Alan Gabriel Ludwig García Pérez (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈalaŋ ɡaβˈɾjel luðˈwiɣ ɡaɾˈsi.a ˈpeɾes]; 23 May 1949 – 17 April 2019) was a Peruvian politician who served as President of Peru from 1985 to 1990 and from 2006 to 2011. He was the second leader of the Peruvian Aprista Party and the only party member ever to have served as President. Instructed by the founder of the APRA, Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre, he served in Constituent Assembly of 1978–1979 presided by his master, which drafted the Constitution of 1979. Elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1980, he quickly rose as the long-term successor to Haya, becoming party Secretary General in 1982. He was elected to the Presidency in the 1985 general election with 53% of the popular vote.
|President of Peru|
28 July 2006 – 28 July 2011
|Prime Minister||Jorge del Castillo|
José Antonio Chang
|Vice President||Luis Giampietri|
|Preceded by||Alejandro Toledo|
|Succeeded by||Ollanta Humala|
28 July 1985 – 28 July 1990
|Prime Minister||Luis Alva Castro|
Luis Alberto Sánchez
Guillermo Larco Cox
|Vice President||Luis Alberto Sánchez|
Luis Alva Castro
|Preceded by||Fernando Belaúnde Terry|
|Succeeded by||Alberto Fujimori|
|Senator for Life|
Former President of the Republic
28 July 1990 – 5 April 1992
|Member of the Chamber of Deputies|
26 July 1980 – 26 July 1985
|Member of the Constituent Assembly|
28 July 1978 – 13 July 1979
|1st President of the Peruvian Aprista Party|
7 June 2004 – 17 April 2019
|Preceded by||Position reinstated|
|Succeeded by||Vacant (César Trelles Lara elected in October 2019)|
15 July 1985 – 23 December 1988
|Preceded by||Position created|
|Succeeded by||Position abolished|
|Secretary General of the Peruvian Aprista Party|
9 October 1982 – 15 July 1985
|Preceded by||Fernando León de Vivero|
|Succeeded by||Armando Villanueva|
Alan Gabriel Ludwig García Pérez
23 May 1949
|Died||17 April 2019 (aged 69)|
|Cause of death||Suicide by gunshot|
|Political party||Peruvian Aprista Party|
|Height||1.93 m (6 ft 4 in)|
|Spouse(s)||Carla Buscaglia (divorced)|
|Alma mater||Pontifical Catholic University of Peru|
National University of San Marcos (LLB)
Pantheon-Sorbonne University (MA)
Universidad de San Martín de Porres (MA)
His first presidential term was marked by a severe economic crisis, social unrest and violence. He ran unsuccessfully for the presidency in 2001, losing in a run-off to Alejandro Toledo. In 2006, he was elected to the presidency for a second term. Throughout Garcia's second term, Peru experienced a steady economy, becoming the fastest growing country in Latin America in 2008, surpassing China in terms of rising GDP. The economic success of his presidency would be signaled by world leaders as a triumph, as poverty was reduced from 48% to 28% nationally. Among his policies, Peru signed beneficial Free Trade Agreements with the United States and China, however, Garcia was also accused of corruption. He was succeeded by his former run-off rival Ollanta Humala in 2011. He withdrew from party politics after failing to pass the first round of the 2016 election, placing fifth in a run for a record-third presidency with the heavily-criticized Popular Alliance coalition between his party and the centre-right Christian People's Party, which included former rival Lourdes Flores as first running mate.
On 17 April 2019, García committed suicide by shooting himself in the head as police officers were preparing to preliminary arrest him over matters relating to the Odebrecht scandal, dictated by prosecutor José Domingo Pérez; he was transferred in serious condition to the Casimiro Ulloa hospital, where he remained for more than three hours in the operating room, during which time he had three cardiorespiratory arrests before his death. García became the second head of Peru to commit suicide after Gustavo Jiménez, who did so in 1933.
Born in the Maison de Santé Clinic of the Barranco District into a middle-class family, García met his father for the first time when he was five due to his father's imprisonment for being a member of the Peruvian Aprista Party. His mother founded the party's base in the Camaná Province of the Arequipa Region. From a very young age, he accompanied his father to party meetings and became acquainted with future leaders of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), such as Luis Alva Castro and Mercedes Cabanillas. At 14, he was already an immensely talented orator when he first gave a speech in honour of party founder Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre, whom he admired and followed until his death.
