordinating ministers who are Deputy Prime Ministers, Teo Chee Hean (National Security) and Tharman Shanmugaratnam (Economics and Social Policies), together with newly elected Transport Minister Khaw Boon Wan (Infrastructure), and 2 ministries, MOE and MTI, with 2 ministers each. MOE was henceforth led by 2 newcomer ministers, Ong Ye Kung and Ng Chee Meng, who are respectively in charge of Higher Learning/Skills and Schools. The MTI was separated for ministers S Iswaran (Industry) and Lim Hng Kiang (Trade), who co-anchor West Coast GRC.

Lee is visiting Singapore FinTech Festival, the largest FinTech festival in the world in 2019.

The Community Culture and Youth Ministry portfolio was given to Grace Fu, who became the first woman in Singapore to serve in a full ministerial position. She is the first female leader of the House in Parliament.

On 20 July 2018, it was announced that Lee's health data was hacked along with that of 1.5 million residents. The hack was targeted, with the intent of accessing his data in particular.[29]

On 23 April 2019, the Prime Minister's Office announced the promotion of Heng Swee Keat to Deputy Prime Minister of Singapore effective 1 May 2019. As part of the party's leadership succession, it is widely interpreted as a prelude to Heng replacing Lee as Singapore's fourth Prime Minister, sometime after the next general elections.[30]

COVID-19 pandemic in SingaporeEdit

Lee announced on 3 April 2020 that Singapore would be imposing a "circuit breaker" due to evidence of COVID-19 spread and ordered all workplaces shut and all schools switched to home-based learning.

Foreign relationsEdit

Lee and U.S. President Donald Trump, 8 July 2017


During his meeting with vice-premier Wu Yi in September 2005, Lee proposed the establishment of a China-ASEAN Free Trade Zone, which would achieve the goal of realizing US$50 billion in trade volume before 2010.[citation needed]

United StatesEdit

Lee with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry and U.S. Vice President Joe Biden, August 2016

On 12 July 2005, Lee signed the Strategic Framework Agreement with then President George W. Bush in his inaugural visit to the United States as Singapore's Prime Minister to foster a closer cooperation in defence and security, and to address common threats such as terrorism and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.[citation needed]

In 2016, Lee made his first official visit to the White House at President Barack Obama's invitation to commemorate 50 years of diplomatic ties with the United States.[31][32]

Lee was one of the early drafters and a strong advocate of the Trans-Pacific Partnership, and on many occasions urged the U.S. Congress to ratify the trade deal as soon as possible. He added that not doing so would "affect U.S. standing and credibility" in the world.[33] The plan ultimately fell through after Donald Trump assumed the presidency in 2017 and pulled the country out of the pact.[34]

In June 2018, Lee congratulated Trump and North Korean leader Kim Jong-un in separate letters on the outcome of the 2018 North Korea–United States summit in Singapore and wished both countries success in implementing the agreement signed.[35]


On 10 July 2004, Lee visited Taiwan, to China's displeasure. On 28 August 2004, in his first National Day Rally speech, Lee criticized the Taiwanese leadership and populace over their pro-independence stance. He reiterated his support for the One-China policy and clarified that his visit was to gather enough intelligence before taking over as prime minister. Taiwan Foreign Minister Mark Chen chided Singapore for interfering.[36][37][38]


Nassim Jade and Scotts 28 condominiums discounts controversyEdit

In 1996, while serving as Deputy Prime Minister Lee along with his father Lee Kuan Yew who was then serving as Senior Minister addressed in Parliament on allegations of receiving special discounts on four luxury condominium units that they had purchased from Hotel Properties Limited (HPL) on the properties of Nassim Jade and Scotts 28 that were purchased in 1994 and 1995 respectively. At that time, Lee Suan Yew, brother of the former Prime Minister Lee was serving as a director of HPL. Then-Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong ordered an immediate investigation into the matter, as though the provision of special discounts or rebates is permitted to the relatives and associates of directors under Singapore law, such transactions must be disclosed and approved by shareholders.[39] Though both the Lees stated that no preferential treatment on their respective transactions, the Stock Exchange of Singapore firmly rebuked HPL for violations in their non-disclosure of the sales of these luxury properties.