García studied law, first at the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru -although the official records of his tenure in this university were never found- and later earning a law degree from the National University of San Marcos in 1971. A year later, he left Peru for Spain, where he studied for a PhD in law. For years García claimed to have earned a PhD; in 2014, however, documents from the university proved he never finished the work for it. In 1974, he travelled to France with other members of the APRA to study at the prestigious University of Paris I. After earning a degree in sociology, he was called by Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre to come back to Peru in order to run for the Constituent Assembly election in 1978. García was elected a Member of the Assembly, where he impressed his colleagues with his oratory and skillful rhetoric. As APRA's Secretary of Organization, he was assigned to conduct the party's public affairs in the wake of Haya de la Torre's death in 1979.
From his first marriage, García had one daughter, Carla, who is also active in Peruvian politics. With his second wife Pilar Nores, from whom he separated in 2010, García had four children. He also had another child from an extramarital affair with economist Roxanne Cheesman.
Already recognized as a young leader with a bright future in the country, he was elected to Congress in 1980. Two years later, he was elected General Secretary of the Peruvian Aprista Party. He was elected to serve as president of the Republic in the 1985 general elections.
García won the presidential election on 14 April 1985 with 45% of the votes. Since he did not receive the 50% of the votes required for a first-round victory, a run-off was scheduled between him and Alfonso Barrantes (the former mayor of Lima) of the United Left party. Barrantes, however, withdrew and decided not to enter the run-off, saying he did not want to prolong the country's political uncertainty. García was thus declared President on 1 June and officially took power on 28 July 1985. For the first time in its sixty-year history, the APRA party came to power in Peru. Aged 36, García was dubbed "Latin America's Kennedy", becoming the region's youngest president at the time, and the second youngest president in Peruvian history (the youngest was Juan Crisostomo Torrico in 1842, aged 34).
His economic policy was based on APRA's initial anti-imperialist values with García distancing Peru from international markets, resulting in lower investment in the country. Despite his initial popularity among voters, García's term in office was marked by bouts of hyperinflation, which reached 7,649% in 1990 and had a cumulative total of 2,200,200% over the five years, which destabilised the Peruvian economy. Foreign debt under García's administration increased to $19 billion by 1989. Owing to this chronic inflation, the Peruvian currency, the sol, was replaced by the inti in February 1985 (before his presidency began), which itself was replaced by the nuevo sol ("new sun") in July 1991, at which time the new sol had a cumulative value of one billion (1,000,000,000) old soles.
According to studies by the National Institute of Statistics and Informatics and the United Nations Development Programme, around the start of his presidency, 41.6% of Peruvians lived in poverty. During his presidency, this percentage increased by 13% (to 55%) in 1991. García also made an attempt to nationalise the banking and insurance industries. The International Monetary Fund and the financial community recoiled after García's administration unilaterally declared a limit on debt repayment equal to 10% of the Gross National Product, thereby isolating Peru from international financial markets.
His presidency was marked by world-record hyperinflation with the annual rate exceeding 13,000 percent per year. The administration devastated the local economy as well as all governmental institutions. Hunger, corruption, injustice, abuse of power, partisan elitism, and social unrest raised to dramatic levels spreading throughout the whole nation due to García's misdeeds and incompetence, spurring terrorism. The economic turbulence exacerbated social tensions and contributed in great part to the rise of the violent Maoist rebel movement known as the Shining Path, which launched the internal conflict in Peru and began attacking electrical towers, causing a number of blackouts in Lima. The period also saw the emergence of the Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA). The García administration unsuccessfully sought a military solution to the growing terrorism, allegedly committing human rights violations, which are still under investigation. These include the Accomarca massacre, where 47 campesinos were gunned down by armed forces in August 1985; the Cayara massacre (May 1988), in which some thirty people were killed and dozens disappeared; and the summary execution of more than 200 inmates during prison riots in Lurigancho, San Juan Bautista (El Frontón) and Santa Bárbara in 1986. According to an official inquiry, an estimated 1,600 forced disappearances took place during García's presidency. His own personal involvement in these events is not clear. García was allegedly[by whom?] tied to the paramilitary Rodrigo Franco Command, which is accused of carrying out political murders in Peru during García's presidency. A U.S. declassified report, written in late 1987, said that García's party, APRA, and top government officials were running a paramilitary group, responsible for the attempted bombing of the El Diario newspaper, then linked to Shining Path, had sent people to train in North Korea and may have been involved in executions. According to investigative journalist Lucy Komisar, the report made it clear that it believed García had given the orders.
Alan García's historical economic failures were used by economists Rudi Dornbusch and Sebastian Edwards to coin the term macroeconomic populism. At García's farewell speech, he was booed by the entire opposition forces and prevented him from speaking. The anecdotical event was televised. That same day the board of the Chamber of Deputies requested the creation of a special committee to investigate García's Presidency, accusing him of massive corruption and illicit enrichment. The committee attacked García with numerous proven accusations involving embezzlement, missappropiation and bribery, based -among other trustworthy sources- on a U.S. congressional investigation that linked García with the BCCI scandal and had found millions of dollars in this as well as other banks. In 1991, New York District Attorney Robert Morgenthau charged García officially. Later in 1992, then U.S. Senator John Kerry presided over the BCCI Scandal Report (https://archive.org/details/TheBCCIAffair), which concluded García was not only guilty of corruption, but directly involved in an international racketeering network with activities that included drug and arm trafficking. Finally, the Peruvian Supreme Court declared null all the probes and constitutional accusations gathered against García, allowing him to return to Peru after a 9-year long self-imposed exile.
On 5 April 1992, Alberto Fujimori conducted a self-coup, through which he dissolved the Peruvian Congress unconstitutionally and intervened in the Judiciary and other public institutions . Due to these actions, various politicians were persecuted and prevented from leaving their homes. García had been serving as Senator for life since 1990, although he was unable to perform his duty due to the accusations of the Chamber of Deputies. He was able to return to the Senate in March of 1992, after the Supreme Court dropped all constitutional charges against him. According to Jorge Del Castillo in 2008, Alberto Fujimori ordered Vladimiro Montesinos to capture and assassinate García on the day of the coup. According to his own testimony, García escaped his home while military tanks took over the bloc where he lived. After weeks oh hiding in a construction site, he was able to enter, at the end of May, the residence of the Colombian Ambassador, thus requesting political asylum. The request was granted on 1 June, by the government of President César Gaviria. The former president left Peru through a pass that allowed him to board a Colombian Air Force jet that transferred him, along with then congressman Jorge Del Castillo, bound for Bogotá. García arrived at the Catam military airport and in statements to the press promised to fight against the dictatorship of Alberto Fujimori. The regime opened processes for illicit enrichment and for various accusations of corruption; after that, the extradition of García was requested from the Colombian government, which was denied.
In 1994, the Human Rights Commission of the Organization of American States denounced the Fujimori Government for violation of the rights to liberty, security and due defense of Alan García and asked the Peruvian government to nullify the processes initiated.
In April 1995, Congress lifted Alan García's parliamentary immunity on accusations of having received bribes from the Italian consortium Tralima for the construction of the Lima electric train. Based on this, the Civil Chamber of the Supreme Court once again requested García's extradition to the Government of Colombia, which was denied because García went to live in Paris for the rest of his exile.
During the years between 1993 and 2001, Alan García did not actively participate in Peruvian politics, except in the publication of some works on his first presidency, and a literary work entitled "The World of Maquiavelo". He continued denouncing the human rights violations committed by the President Alberto Fujimori administration. On rare occasions, Alan García appeared on Peruvian television and radio from Bogotá, Colombia.
In 2001, the Supreme Court declared the allegations that were imputed to him at the end of his first term prescribed.
Return to politicsEdit
Peruvian National Election 2001Edit
After a long-awaited return to Peru by the thousands of members of the APRA Party, Alan García returns to Lima in January 27th 2001 at 5:35pm, his return caused so much expectation that a huge crowd was waiting for him at the airport changing his name and showing support with hundreds of signs with the words "ALAN VUELVE". That same day at 8:30pm a rally was called in the Plaza San Martin de Lima where Garcia gave the greatest speech of his life in front of a large crowd, some say there were around 20 thousand people that night. Garcia ran for president in the new elections called by the interim president Valentín Paniagua, and in just 60 days of election campaign he won the second place behind Alejandro Toledo, which led him to a second back, Toledo's popularity remained stable, while Garcia's popularity was based on his innovative proposals on the issue of the agrarian bank, not continuing with a neoliberal model, etc. However, it was not enough to acquire more endorsements and support from the peruvian voters and Alejandro Toledo won the general elections in the second round. After the 2001 election, Garcia, as leader of the APRA party, became Leader of the Opposition. <Reference name = britbio />
2006 Peruvian national electionEdit
García officially started his campaign for the April 2006 presidential election in Lima on 20 April 2005. Ollanta Humala won the first round with 32.50% of the valid votes, followed by García, who got 24.32% (against Lourdes Flores' 23.81%). As no candidate won a majority, a run-off election was held on 4 June 2006 between Humala and García. Preliminary official results gave García an advantage over his run-off opponent, who conceded defeat.