Allegation of nepotismEdit

As the eldest son of Singapore's first prime minister Lee Kuan Yew, Lee's career has been shadowed by allegations of nepotism.[40][41][42][43] He was widely tipped to be Lee Kuan Yew's successor as prime minister with several critics viewing Goh Chok Tong as a seat-warmer. Responding to the issue of nepotism Lee challenged his critics to prove it or put the matter to rest.[40][41]

Legal action had been taken in the Singapore courts for defamation against the Financial Times (2007)[43] and the New York Times Company.[44] In a 2008 report, the International Bar Association Human Rights Institute cast doubts over the independence of the judiciary in cases involving PAP litigants or interests.


From 2008 to 2012, Lee earned an annual salary of S$3,870,000 (US$2,856,930),[45] an increase of 25% from the previous S$3,091,200 (US$2,037,168).[46][47] In January 2012, due to public unhappiness,[48] Lee took a 28% pay cut, reducing his salary to S$2.2 million (US$1.7 million).[39][49][50] He remains the highest-paid head of government in the world.[51]

New York Times libel suitEdit

In 2010, Lee, together with his predecessors Lee Kuan Yew and Goh Chok Tong, threatened legal action against The New York Times Company which owns the International Herald Tribune regarding an op-ed piece titled "All in the Family" of 15 February 2010 by Philip Bowring, a freelance columnist and former editor of the Far Eastern Economic Review. The International Herald Tribune apologised in March that readers of the article may "infer that the younger Lee did not achieve his position through merit". The New York Times Company and Bowring agreed to pay S$60,000 to Lee, S$50,000 to Lee Kuan Yew and S$50,000 to Goh (total amounted to about US$114,000 at the time), in addition to legal costs. The case stemmed from a 1994 settlement between the three Singaporean leaders and the paper about an article also by Bowring that referred to 'dynastic politics' in East Asian countries, including Singapore. In that settlement, Bowring agreed not to say or imply that the younger Lee had attained his position through nepotism by his father, Lee Kuan Yew. In response, media rights watchdog Reporters Without Borders wrote an open letter to urge Lee and other top officials of the Singapore government to stop taking 'libel actions' against journalists.[44][52][53][54]

Lee Kuan Yew's Oxley Road houseEdit

In June 2017, Lee became embroiled in a dispute with his brother Lee Hsien Yang and sister Lee Wei Ling, over the fate of their father's house at 38 Oxley Road.[55][56][57][58] Lee Kuan Yew, Singapore's founding Prime Minister, was averse to a cult of personality.[59] As a result, he had inserted in his final Will a demolition clause. The first part of the clause stated that he wanted his house to be torn down when his daughter decides to move out. The second part of the clause stated that should demolition be impossible, his house should not be open to the public.[60]

Lee's siblings alleged that he was abusing his powers, using "organs of the state" as prime minister to preserve the house against their father's wishes. Lee and the Cabinet denied all their allegations and convened a special sitting of Parliament to debate the matter thoroughly.[61] In his closing speech, Lee stated: "After two days of debate, nobody has stood behind these [his siblings'] allegations or offered any evidence, not even opposition MPs … It shows that the Government and I have acted properly and with due process." He left open options to convene a select committee or Commission of Inquiry should substantive evidence be presented.[62][63][64][65] The siblings accepted Lee's offer to settle the dispute in private the following day.[66]

On 5 September 2019, Lee sued journalist Terry Xu of The Online Citizen for repeating statements made by Lee's siblings.[67] By doing so, Lee attracted critics for using Prime Minister Office resources for personal matters.[67]

Personal lifeEdit

Brigadier-General Lee Hsien Loong, chief of staff (General Staff) of the Singapore Armed Forces, 1984

Lee married his first wife, Wong Ming Yang, a Malaysian-born physician, on 20 May 1978. Their daughter, Li Xiuqi, was born in 1981. Three weeks after giving birth to their first son, Li Yipeng, Wong died at the age of 31 on 28 October 1982 of a heart attack.[68] In 1985, when Lee was 33, he married Ho Ching, a fast-rising civil servant who subsequently became the executive director and chief executive officer of Temasek Holdings.

In addition to Xiuqi,[69] Lee has three sons, Yipeng,[70] Hongyi, and Haoyi.[71] Ho Ching's eldest son, Li Hongyi, was an officer in the Singapore Armed Forces (SAF),[72] and is the deputy director of the Government Technology Agency of Singapore, under the Prime Minister's Office.[73]

Lee was initially diagnosed with lymphoma, for which he underwent chemotherapy[74] in the early 1990s.[75] He later also underwent a successful robot-assisted keyhole prostatectomy on 15 February 2015 after being diagnosed with prostate cancer.[76][77][78]

Lee is interested in computer programming and has written a Sudoku solver in C++ in his spare time.[79]


See alsoEdit



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