On 28 April 2006, prior to the run-off, García had become involved in a dispute with Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez. For the second time in a Peruvian presidential elections, Chávez declared his support for Ollanta Humala, García's opponent, and referred to García as a "robber", a "bandit", and "the Carlos Andrés Pérez of Peru". In response, García stated that Chávez was "not acting as a statesman" and challenged Chávez to a debate to be hosted by CNN. García called on the Organization of American States to intervene in the matter.
On 31 May 2006, a few days before the run-off election, García's economic adviser Enrique Cornejo told the media that if García won in the second round, his government would renew a US$422 million aid package with the International Monetary Fund. Anoop Singh, the IMF's Western Hemisphere Director, responded positively by saying he was "impressed by the vision of the president-elected for Peru, especially his commitment to applying prudent economic policy."
On 28 July 2006, García was sworn in as president, after winning approximately 53% of the nationwide vote in the elections held on 4 June. He would spend the majority of his second term attempting to improve his reputation compared to his first term.
He won in the capital city, Lima, and the northern coast, a geographical base of the APRA party, but lost on the southern region (mostly impoverished but including major cities such as Cuzco and Arequipa) and the rainforest areas, considered Humala's strongholds. A third of the voters said that voting for him was "voting for the lesser of two evils": although many Peruvians had a very negative impression of García after his first term, they were frightened by rumours that Humala would create a government based on Fidel Castro's Cuba and would turn Hugo Chávez, President of Venezuela, into the virtual ruler of Peru, due to Chavez's patronage of Humala's party. These fears were accompanied by declarations of militarization, the re-introduction of the death penalty and criminalization and disrespect for LGBT communities. Humala denied these rumours, but his conflicting statements about his government's vision and Chávez's strong campaigning for him created enough suspicions among voters to cost him the ballotage. With 36 seats, APRA was the second largest bloc in the 120-seat unicameral Congress which was sworn in a couple of days before the President. With 45 seats, Humala's Union for Peru Party was the largest bloc, although it divided itself up into three factions.
On 28 June, one month before García was sworn in, his party gave 25 of the 79 votes (almost one third of the votes) that ratified the Peru–United States Trade Promotion Agreement in the Peruvian Congress, one month prior to the new legislature that included the Union for Peru congressmen, who opposed the agreement with the USA. The U.S. Congress ratified the agreement on 4 December 2007 and it came into effect on 1 February 2009.
In his first speech as President, García said he would appoint a Finance Minister who was neither "an orthodox market liberal" nor a person "excessively in favour of state intervention in the economy". The position of Prime Minister was given to Jorge del Castillo. According to the BBC, in private interviews García had stated his interest in a possible future trade agreement with Brazil and considered himself "an admirer" of Brazilian President Lula da Silva.
In press conferences with the foreign press, García acknowledged that the support Humala received in the election "could not be ignored". García, in a recognition of future domestic politics with a UPP controlled Congress, was quoted as saying "Mr. Humala is an important political figure, and a President should consult with different political factions". However, Humala said he wouldn't salute the winner personally, adding that "he and his party will constitute the principal opposition bloc, not to fight Mr. García, but to defend the interests of the State and watch the government".
President Chávez of Venezuela responded to García's comments on his show Aló Presidente by stating that it was García who owed him an apology, saying: "the only way relations between the two countries can be restored is if Peru's elected President [García] gives an explanation and offers an apology to the Venezuelan people. He started throwing stones". Chávez questioned the legitimacy of the election, citing 1.2 million invalid ballots and a margin of victory of 600,000 votes, although offering no evidence for his comments. García, attending an invitation to meet Brazilian president Lula da Silva, responded to Chávez: "Accept your defeat in silence. Don't ask me to apologize for something arising from interference and remarks that are unacceptable under international law." Differences with Chávez were left behind after the two ended their controversy at the second South American Community of Nations Summit.
On 20 July 2006, García named Luis Carranza as Finance Minister, a former executive at Spain-based Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria and Central Bank director and deputy finance chief from August 2004 to August 2005 in Alejandro Toledo's government. The appointment was welcomed by some detractors of García's fiscal policies during his first administration. But Mario Huamán Rivera, the President of the Confederación General de Trabajadores del Perú (General Workers Confederation of Peru), the country's largest trade union, attacked the appointment, stating that "it looks as though Alan García is not going to fulfill his promise to change economic policy".
On the day before his inauguration, García formally named his cabinet, including former Secretary-General of the APRA party and re-elected Congressman Jorge del Castillo as Prime Minister, Luis Carranza as Minister of Finance and Economy, and José Antonio García Belaúnde as Foreign Affairs Minister. García was inaugurated as President on 28 July 2006.
During his campaign, García declared that he supported the death penalty for rapists of minors; he reiterated this stance while in office pushing a law on the matter, which would modify the Criminal Code. Although the issue seemed to be stalled, García widened the range of his proposal for the death penalty, by including terrorists in the list of those who could receive it.
García faced his first major political defeat of his second term in office on 11 January 2007 when his proposal to introduce the death penalty as a punishment for captured Shining Path rebels was rejected by Congress in a vote of 49 to 26. García had promised to introduce the death penalty for Shining Path rebels during the 2006 Presidential election. Following the defeat of the proposal, García suggested a national referendum on the issue but it was blocked by Congress. Legislators who voted against the bill stated that it would be a breach of the American Convention on Human Rights to which Peru is a signatory. Approximately 3000 supporters of the proposal marched in Lima holding up photos of victims of attacks by the Shining Path.
On 5 June 2009, García ordered police and military forces to stop Amazonian Indigenous protesters from blocking roads in the Bagua region. They had been demonstrating against the signing by Alan García of special decrees that allowed foreign corporations to enter Indigenous lands for oil drilling, mining and logging. As a result of the protests and armed military incursion, more than 100 native civilians and 14 policemen were killed. The government claimed, in a redacted television commercial, that several policemen were killed after being taken prisoner, while protesters claimed the bodies of the murdered Native Amazonians had been dumped into the river.
With the passage of time, studies of human rights violations in Peru have discovered a close relationship between García and the forces within Peru who promote impunity for human rights violators. García was involved in colonizing the bench by placing inside the judiciary judges who would be sympathetic to perpetrators of human rights violations. Additionally, García was supportive of efforts to punish judges who handed down indictments of perpetrators. García himself was in the presidency during many gross violations of human rights and was quite hostile to human rights organizations and to judicial actors who seek justice for victims of human rights violations. During his presidency García sought to tilt the legal playing field in favour of the military and against victims. He also tried to make life difficult for NGOs seeking to help victims. For example, he offered extensive resources to defendants and military officers while creating new laws that would make it difficult for human rights NGOs to do their jobs, receive necessary resources, and pursue the advancement of judicial action that attempted to bring human rights violators to justice.
After being elected, in the months prior to his inauguration, García sought to heal Peru's relationship with Chile, which was stressed by the differences between the governments of Alejandro Toledo and Ricardo Lagos and severely impaired by former President Alberto Fujimori's extradition affair. García's intentions were well received by Michelle Bachelet, President of Chile, as she and García met and struck some preliminary agreements. These conversations eventually led to the final draft of a landmark economic agreement with Chile a month after García was sworn in.
On 9 November 2006, three months after being elected, García signed 12 commercial agreements with President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva of Brazil, strengthening the relationship between the two countries. As part of the IIRSA programme and continuing integration efforts – including the August 2006 negotiations between Petrobras and Petroperú – these new agreements sought to further bilateral cooperation. García offered Peruvian hydropower to meet Brazil's growing energy needs, although further details were not disclosed.
García ran for a third term as president in the 2016 Peruvian general election under the coalition Popular Alliance. The election's first round polls gave García 5.83% of the popular vote, preventing him from participating in the runoff election. Pedro Pablo Kuczynski was ultimately elected.
Odebrecht scandal and SuicideEdit
This section may require copy editing for stilted translation from Spanish. (July 2020) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Peruvian press reported that in May 2012, after leaving office, García was paid US$100,000 to give a speech to Brazilian business leaders in São Paulo, money which was later characterized in the media and suspected by Peruvian prosecutors as a kickback from Brazil's construction company Odebrecht. Because García reported and paid taxes for each payment he received, his defense and lawyers were optimistic to show there was no Bribery at all since multiple organizations were willing to pay him to have him as speaker.
In 2016 and 2017, five of his former ministers were accused of corruption by the Peruvian justice system: Yehude Simon (Prime Minister), Rosario Fernández (Minister of Justice), Mercedes Cabanillas (Minister of the Interior), Ántero Flores Aráoz (Minister of Defence) and Luis Nava Guibert (Minister of Production) although none of the ministers were arrested or detained due the lack of evidence and all the complaints received were based on false statements or assumptions.
In November 2018, García was banned from leaving Peru by the court as a result of the Odebrecht scandal investigation. He entered the residence of the Uruguayan ambassador on 17 November, requesting asylum. However, on 3 December his request was denied, and he subsequently left the ambassador's residence.
At 6:31 UTC-5 of the 17th of April 2019, García shot himself in the head while hiding in his bedroom as he was being presented with a 10-day preliminary arrest warrant related to investigations for corruption and bribes his presidential secretary allegedly received from the Brazilian construction corporation. Initial reports stated that officers violated protocol allowing García to be alone with the excuse that he was going to talk with his lawyer, resulting in the incident. He was taken to the hospital Casimiro Ulloa and underwent an emergency surgical procedure where he suffered from cardiac arrest three times. After 4 hours his death was announced by the heads of the APRA political party and Nidia Vílchez with the cause being a "massive" cerebral hemorrhage and cardiorespiratory arrest. According to police sources, García used his personal Colt Anaconda revolver, which was given to him as a gift from the Peruvian Navy during his second term, and was among nine other firearms that the former president was licensed to own.
A few hours after his death was announced, García's body was taken in a wooden casket to the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance headquarters in Lima where a memorial service was held on the same day. President Martín Vizcarra declared a three-day mourning period.
Awards and recognitionsEdit
García was the author of several books on Peruvian and Latin American affairs. Most of them may be found in the National Library of Peru. His published works include the following:
- 1981 A la Inmensa Mayoría: Discursos
- 1982 El Futuro Diferente
- 1987 El Desarme Financiero: Pueblo y Deuda en América Latina
- 1990 La Revolución Regional
- 1991 La Defensa de Alan García
- 1992 El Nuevo Totalitarismo
- 1994 El Mundo de Maquiavelo
- 1997 La Falsa Modernidad
- 1997 Siete Tesis Erróneas del Neoliberalismo en América Latina
- 1999 Mi Gobierno Hizo la Regionalización
- 2000 La Década Infame: Deuda Externa 1990–1999
- 2003 Modernidad y Política en el Siglo XXI: Globalización con Justicia Social
- 2005 Sierra Exportadora: Empleo, Modernidad y Justicia en Los Andes
- 2011 Contra el Temor Económico: Creer en el Perú
- 2012 Pida la Palabra: Por la Libertad, la Plenitud y el Exito
- 2012 Pizarro, el Rey de la Baraja: Política, confusión y dolor en la Conquista
- 2013 Noventa años de aprismo: Hay, hermanos, muchísimo que hacer
- 2013 Confucio y la globalización: Comprender China y crecer con ella
- Nick Caistor (18 April 2019). "Alan García obituary". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 19 April 2019. Retrieved 20 April 2019.
- "Alan Garcia". BBC News. 5 June 2006. Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
- García wins to become Peru president Al-Jazeera, 5 June 2006
- "Welcome, Mr. Peruvian President: Why Alan García is no hero to his people". Council on Hemispheric Affairs. 2 June 2010. Archived from the original on 18 April 2019. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
- "The risk of throwing it all away". The Economist. 31 March 2011. Archived from the original on 10 March 2018. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
- "Ex-President Alan García of Peru Is Dead After Shooting Himself During Arrest". The New York Times. 17 April 2019. Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
- Fergus Shiel; Sasha Chavkin (25 June 2019). "Bribery Division: What is Odebrecht? Who is Involved?". International Consortium of Investigative Journalists. Retrieved 28 December 2019.
- Phillips, Tom; Collyns, Dan (17 April 2019). "Alan García: former Peru president dies after shooting himself before arrest". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
- Aquino, Marco (19 April 2013). "Peru's former leader Garcia's political life at risk over pardons". Reuters. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
- "Biografia de Alan García". www.biografiasyvidas.com. Archived from the original on 2019-04-17. Retrieved 2019-04-17.
- "Alan Garcia | Biography & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 2018-11-29. Retrieved 2019-04-17.
- "Alan García nos hizo llegar su tesis de bachiller en Derecho". El Comercio (in Spanish). 2016-02-11. Archived from the original on 2019-04-17. Retrieved 2019-04-17.
- "Se resolvió el misterio: Alan García no es doctor". 23 July 2014. Archived from the original on 6 December 2016. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
- Tapia C., Alejandro (21 June 2014). "Daughter of Alan García bursts with political program in Peru" (in Spanish). La Tercera. Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
- "Alan García sobre Pilar Nores: Aún no estoy divorciado, solo separado". peru.com (in Spanish). 13 August 2012. Archived from the original on 12 December 2018. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
- "Roxanne Cheesman and son Federico Danton Garcia". Wagcenter. 17 April 2019. Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
- Perú Archived 2005-04-11 at the Wayback Machine, Atlas Internet (Spanish)
- BBC News. "Peru Guerrilla Leader Convicted." 22 March 2006. Available online Archived 2017-08-19 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed 3 February 2007.
- "IPS News". Archived from the original on 2012-02-12.
- "The Cayara Massacre: The Cover-Up". www.amnesty.org. Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
- "The extrajudicial executions of "PENAL DE EL FRONTÓN" and "PENAL DE LURIGANCHO" (1986)" (PDF). cverdad.org.pe (in Spanish). Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 December 2018. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
- "World Prison Massacres". Human Rights Watch. Archived from the original on February 6, 2008.
- Lucy Komisar, Peru: US Gov’t Document Links García to 1980s Death Squads Archived 2008-07-04 at the Wayback Machine, Inter Press Service, 5 December 2007.
- Dornbusch, Rudiger; Edwards, Sebastian (1990). "Macroeconomic Populism". Journal of Development Economics. 32 (2): 247–277. doi:10.1016/0304-3878(90)90038-D.
- Alan García promete luchar contra la dictadura peruana desde su exilio en Colombia
- ALAN GARCÍA NO SERÁ EXTRADITADO
- La OEA denuncia al Gobierno peruano por su persecución de Alan García
- García reta a Chávez a polemizar por CNN, El Universal, 28 April 2006 (Spanish)
- Alan García in Dispute with Hugo Chávez Archived 2006-05-04 at the Wayback Machine, University of British Columbia—Peru Elections 2006, 28 April 2006
- "Peru's García Pledges to Renew IMF Loan Agreement (Update2)", Bloomberg, 31 May 2006
- "IMF says "impressed" with Peru's García's vision" Archived 2006-07-12 at the Wayback Machine, 14 June 2006 (Reuters).
- Exit Poll Results: Alan García in First Place Archived 2006-06-18 at the Wayback Machine University of British Columbia profile of the 2006 Peruvian election. 4 June 2006.
- "Presidential Proclamation 8341—To Implement The United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement And for Other Purposes" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2012-02-14. Retrieved 2019-04-17., published at 74 FR 4105, 22 January 2009.
- "García desestima roces con Chávez" Archived 2012-11-06 at the Wayback Machine, 6 June 2006 BBC Mundo.
- "Humala says he won't give García truce" Archived 2006-06-23 at the Wayback Machine, El Comercio, 8 June 2006.
- "Peru President-Elect García Owes Venezuela Apology, Chavez Says", 11 June 2006, Bloomberg
- "Peru's García refuses to apologize to Chavez"[permanent dead link], 13 June 2006. Reuters
- "Peru's García cozies up to Ecuador, Venezuela" Archived 2006-12-21 at the Wayback Machine, December 9, 2006 International Herald Tribune
- "García and Hugo Chavez set differences aside" Archived 2007-03-19 at the Wayback Machine, 9 December 2006. Living in Peru
- "García Names Carranza Peru's Next Finance Minister" Archived 2007-09-30 at the Wayback Machine, 20 July 2006. Bloomberg
- Hal Weitzman, "García's choice of finance minister cheered" Archived 2007-03-12 at the Wayback Machine, 22 July 2006. Financial Times
- "Noticias de Prensa Latina". 2016-03-10. Archived from the original on 2016-03-10. Retrieved 2018-03-23.
- Tyler Bridges, "Alan García inaugurated as president of Peru"[permanent dead link], 28 July 2006. The Miami Herald
- "Alan García envía al Congreso propuesta para pena de muerte" Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine, 21 September 2006. Los Tiempos
- Cecilia Rosales Ferreyros, "García plantea volver a aplicar pena de muerte" Archived 2007-03-19 at the Wayback Machine, 9 August 2006. El Comercio
- "Peru's President in favor of death penalty for terrorists" Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine, 2 November 2006 Living In Peru
- "Alan García: guerra avisada, señores, no mata gente" Archived 2007-03-18 at the Wayback Machine, 2 November 2006 El Comercio
- "Presidente García insiste en aplicar la pena de muerte"[permanent dead link], 19 January 2007 El Comercio
- "Up to 100 dead in Amazon clashes: activist". 8 June 2009. Archived from the original on 3 May 2016. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
- "Peru polarised after deadly clashes". 10 June 2009. Archived from the original on 10 March 2018. Retrieved 10 March 2018 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
- Romero, Simon (11 June 2009). "Protesters Gird for Long Fight Over Opening Peru's Amazon". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 11 March 2018. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
- "Avatar Director James Cameron Returns from a Visit to Belo Monte Dam Site on the Xingu River". Amazon Watch. Archived from the original on 10 March 2018. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
- "Peruvian Police Accused of Massacring Indigenous Protesters in Amazon Jungle". Archived from the original on 11 March 2018. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
- Ezequiel A. Gonzalez-Ocantos, 'Shifting Legal Visions: Judicial Change and Human Rights Trials in Latin America, Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press, 2016, Chap 4 esp pp 169-172.
- "Will Chile send Aparicio to Peru?", 5 January 2006. The Economist
- "Alan García se reunió con Bachelet" Archived 2007-02-24 at the Wayback Machine, 23 June 2006. (BBC).
- Noriega, Carlos "Del odio al amor hay sólo un paso" Archived 2007-09-26 at the Wayback Machine, 24 June 2006. Página 12
- "Chile y Perú firman primer TLC entre países sudamericanos" Archived 2006-11-13 at the Wayback Machine, 22 August 2006. Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores de Chile
- "Perú y Chile suscriben un 'histórico' acuerdo comercial" Archived 2007-06-25 at Archive.today, 24 August 2006. La Última
- "García: Peru and Brazil trust in the power of its people" Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine 9 November 2006 Living in Peru
- "Brazil, Peru sign 12 cooperation agreements" Archived 2008-12-03 at the Wayback Machine. 10 November 2006. People's Daily.
- "Peru - Agreement with state companies from Peru" Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine Petrobras - Investor News
- Andrade, Juliana "Após encontro, Lula e García firman acordos de cooperação bilateral" Archived 2007-03-18 at the Wayback Machine, 9 November 2006 Agência Brasil
- Clendenning, Alan "Peru president offers energy to Brazil" Archived 2011-06-04 at the Wayback Machine, 10 November 2006. Business Week
- "ONPE - Oficina Nacional de Procesos Electorales". web.archive.org. 2016-06-11. Retrieved 2019-04-18.
- Anderson, John Lee (10 June 2016). "A surprising coalition brings a new leader to Peru". newyorker.com. The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 12 June 2016. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
- "Facing arrest, Peru ex-president Garcia fatally shoots himself". AFP / Times of Israel. 17 April 2019. Archived from the original on 18 April 2019. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
- LR, Redacción (5 July 2017). "Caso Odebrecht: Cinco ministros de Alan García son citados por la Fiscalía - LaRepublica.pe". Archived from the original on 12 August 2017. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
- "Peru corruption: Ex-President Alan García denied asylum". BBC News. 3 December 2018. 3 December 2018. Archived from the original on 9 December 2018. Retrieved 9 December 2018.
- "Alan Garcia, Peru's former president, fatally shoots himself before arrest in corruption probe". Los Angeles Times. 17 April 2019. Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
- "The Latest: Peru declares 3 days of mourning for García". The State. 17 April 2019. Archived from the original on 18 April 2019. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
- "El ex presidente peruano Alan García se disparó en la cabeza tras recibir una orden de arresto y está en grave estado". Infobae (in Spanish). 17 April 2019. Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
- "Alan García: Peru's former president kills himself ahead of arrest". BBC News. 17 April 2019. Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
- "Arma con el acabó con su vida Alan García habría sido obsequiada por la Marina de Guerra del Perú". amazonica.pe (in Spanish). Amazónica.pe. April 18, 2019. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
- "The Latest: Memorial held for ex-Peru leader who killed self". ABC News. April 17, 2019. Archived from the original on April 18, 2019. Retrieved April 18, 2019.
- "Special Report" Archived 2008-12-31 at the Wayback Machine, 23 December 2008. (Latin Business Chronicle) by Joachim Bamrud.
- "Peru's Outlook" Archived 2010-11-28 at the Wayback Machine, 23 June 2006. (Latin Business Chronicle).
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Alan García|
- Office of the President of the Republic of Peru official website
- (in Spanish) APRA's official site
- Latin Business Chronicle, "Leader of the Year 2008: Alan García", 23 December 2008
- (in Spanish) Extended biography by CIDOB Foundation
- Peru Election 2006 profile. The University of British Columbia
- "Exiled García back in Peru", BBC News Online, 28 January 2001
- cverdad.org (A brief report made by the Peruvian Commission of Truth involving Alan García)
- "Extract from article discussing García's 2006 election victory", 23 June 2006
- "Welcome to Washington, Mr. Peruvian President: Alan García Perez’s Regional Foreign Policy", Analysis by the Council on Hemispheric Affairs, 5 October 2006
|Party political offices|
Fernando León de Vivero
| General Secretary of the Peruvian Aprista Party
| President of the Peruvian Aprista Party
Fernando Belaúnde Terry
| President of Peru
| President of Peru
| Chairperson of APEC
Lee Hsien Loong